Library of Congress


The Library of Congress > Teachers > Classroom Materials > Lesson Plans > Segregation: From Jim Crow to Linda Brown

Back to Lesson Plans

extract from The Declaration of Independence - 'All men are created equal...'

[Detail] extract from The Declaration of Independence

Learning Guide Answer Key: 1898 African American Council Meeting

Segregation and Violence session:

Protection of American Citizens Pamphlet - "The Black Laws" by Bishop B. W. Arnett

  1. What occurred when federal enforcement of the 14th Amendment stopped in 1877?
    "Black Laws" were passed which imposed strict segretion. These legal acts, combined with terrorism, overcame any progress that had been made.
  2. Name three significant accomplishments of Bishop B. W. Arnett.
    He was the first African American to serve as a foreman of an all-white juty.
  3. He was elected to the Ohio State Legislature from a predominantly white district.
  4. He was the author of the bill which repealed Ohio's Black Laws.

Mob-violence and Anarchy, North and South Pamphlet - "Lynch Laws in Georgia" by Ida B. Wells-Barnett

  1. Name three offenses for which African Americans were lynched.
    Stealing a cow, arguing with a white man, attempting to register to vote.
  2. What was the real purpose of the savage demonstrations toward African Americans?
    To teach them that, in the South, African Americans had no rights which the law would enforce.
  3. For what is Ida B. Wells best known?
    Her crusade against lynching.
  4. In the photograph of George Meadows, the title given to him, "murderer and rapist," is significant because. . .
    Because all Black men lynched were accused of heinous crimes when, in fact, most had committed only minor offenses.


Solving the Race Problem session:

Industrial Education Pamphlet - "Nineteenth Annual Report of the Tuskegee Institute" by Booker T. Washington

  1. Why were schools such as Tuskegee Institute significant in advancing the causes of African Americans?
    They were crucial in Negro development because recently freed slaves were not prepared to live as free men. These schools taught basic skills (ie. farming, carpentry) to help African Americans subsist.
  2. What was some of the criticism of the Tuskegee Institute?
    Some charged that it did nothing more than teach African Americans to comply with the social order.
  3. Why could Booker T. Washington be viewed as a hypocrite?
    Because although he advised African Americans to abide by segregation codes, he often traveled in private railroad cars and stayedin good hotels.

Higher Education Pamphlet - "The Primary Needs of the Negro Race" by Kelly Miller

  1. What was meant by "practical education" at the Hampton & Tuskegee Institutes?
    Involved training in agriculture, domestic science, and manual and industrial arts.
  2. What kind of education did the Niagara Movement support?
    They advocated a liberal education that would hopefully advance the position of blacks in society rather than teach them tolerance.
  3. What view of education did Kelley Miller support?
    He believed a middle course of action should be taken. He proposed a "symmetrical development" of African American minds; cultivating them with vocational and intellectual instruction.

Contributions to the Nation session:

Address to the Country Pamphlet - "An Address Delivered at the Cotton States Exposition" by Booker T. Washington

  1. Was Booker T. Washington's speech received better by whites or blacks?
    It was better received by whites due to his "desire to get along" with whites.
  2. When Washington said, "make...both races one.", did he mean integration? Explain.
    No, he said "the [races] can be as separate as the fingers, yet one as the hand".
  3. Explain the quote, "The opportunity to earn a dollar in a factory just now is worth infinitely more than the opportunity to spend a dollar in an opera house."
    He argued that material advancement over social integration was more important as an immediate goal.
  4. Did Washington favor immigrants over freed slaves? Why or why not?
    Washington favored freed slaves over immigrants because of the many contributions of African Americans throughout U.S. history.