Audio Recording Passamaquoddy War song ; Trading song Titles in Passamaquoddy: Mihqelsuwakonutomon (Song of Remembrance in the Passamaquoddy War Song Series) ; Esunomawotultine (Trading dance/song ) / Jesse Walter Fewkes collection of Passamaquoddy cylinder recordings SR29 / Mihqelsuwakonutomon (Song of Remembrance in the Passamaquoddy War Song Series) ; Esunomawotultine (Trading dance/song )
Passamaquoddy War song ; Trading song / sung by Peter Selmore (Digital restoration from digital preservation master file)
Passamaquoddy War song ; Trading song / sung by Peter Selmore (Digital preservation master file from original cylinder)
Passamaquoddy War song ; Trading song / sung by Peter Selmore (Track from digital preservation copy of AFC preservation tape LWO 6528 R3A)
About this Item
- Passamaquoddy War song ; Trading song
- Titles in Passamaquoddy: Mihqelsuwakonutomon (Song of Remembrance in the Passamaquoddy War Song Series) ; Esunomawotultine (Trading dance/song )
- Jesse Walter Fewkes collection of Passamaquoddy cylinder recordings SR29
- Mihqelsuwakonutomon (Song of Remembrance in the Passamaquoddy War Song Series) ; Esunomawotultine (Trading dance/song )
- The first song, Mihqelsuwakonutomon, means 'He/She tells memories of it'. This is a lament or mourning song. It is a fragment of one song in a series of songs and dances. Esunomawotultine, the trading dance, is the second song on Fewkes' wax cylinder 17 (Cylinder 4260; AFC 1972/003: SR29) recorded by Jesse Walter Fewkes in Calais, Maine, March 16, 1890.
- Fewkes, Jesse Walter, 1850-1930, recordist, speaker.
- Selmore, Peter, performer.
Created / Published
- Song of Remembrance in the Passamaquoddy War Song series = Mihqelsuwakonutomon (:00) -- Trading Song = Esunomawotultine (1:22)
- - Passamaquoddy Indians--Maine--Calais
- - Passamaquoddy Indians--Music
- - Passamaquoddy Indians--Folklore
- - Malecite Indians--Folklore
- - Micmac Indians--Folklore
- - Indians of North America--Northeastern States
- - Indians of North America--Commerce
- - Indian dance--Maine--Calais
- - Songs, Passamaquoddy
- - War songs--North America
- - Calais (Me.)
- Dance music
- Field recordings
- Cylinder recordings
- - Recorded in Calais, Maine on March 16, 1890 by Jesse Walter Fewkes.
- - Titles from Federal Cylinder Project catalog. Song titles in Passamaquoddy and cultural narratives and traditional knowledge were supplied by Passamaquoddy tribal elders and leaders in 2017.
- - In March 1890, Walter Jesse Fewkes traveled from Boston, Massachusetts, to Calais, Maine, to work with the Passamaquoddy Tribe to test out the new phonograph technology. The Passamaqoddy Tribe is one of the indigenous communities of the region and includes communities from Pleasant Point and Indian Township in Maine and St. Andrews, New Brunswick, in Canada. Over three days, Fewkes made recordings on 35 wax cylinders; 31 of these cylinders remain. The new cylinder technology allowed for recordings of approximately 3 minutes duration. Fewkes was able to record partial songs, vocabulary, numbers, and important Passamaquoddy cultural narratives. Peter Selmore, Noel Joseph, and Peter Lacoote have been identified as three key individuals with whom Fewkes worked the most closely. These are the first sound recordings ever made featuring Native American voices.
- - Passamaquoddy cultural narrative for "Mihqelsuwakonutomon pihce elonukkopon:" He/she remembers what happened long ago. There were many 'war' songs that the Passamaquoddy sang, and this English title - war song - is inadequate and simplistic for understanding their independent complexity and diversity. There were songs in preparation for going to war, there were songs sung by those who were away at the battle and different songs for those still in the community thinking of those away. There were also songs for returning warriors, there were songs for loss and songs for honoring and remembering those warriors who were lost. There were also a range of spiritual and medicinal songs for warriors to help protect them at all stages of their journey. J. Walter Fewkes notes in his letters to Mary Hemenway in March 1890 that he recorded several war songs in his three days with the Passamaquoddy. All of these are different and because of their fragmentary nature (the wax cylinder could only record several minutes of much longer songs), it is difficult to understand them in relation to each other. In this song, Mihqelsuwakonutomon, a sadness can be heard and felt. This could mean that it was a mourning song for warriors who did not return from battle. This is translated into Passamaquoddy, Somakponossok etoli-ntakihtuwut (soldiers who are being mourned). This would be the kind of song sung on Veterans Day. Molly Neptune Parker also identified similarities in this song to contemporary Passamaquoddy funeral songs. Wayne Newell describes these songs as a "puzzle that we keep trying to put together by listening to them." All the war songs that Fewkes recorded in the 1890 trip have been identified as a whole series of songs and they have been given the name: Matonotuwi-lintuwakon which means generally 'war songs'.
- - Passamaquoddy cultural narrative for "Esunomawotultine:" Esunomawotultine is the Passamaquoddy name for song 2 on Fewkes' cylinder 17 (Cylinder 4260; AFC 1972/003: SR29). Esunomawotultine means "let's trade." It was sung on the cylinder by Peter Selmore, who also provided the cultural narrative. This narrative is found in Fewkes' Calais field notebook and was published in the Journal of American Folklore, 1890. The song and dance is common to Passamaquoddy, Maliseet and Mi'kmaq communities. According to Nicholas Smith, the Wabanaki had at least three different types of trading dances. "The important gift-giving trait was an element in two of them. One was the trading dance of the ceremonial prelude to the actual trading at the fur trading posts. I have called another the hunter's trading dance...The third was the misunderstood peddler dance, a dance song in which the Indian satirizes the peddler as a highly motivated businessman. They despise greedy traders. The Peddler was apparently ignorant of the importance of the gift-giving role in Indian culture." (Smith 1996) According to Smith, who interviewed Maliseet (Peter and Minnie Paul of New Brunswick) and Passamaquoddy (Sabattus Tomer of Peter Dana Point) elders about the various trading dances, the peddler dance cannot be considered a trading dance song, but it added humor at social gatherings.
- - Passamaquoddy traditional knowledge for "Esunomawotultine:" According to Fewkes' documentation for the "Trade Dance" from Peter Selmore, this is a song and dance to encourage exchange or trade: "The participants, one or more in number, go to the wigwam of another person, and when near the entrance sing a song. The leader then enters, and, dancing about, sings at the same time a continuation of the song he sang at the door of the hut. He then points out some object in the room that he wants to buy, and offers a price for it. The owner is obliged to sell the object pointed out, or to barter something of equal value" (Fewkes, p. 263-264). For this song and dance the women would wear traditional Passamaquoddy dress including pointed caps covered in beads, loose robes and leggings. The face of the leader was painted or daubed black with paint or powder and his hair would be tied up so that it stood up. Wayne Newell adds that the person who is the leader for this song needed to have a terrific voice. "The leader needed to be able to encourage participation, to help gain momentum and to get people to join in the dance and in the trading. The leader was usually male, but sometimes female. There are many versions of this song. The Maliseets (Malecites) have a version and so do the Mi'kmaqs (Micmacs). Grace Davis (Passamaquoddy) continues to sing a version of this song." Wayne Newell is teaching it to other members of the Passamaquoddy community.
- - This recording is available online https://www.loc.gov/item/2015655578/
- - Digital preservation copy, MAVIS no. 2031767-2-1, from original cylinder on Archeophone #27. Library of Congress, 2016 April 11. 90.4 Mbytes BWF.
- - Digital restoration copy, MAVIS no. 2031767-4-1, from preservation master file (from original cylinder) using Izotope RX4, Cedar Cambridge v.10 and Izotope Ozone 7. Library of Congress, 2016 October 31. 81.1 Mbytes BWF.
- - Digital preservation copy, MAVIS no. 2005670-3-1 (at 00:10), from preservation tape reel. Library of Congress, 2014 January 14. 1.92 GB BWF.
- - Preservation tape reel, LWO 6528 R3A (at 00:10), from original cylinder. Washington, D.C. Library of Congress, 197u. 1 sound tape reel ; analog, 7 1/2 ips, mono. ; 10.5 in.
- - Engineer notes: Some damage at the beginning of the cylinder. There is a segment at 00:15 that exceeds 0 dB. The recording was made in reverse and corrected with Pyramix.
- - Jesse Walter Fewkes collection of Passamaquoddy cylinder recordings (AFC 1972/003: SR29) American Folklife Center, Library of Congress, Washington, D.C.
- - FCP notes: Announcements at the beginning and at 1:22 identify the songs.
- - Titles and FCP notes from Federal Cylinder Project (Washington, D.C.: American Folklife Center, Library of Congress, 1984), volume 2, p. 223.
- - Description in Fewkes, J. W. "A contribution to Passamaquoddy Folk-lore" Journal of American Folk-lore 3, no. 11 (1890) p. 263-265 https://www.jstor.org/stable/534065?seq=1#page_scan_tab_contents External
- - Related Fewkes' fieldnotes are located at the National Anthropological Archives (ms. 4408:9) p. 22-23, 28.
- - Introductions in English, remainder in Passamaquoddy language.
- 1 sound cylinder (2:45 min.) ; 3.75 in.
- Jesse Walter Fewkes collection of Passamaquoddy cylinder recordings
- Library of Congress Archive of Folk Culture, American Folklife Center, 101 Independence Ave. S.E., Washington, DC USA 20540-4610 https://hdl.loc.gov/loc.afc/folklife.home
Library of Congress Control Number
- Traditional Knowledge Label: Attribution - Elihtasik (How it is done). When using anything that has this Label, please use the correct attribution. This may include individual Passamaquoddy names, it may include Passamaquoddy as the correct cultural affiliation or it may include Passamaquoddy Tribe as the tribal designation. https://www.passamaquoddypeople.com/passamaquoddy-traditional-knowledge-labels External
- Traditional Knowledge Label: Outreach - Ekehkimkewey (Educational). Certain material has been identified by Passamaquoddy tribal members and can be used and shared for educational purposes. Ekehkimkewey means 'educational'. The Passamaquoddy Tribe is a present day community who retains cultural authority over its heritage. This Label is being used to teach and share cultural knowledge and histories in schools, and to raise greater awareness and respect for Passamaquoddy culture and worldviews. https://www.passamaquoddypeople.com/passamaquoddy-traditional-knowledge-labels External
- Traditional Knowledge Label: Non-Commercial - Ma yut monuwasiw (This is not sold). This material should not be used in any commercial ways, including ways that derive profit from sale or production for non-Passamaquoddy people. The name of this Label, Ma yut monuwasiw, means 'this is not to be purchased'. https://www.passamaquoddypeople.com/passamaquoddy-traditional-knowledge-labels External
- Access to recordings may be restricted. To request materials, please contact the Folklife Reading Room at https://hdl.loc.gov/loc.afc/folklife.contact
Additional Metadata Formats
Traditional Knowledge Labels
Attribution - Elihtasik (How it is done).
Outreach - Ekehkimkewey (Educational).
Non-Commercial - Ma yut monuwasiw (This is not sold).
Rights & Access
Rights and Usage
The Library of Congress is providing access to these materials for noncommercial purposes such as education and research. The Passamaquoddy Tribe and the Peabody Museum of Archaeology and Ethnology, Harvard University, donor of the recordings, have consented to this online presentation. Responsibility for making an independent legal assessment of an item and securing any necessary permissions ultimately rests with persons desiring to use the item. See our Legal Notices and Privacy and Publicity Rights for additional information and restrictions.
Researchers or others who would like to make further use of these collection materials should contact the Folklife Reading Room for assistance.
Traditional Knowledge Labels
The American Folklife Center (AFC) at the Library of Congress has undertaken a collaborative preservation digitization and access project focusing on its historical Native American audio recording collections. The project involves: a) digitally reformatting older media formats, including wax cylinder recordings, in order to recover and preserve the recorded voices and languages of Native American people, and b) developing curatorial protocols that are attentive to community cultural sensitivities regarding unique cultural materials along with digital access tools (online interfaces, catalog records) that embed Native American cultural knowledge about and descriptions of the content of the recordings in Library collection records, to the extent possible.
For this project, the AFC has partnered with members of the Passamaquoddy community and two non-profit organizations, Local Contexts and Mukurtu, to apply Traditional Knowledge Labels (TK Labels) to Passamaquoddy recordings made in 1890 and 1891 by anthropologist Jesse Walter Fewkes.
Local Contexts and its partners are working towards a new paradigm of rights and responsibilities that recognizes the inherent sovereignty that Indigenous communities have over their cultural heritage. Traditional Knowledge (TK) Labels are an educational and informational digital marker created by the Local Contexts initiative to address the specific intellectual property needs of Native, First Nations, Aboriginal and Indigenous peoples with regard to the extensive collections of cultural heritage materials currently held within museums, archives, libraries, and private collections. Indigenous communities use TK Labels to identify and clarify community-specific access protocols associated with the materials and convey important information such as guidelines for proper use and responsible stewardship of cultural heritage materials. TK Labels provide information to help users of traditional cultural knowledge from outside the creators' community understand the importance and significance of this material, even when it is in the public domain. More information is available at Local ContextsExternal.
The Passamaquoddy Tribe is a present-day community that retains cultural authority over its heritage. The TK Labels selected and defined for this collection by Passamaquoddy community leaders provide community knowledge and context that define the significance and responsible representation of their cultural heritage. The Passamaquoddy Tribe requests that you follow its recommendations for use as indicated on the TK Label text on each recording. For more information and related collections see the Passamaquoddy People website supported by staff at Local Contexts, Mukurtu.org and Washington State University’s Center for Digital Scholarship and Curation http://passamaquoddypeople.com/External .
|Traditional Knowledge Label: Attribution - Elihtasik (How it is done).
When using anything that has this Label, please use the correct attribution. This may include individual Passamaquoddy names, it may include Passamaquoddy as the correct cultural affiliation or it may include Passamaquoddy Tribe as the tribal designation. http://passamaquoddypeople.com/digital-heritage/elihtasik-trans-how-it-doneExternal
|Traditional Knowledge Label: Outreach - Ekehkimkewey (Educational).
Certain material has been identified by Passamaquoddy tribal members and can be used and shared for educational purposes. Ekehkimkewey means 'educational'. The Passamaquoddy Tribe is a present day community that retains cultural authority over its heritage. This Label is being used to teach and share cultural knowledge and histories, and to raise greater awareness and respect for Passamaquoddy culture and worldviews. http://passamaquoddypeople.com/digital-heritage/ekehkimkewey-trans-educationalExternal
Traditional Knowledge Label: Non-Commercial - Ma yut monuwasiw (This is not sold).
Jesse Walter Fewkes collection of Passamaquoddy cylinder recordings (AFC 1972/003), American Folklife Center, Library of Congress, Washington, D.C.
Cite This Item
Citations are generated automatically from bibliographic data as a convenience, and may not be complete or accurate.
Chicago citation style:
Fewkes, Jesse Walter, Recordist, Speaker. Passamaquoddy War song ; Trading song. performeds by Selmore, Peter -03-16, 1890. Audio. https://www.loc.gov/item/2015655578/.
APA citation style:
Fewkes, J. W. (1890) Passamaquoddy War song ; Trading song. Selmore, P., performer -03-16. [Audio] Retrieved from the Library of Congress, https://www.loc.gov/item/2015655578/.
MLA citation style:
Fewkes, Jesse Walter, Recordist, Speaker. Passamaquoddy War song ; Trading song. performer by Selmore, Peter -03-16, 1890. Audio. Retrieved from the Library of Congress, <www.loc.gov/item/2015655578/>.