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Photo: dome of US Navy Observatory, with time ball halfway down.

The USNO Millennium Time Ball, NASA Astronomy Picture of the Day.

Photo Credit: United States Naval Observatory


Tracer Bullet 08-1



Before the development of modern science, and for most of human existence, time was perceived as a circle or spiral; a cyclical pattern of renewal and rebirth. More familiar to us now is the Western tradition of linear time, a forward-moving direction, a flow that represents a line between the past and the future implicit with the idea of progress. As the discoveries of evolution have come to underpin most of modern science so the “arrow of time” has become a given in our collective consciousness.

You can’t see it or smell or taste it or hear it, yet it is of the physical world. We witness evidence of time all around in death and decay. Yet perception of time is largely a human phenomenon and certainly we are the only creatures who measure it, apply tools to it, and create tools to use it. Time is an aspect of the natural world and the characteristics of physical time are determined by the processes of the physical world. It is the essence of cosmology, astronomy, and physics but is equally important in the disciplines of biology and geology. Certainly it is critical to modern technology. The precision of its measurement drives our daily lives.

As Tolkien wrote in The Hobbit, it is “This thing all things devours: Birds, beasts, trees, flowers; Gnaws iron, bites steel; Grinds hard stones to meal; Slays king, ruins town And beats high mountain down.” From Newtonian to Einsteinian physics and quantum mechanics to thermodynamics and satellite communications, time is of the essence to virtually all scientific disciplines. This bibliographic guide attempts to present a selection of works across the sciences, and is not intended as a comprehensive bibliography, but is designed -- as the name Tracer Bullet implies -- to put the reader “on target.”



Langone, John. The mystery of time: humanity’s quest for order and measure. Washington, National Geographic Society, c2000. 256 p.
   Includes bibliographical references.
   BD638.L26 2000

Time. In McGraw-Hill encyclopedia of science and technology. 10th ed. v. 18. New York, McGraw-Hill, c2007.
p. 443-445.
   Q121.M3 1997 <SciRR>

Time. In Ridley, B. K. Time, space and things. 3rd ed. Cambridge, New York, Cambridge University Press, 1995.
p. 57-68.
   QC24.5.R5 1995 <SciRR>

Time and frequency. In Encyclopedia of physical science and technology. 3rd ed. Editor-in-chief, Robert A. Meyers. San Diego, Academic Press, c2002. v. 16. p. 783-801.
   Q123.E497 2002 <SciRR>



SUBJECT HEADINGS used by the Library of Congress, under which books on time can be located in most card, book and online catalogs, include the following:

Highly Relevant

   May also be subdivided topically, e.g., TIME--HISTORY, TIME--SYSTEMS AND STANDARDS, etc.







The Discovery of time. Edited by Stuart McCready. Naperville, IL, Sourcebooks, c2001. 256 p.
   QB209.D57 2001 <SciRR>

Encyclopedia of time. Edited by Samuel L. Macey. New York, Garland Pub., 1994. 699 p. (Garland reference library of social science, v. 810)
   Includes bibliographical references.
   Based on: Time: a bibliographic guide. Samuel L. Macey. 1991.
   QB209.E52 1994 <SciRR>

Holland, C. H. The idea of time. Chichester, New York, Wiley, c1999. 150 p.
   Bibliography: p. 139-145.
   QB209.H57 1999 <SciRR>



Aveni, Anthony F. Empires of time: calendars, clocks, and cultures. Rev. ed. Boulder, CO, University Press of Colorado, c2002. 332 p.
   Bibliography: p. 305-320.
   QB209.A94 2002 <SciRR>

Coveney, Peter V., and Roger Highfield. The arrow of time: a voyage through science to solve time’s greatest mystery. New York, Fawcett Columbine, 1991. 378 p.
   Bibliography: p. 350-359.
   QB209.C64 1991

Fraser, J. T. The genesis and evolution of time: a critique of interpretation in physics. Amherst, University of Massachusetts Press, 1982. 205 p.
   QB209.F7 1982

Fraser, J. T. Time and time again: reports from a boundary of the universe. Leiden, Boston, Brill, 2007. 433 p. (Supplements to The study of time, v. 1)
   Bibliography: p. 403-428.
   BD638.F675 2007

Galison, Peter. Einstein’s clocks and Poincaré’s maps: empires of time. New York, W.W. Norton, c2003. 389 p.
   Bibliography: p. 355-370.
   QB209.G35 2003

Klein, Stefan. The secret pulse of time: making sense of life's scarcest commodity. Cambridge, MA, Marlowe & Co., c2007. 343 p.
   Bibliography: p. 301-316.
   Translation of Zeit: der stoff aus dem das leben ist, published: Frankfurt am Main, S. Fischer, 2006.
   BF468.K5413 2007

Schlegel, Richard. Time and the physical world. New York, Dover Publications, 1968. 211 p.
   Includes bibliographical references.
    "An unabridged and corrected republication of the work first published in 1961 ... This reprint contains a new preface by the author."
   QC6.S28 1968 <SciRR>

Time. Edited by Katinka Ridderbos. Cambridge, New York, Cambridge University Press, 2002. 174 p.
   Includes bibliographical references.
   QB209.T48 2002

Zeh, H. D. The physical basis of the direction of time. 5th ed. Berlin, New York, Springer, c2007. 231 p.
   Bibliography: p. 209-226.
   QC173.59.S65 Z38 2007 <SciRR>



Biological Time

Binkley, Sue Ann. The clockwork sparrow: time, clocks, and calendars in biological organisms. Englewood Cliffs, NJ, Prentice Hall, c1990. 262 p.
   Bibliography: p. 254-258.
   QP84.6.B55 1990 <SciRR>

Chronobiology: biological timekeeping. Edited by Jay C. Dunlap, Jennifer J. Loros, and Patricia J. DeCoursey. Sunderland, MA, Sinauer Associates, c2004. 406 p.
   Includes bibliographical references.
   QP84.6.C453 2004 <SciRR>

Foster, Russell G. Rhythms of life: the biological clocks that control the daily lives of every living thing. London, Profile Books, 2004. 276 p.
   Bibliography: p. 255-269.
   QP84.6.F67 2004 <SciRR>

Palmer, John D. The living clock: the orchestrator of biological rhythms. Oxford, New York, Oxford University Press, 2002. 162 p.
   Bibliography: p. 149-155.
   QP84.6.P35 2002

Geological Time

Albritton, Claude C. The abyss of time: changing conceptions of the earth’s antiquity after the sixteenth century. Mineola, NY, Dover Publications, 2002. 251 p.
   Bibliography: 231-251.
   This Dover edition, first published in 2002, is an unabridged republication of the edition published by Jeremy P. Tarchaer, Inc., Los Angeles, in 1986. The original edition was published by Freeman, Cooper and Company, San Francisco, in 1980.
   QE508.A47 2002 <SciRR>

Oldroyd, D. R. Earth cycles: a historical perspective. Westport, CT, Greenwood Press, 2006. 234 p.
   Bibliography: p. 203-224.
   QE33.2.P47O63 2006

Richet, Pascal. A natural history of time. Chicago, University of Chicago Press, 2007. 471 p.
   Bibliography: p. 373-453.
   QE508.R5413 2007

Wyse Jackson, Patrick. The chronologers’ quest: episodes in the search for the age of the earth. Cambridge, New York, Cambridge University Press, 2006. 291 p.
   QE508.W97 2006 <SciRR>

York, Derek. In search of lost time. Bristol, Philadelphia, Institute of Physics Pub., c1997. 141 p.
   QE508.Y6723 1997


Bartky, Ian. One time fits all: the campaigns for global uniformity. Stanford, CA, Stanford University Press, 2007. 292 p.
   Bibliography: p. 257-282.
   QB223.B37 2007

Bartky, Ian R. Selling the true time: nineteenth-century timekeeping in America. Stanford, CA, Stanford University Press, c2000. 310 p.
   Bibliography: p. 281-299.
   QB210.U5B37 2000

Borst, Arno. The ordering of time: from the ancient computus to the modern computer. Chicago, University of Chicago Press, c1993. 168 p.
   Bibliography: p. 133-161.
   CE6.B6713 1993

Ferraro, Rafael. Space and time before Einstein. In Einstein’s space-time: an introduction to special and general relativity. New York, Springer, 2007. p. 1-16.
   Bibliography: p. 297-302.
   QC173.55.F475 2007

Gorst, Martin. Measuring eternity: the search for the beginning of time. New York, Broadway Books, 2001. 338 p.
   Bibliography: p. 311-313.
   QE508.G675 2001

Gould, Rupert Thomas. The marine chronometer: its history and development. Woodbridge, Suffolk, Antique Collector’s Club, c1989. 401 p.
   Includes bibliographical references.
   QB107.G6 1989 <SciRR>

Gould, Stephen Jay. Time’s arrow, time’s cycle: myth and metaphor in the discovery of geological time. Cambridge, MA, Harvard University Press, 1987. 222 p.
   Bibliography: p. 211-215.
   QE508.G68 1987

Landes, David S. Revolution in time: clocks and the making of the modern world. Rev. and enl. ed. Cambridge, MA, Harvard University Press, 2000. 518 p.
   Includes bibliographical references.
   TS542.L24 2000

O’Malley, Michael. Keeping watch: a history of American time. New York, Viking, 1990. 384 p.
   Bibliography: p. 313-374.
   QB223.O43 1990

Richards, E. G. Mapping time: the calendar and its history. New York, Oxford University Press, 1999. 438 p.
   Bibliography: p. 411-428.
   CE11.R5 1999

Stephens, Carlene E. On time: how America has learned to live by the clock. Washington, Smithsonian Institution, National Museum of American History; Boston, Bulfinch Press Book, c2002. 255 p.
   Bibliography: p. 222-248.
   TS541.U6S74 2002 <SciRR>

Time, Space & Space-time

Barbour, Julian B. The end of time: the next revolution in physics. Oxford, New York, Oxford University Press, 2000. 371 p.
   Bibliography: p. 358-361.
   QC173.59.S65B374 2000

Dainton, Barry. Time and space. Chesham, Acumen, 2001. 386 p.
   Bibliography: p. 369-375.
   QC173.59.S65D35 2001 <SciRR>

Davies, P. C. W. About time: Einstein’s unfinished revolution. New York, Simon & Schuster, c1995. 316 p.
   Bibliography: p. 293-294.
   QC173.59.S65D37 1995

Davies, P. C. W. How to build a time machine. New York, Viking, 2002. 131 p.
   Bibliography: p. 127-128.
   QC173.59.S65D375 2002 <SciRR>

Eddington, Arthur Stanley, Sir. The world of four dimensions. In Space, time, and gravitation: an outline of the general relativity theory. Cambridge, New York, Cambridge University Press, 1987, c1920. p. 45-62.
   QC173.59.S65E33 1987 <SciRR>

Einstein, Albert. On the idea of time in physics. In Relativity: the special and general theory. New York, Routledge, 2001. p. 23-26.
   QC173.55.E3613 2001 <SciRR>
   Originally published: New York, H. Holt, 1920.

Gott, J. Richard. Time travel in Einstein's universe: the physical possibilities of travel through time. Boston, Houghton Mifflin, c2001. 291 p.
   Bibliography: p. 265-276.
   QC173.59.S65G67 2001 <SciRR>

Gribbin, John R. The birth of time: how astronomers measured the age of the universe. New Haven, Yale University Press, c1999. 237 p.
   Bibliography: p. 225-226.
   Previously published: London, Weidenfeld & Nicolson, 1999.
   QB981.G756 1999

Lockwood, Michael. The labyrinth of time: introducing the universe. New York, Oxford University Press, 2005.
405 p.
   Bibliography: p. 383-397.
   QC173.59.S65L63 2005 <SciRR>

Toomey, David M. The new time travelers: a journey to the frontiers of physics. New York, W. W. Norton, c2007. 391 p.
   Bibliography: p. 353-367.
   QC173.59.S65T66 2007

Time Measurement

An Assessment of precision time and time interval science and technology. Committee for an Assessment of Precision Time and Interval Science and Technology, Naval Studies Board, Division on Engineering and Physical Sciences, National Research Council of The National Academies. Washington, National Academy Press, c2002. 76 p.
   Includes bibliographical references.
   QB213.A74 2002

Audoin, Claude, and Bernard Guinot. The measurement of time: time, frequency, and the atomic clock. Cambridge, New York, Cambridge University Press, 2001. 335 p.
   Bibliography: p. 317-330.
   QB213.A8313 2001 <SciRR>

Barnett, Jo Ellen. Time’s pendulum: the quest to capture time-- from sundials to atomic clocks. New York, Plenum Trade, c1998. 340 p.
   Bibliography: p. 315-329.
   QB209.B25 1998

Christianson, David. Timepieces: masterpieces of chronometry. Buffalo, NY, Firefly Books, 2002. 176 p.
   Includes bibliographical references.
   TS542.C53 2002 <SciRR>

Dick, Steven J. Time: a service for the world. In Sky and ocean joined: the U.S. Naval Observatory, 1830-2000. Cambridge, New York, Cambridge University Press, 2003. p. 451-503.
   Includes bibliographical references
   QB82.U62U553 2003 <SciRR>

Dohrn-van Rossum, Gerhard. History of the hour: clocks and modern temporal orders. Chicago, University of Chicago Press, c1996. 455 p.
   Bibliography: 435-439.
   Translation of Die Geschichte der Stunde.
   QB107.D6413 1996

Flower, Tim. Technology and watch design. United States, Xlibris, c2006. 211 p.
   Bibliography: p. 189-196.
   TS542.F56 2006

Howse, Derek. Greenwich time and the longitude. London, Philip Wilson, 1997. 199 p.
   Bibliography: p. 191.
   Originally published as Greenwich time and the discovery of the longitude, 1980.
   QB223.H76 1997 <SciRR>

Jespersen, James, and Jane Fitz-Randolph. From sundials to atomic clocks: understanding time and frequency. Washington, U. S. Dept. of Commerce, Technology Administration, National Institute of Standards and Technology, 1999. 308 p. (NIST monograph, 155)
   Bibliography: p. 300.
   QC100.U556 no. 155 1999

Koukkari, Willard L. and Robert B. Sothern. Introducing biological rhythms: a primer on the temporal organization of life, with implications for health, society, reproduction and the natural environment. New York, Springer, c2006.
655 p.
   Includes bibliographical references.
   QH527.K68 2006 <SciRR>

Newton, Roger G. Galileo’s pendulum: from the rhythm of time to the making of matter. Cambridge, MA, Harvard University Press, 2004. 153 p.
   Bibliography: p. 142-145.
   QB209.N48 2004

Prerau, David S. Seize the daylight: the curious and contentious story of daylight saving time. New York, Thunder’s Mouth Press, c2005. 256 p.
   Bibliography: p. 225-233.
   HN49.D3P74 2005

Saunders, D. S., and others. Insect clocks. 3rd ed. Amsterdam, Boston, Elsevier, 2002. 560 p.
   Bibliography: p. 485-550.
   QL495.S28 2002 <SciRR>



Dimensions of time and life. Edited by J. T. Fraser and M. P. Soulsby. Madison, CT, International Universities Press, c1996. 298 p.
   Includes bibliographical references.
   Selected papers from the 8th Conference of the International Society for the Study of Time held at Cerisy-la-Salle, Normandy, France.
   QB209.S85 vol. 8

The Nature of time--geometry, physics, and perception. NATO Advanced Research Workshop on the Nature of Time: Geometry, Physics and Perception (2002: Lomnica, Slovakia). Edited by Rosolino Buccheri, Metod Saniga, and William Mark Stuckey. Dordrecht, Boston, KluwerAcademic Publishers, c2003. 446 p. (NATO science series. Series II, Mathematics, physics, and chemistry, v. 95)
   Includes bibliographical references.
   QB209.N35 2002 <SciRR>

The Quantum structure of space and time: proceedings of the 23rd Solvay Conference on Physics, Brussels, Belgium, 1-3 December, 2005. Editors, David Gross, Marc Henneaux, and Alexander Sevrin. Singapore, Hackensack, NJ, World Scientific, c2007. 272 p.
   Includes bibliographical references.
   QC173.59.S65S65 2007

The Quest for longitude: the proceedings of the Longitude Symposium, Harvard University, Cambridge, Massachusetts, November 4-6, 1993. Edited by William J. H. Andrewes. Cambridge, MA, Collection of Historical Scientific Instruments, Harvard University, c1996. 437 p.
   Bibliography: p. 406-421.
   “The Longitude Symposium was organized under the auspices of the Collection of Historical Scientific Instruments in connection with the Fourteenth Annual Seminar of the National Association of Watch and Clock Collectors."
   QB225.L66 1993 <SciRR>

Time & matter: Venice, Italy, 11-17 August 2002: proceedings of the International Colloquium on the Science of Time. Editors, Ikaros I. Bigi and Martin Faessler. Hackensack, NJ, World Scientific, c2006. 321 p.
   Includes bibliographical references.
   QC173.59.S65I58 2002

Time and memory. Conference (12th, 2004, Clare College, Cambridge). Edited by Jo Alyson Parker, Michael Crawford, and Paul Harris. International Society for the Study of Time.Leiden, Boston, Brill, 2006. 321 p. (The Study of time, no. 12)
   Includes bibliographical references.
   BD638.I72 2006



Government Publications can be identified and located by going to individual agency Web sites, some of which are listed in the section “Additional Sources of Information,” or by searching the following indexes. How to locate and obtain copies is described in further detail in the section on “Technical Reports.” Ask a librarian about electronic subscription database access to these indexes.

Government reports announcements and index (1946-1996)
   Z7916.G78 <SciRR A&I>
   (See also the NTIS index on microfiche in SciRR.)

Monthly catalog of United States government publications (1895- )
   Z1223.A18 <SciRR A&I> & Electronic format

NTIS bibliographic database
   Uncataloged <SciRR> & Electronic format
   Index on microfiche (1964- )

Scientific & technical information network (STINET) (1974- ; Full-text 1998- )
   Uncataloged <SciRR> & Electronic format



Technical Reports are also indexed by several government agencies and clearinghouses and many are available online as full-text documents. Most of the reports in the Library of Congress Technical Reports Collections, //, are indexed in the NTIS indexes. The LC Electronic Resources Web page also has an extensive list of both open-source and subscription database indexes for identifying Technical Reports and Standards: For more information ask a librarian or contact the Technical Reports Section: //



Allan, David W., Neil Ashby, and Clifford C. Hodge. The science of timekeeping. Hewlett Packard Application Note 1289, 1997.

Koppang, P., J. Skinner, and D. Johns. USNO master clock design enhancements. Washington, Naval Observatory, Jan. 2007. 9 p.
   Presented at the Annual Precise Time and Time Interval (PTTI) Meeting (38th) held in Reston, VA on 5-7 Dec 2006. Pub. in the Proceedings of the 38th Annual Precise Time and Time Interval (PTTI) Meeting, p.185-192, Jan. 2007. The original document contains color images.

Lombardi, Michael A. NIST time and frequency services. Rev. 2001. Boulder, CO, U.S. Dept. of Commerce, National Institute of Standards and Technology; Washington, USGPO, 2002. 71 p. (NIST special publication, 432)
   QC100.U57 no. 432
   Bibliography: p. 69-71.
   Supersedes NIST special publication 432, dated June 1991.

Matsakis, Demetrios. Time and frequency activities at the U. S. Naval Observatory. Washington, Naval Observatory, Jan. 2007. 15 p.
   Presented at the Annual Precise Time and Time Interval (PTTI) Meeting (38th) held in Reston, VA on 5-7 Dec 2006. Pub. in the Proceedings of the 38th Annual Precise Time and Time Interval (PTTI) Meeting, p. 3-16. Jan. 2007. The original document contains color images.

McCarthy, Dennis D. Evolution of time scales. Washington, Naval Observatory, Dec. 2006. 7 p.
   Published in the Proceedings of the Journées 2005 Systèmes de Référence Spatio-Temporels, Earth Dynamics and Reference Systems: Five Years after the Adoption of the IAU 2000 Resolutions, p. 247-252, Dec. 2006. Presented at the Journées Systèmes de Référence Spatio-Temporels conference held in Warsaw, Poland, on 19-21 Sept. 2005.

Walsh, K., and A. P. Freedman. Intercomparison of daily length-of-day and Universal Time measurements acquired with GPS and VLBI. Oak Grove, CA, Jet Propulsion Laboratory. 1993.



Dissertations may be identified using the following indexes located in the Main Reading Room or searching relevant electronic subscription databases: ask a librarian for assistance.

Comprehensive Dissertation Index. Supplement (1973- annual)

Digital Dissertations (1861- )
   Electronic format



Aton, Sara Jo. The role of intercellular communication in synchronization and maintenance of rhythms in the mammalian circadian clock. Ann Arbor, MI, UMI, 2006.
   UMI publication number AAT 3238630
   Collation of the original: 250 p.
   Thesis (doctoral)--Washington University in St. Louis, 2006.

Barrows, Adam. Standard time, modernism, and empire. Ann Arbor, MI, UMI, 2006.
   UMI publication number AAT 3219974
   collation of the original: 211 p.
   Thesis (doctoral)--University of Minnesota, 2006.

Calderon Cadena, Hector Hugo. Applications of quantum field theory in curved spacetimes. Ann Arbor, MI, UMI, 2007.
   UMI publication number AAT 3284024
   Collation of the original: 71 p.
   Thesis (doctoral)--University of Montana, 2007.

Richardson, Brian William. From longitude to empire: the articulations of place in the voyages of Captain Cook. Ann Arbor, MI, UMI, 2001.
   UMI publication number AAT 3005223
   Collation of the original: 500 p.
   Thesis (doctoral)--University of Hawai'i, 2001.



Abstracting and indexing that index relevant journal articles and other periodical literature, conference papers and proceedings, government/technical reports, and other “gray literature” are listed below. Additional targeted search engines, online indexes and e-print archives are listed in the section “Additional Sources of Information.” For the current status of electronic subscription databases, go to: (open-source indexes are also listed). For more information consult a librarian.

19th Century Masterfile
   Electronic format
   See esp. Catalog of Scientific Papers--Mechanics, Physics, Mathematics

Applied Science & Technology Index (1913- )
   Z7913.I7 <SciRR A&I>. & Electronic format

Biological and Agricultural Index (1964- )
   Z5073.A46 <SciRR A&I> & Electronic format



Journals that often contain relevant articles include the following:

Astronomy QB1.A7998
Journal of Biological Rhythms QH527.J63
Journal of Research of the National Institute of Standards and Technology
KronoScope: Journal for the Study of Time BD638.K76
Metrologia QC81.M45
Nature QH1.N2
New Scientist
Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society A: Mathematical, Physical & Engineering Sciences Q41.L849617b
Science Q1.S35
Scientific American
   See esp. Special Issue, “A Matter of Time,” v. 287, Sept. 2002.



Arias, Elisa Felicitas. The metrology of time. Philosophical transactions of the Royal Society A, v. 363, Sept. 15, 2005: 2289-2305.

Aveni, Anthony F. Time, number, and history in the Maya World. KronoScope, v. 1, no. 1-2, 2001: 29-61.

Bergquist, James C., Steven R. Jefferts, and David J. Wineland. Time measurement at the Millennium. Physics today. v. 54, Mar. 2001: 37-42.

Burnett, D. Graham. Mapping time: chronometry on top of the world. Daedalus: proceedings of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences, v. 132, no. 2, 2003: 5-19.

Casasanto, Daniel, and Leral Boroditsky. Time in the mind: using space to think about time. Cognition, v. 106, Feb. 2008: 579-593.

Eatherley, Dan. Relative distance. Scientific American, v. 298, Jan. 2008: 29-30.

Hancock, P.A. On time and the origin of the theory of evolution. KronoScope, v. 6, no. 2, 2006: 193-203.

Levinson, Martin H. Time-binding time: a history of time-measurement and time-management in America. Etc.: a review of general semantics, v. 61, Apr. 2004: 9-18.

Lombardi, Michael A., Thomas P. Heavner, and Steven R. Jefferts. NIST primary frequency standards and the realization of the SI second. NCSL international measure: the journal of measurement science. v. 2, Dec. 2007: 74-89.

Nelson, R. A., and others. The leap second: its history and possible future. Metrologia, v. 38, Jan. 2002: 509-529.



Selected materials, available in the Science Reading Room pamphlet box for this Tracer Bullet, includes miscellaneous items such as the following:

Berman, Bob. Other dimensions. Astronomy, v. 36, Feb. 2008: 12.

Davies, Paul. How to build a time machine -- it wouldn’t be easy, but it might be possible. Scientific American, v. 7, Aug. 13, 2002: 50-55.



International Bureau of Weights and Measures (BIPM)
12 bis Grande Rue, F-92310 Sèvres
Pavillon de Breteuil, F-92312 Sèvres Cedex
   Publishers of Metrologia. The Time, Frequency and Gravimetry Section also produces the following publications: Circular T (mid-monthly), GPS and GLONASS tracking schedules (in March and September), and the BIPM Annual Report on Time Activities.

International Society for the Study of Time
   Founded in 1966 by J. T. Fraser, the International Society for the Study of Time is dedicated to the interdisciplinary study of time. Publishes KronoScope, the journal of the International Society for the Study of Time.

The National Institute of Standards and Technology
Time and Frequency Division
   Maintains the standard for frequency and time interval for the United States, provides official time to the United States, and carries out a broad program of research and service activities in time and frequency metrology. The publication database allows free access to a total of 2,255 time and frequency related publications authored by NIST personnel. Selected titles are listed above in the section titled “Government Publications.”

U.S. Naval Observatory
   Provides a variety of services related to timekeeping and astronomy, including online applications for generating daily and annual sun and moon data by locale and date, synthetic views of day and night on the Earth's surface for any date and time between 1700 and 2300 C.E., and a static world time zone map (printable in PDF and PostScript formats).


   Real-time Java-based online clocks giving the official time for all U.S. time zones. A service of the National Technical Information Service and the U.S. Naval Observatory.

Time Zone Converter
   Quick conversion of current time anywhere to GMT, conversion between any two time zones that automatically factors in Daylight Saving Time and other local variances, a feature for setting up customized time zone cards, and a list of time zones by country. Advertiser-supported.
   Interactive world time zone map, with a day/night map, a time zone FAQ, a world-wide synopsis of daylight saving time, and many other features. The site is heavy with advertising, including some popups which deploy adware.

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