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Science and Technology in South Korea

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This bibliographic guide provides English language sources available in the Library of Congress on scientific and technological developments in South Korea from antiquity to the present. Officially known as the Republic of Korea, South Korea has transformed itself over the last sixty years from an underdeveloped agrarian society to a vibrant industrialized nation. Government policies accelerated science and technology developments, agencies were established to carry out those initiatives, and educational institutions were founded to produce innovative scientists and engineers. Not intended as a comprehensive bibliography, this guide is designed--as the name of the series implies--to put the readers “on target.”



Chung, Sungchul. Excelsior: the Korean innovation story. Issues in science and technology, v. 24, fall 2007: 63-69.

Webb, Molly. South Korea: mass innovation comes of age. London, Demos, 2007. 63 p.
   Includes bibliographical references.
   T177.K6W43 2007 <SciRR>



SUBJECT HEADINGS used by the Library of Congress, under which books on science and technology in South Korea can be located in most card, book and online catalogs, include the following:

Highly Relevant






Ch´oe, Hyŏng-sŏp. Technology development in developing countries. Tokyo, Asian Productivity Organization, 1986. 301 p.
   Translation of: Kaebal tosangguk ŭi kwahak kisul kaebal chŏllyak (2nd of 3 vols.).
   T173.8.C462513 1986

Hillebrand, Wolfgang. Shaping competitive advantages: conceptual framework and the Korean approach. Portland, OR, Frank Cass, 1996. 279 p. (GDI book series, no. 6)
   Bibliography: p. 257-279.
   HD45.H46 1996

Innovation and technology in Korea: challenges of a newly advanced economy. Jörg Mahlich, Werner Pascha, editors. Heidelberg, New York, Physica-Verlag, 2007. 296 p.
   Includes bibliographical references.
   HC470.T4I56 2007 <BusRR>

Khan, Haider. Technology, energy, and development: the South Korean transition. Cheltenham, Eng., Lyme, NH, Edward Elgar Pub., 1997. 155 p.
   Bibliography: p. 133-147.
   HC470.T4K48 1997

Kim, Linsu. The dynamics of technology development: lessons from the Korean experience. In: Competitiveness, FDI and technological activity in East Asia. Edited by Sanjaya Lall and Shujiro Urata. Cheltenham, Eng., Northampton, MA, Edward Elgar Pub., c2003. p. 143-167.
   HC460.5.Z9R43 2003

Kim, Linsu. Imitation to innovation: the dynamics of Korea's technological learning. Boston, Harvard Business School Press, c1997. 301 p.
   Bibliography: p. 271-284.
   HC470.T4K542 1997;

Korea at the turning point: innovation-based strategies for development. Edited by Lewis M. Branscomb and Young-Hwan Choi. Westport, CT, Praeger, 1996. 285 p.
   Bibliography: p. 275-276.
   HC470.T4K67 1996

Korean Overseas Information Service. Science. Seoul, The Service, 1973. 95 p.
   Q127.K8K67 1973

Lim, Youngil. Technology and productivity: the Korean way of learning and catching up. Cambridge, MA, MIT Press, c1999. 241 p.
   Bibliography: p. 207-224.
   HC470.I52L56 1999



Ch´oe, Hyŏng-sŏp. Industrialization process and development strategy of science and technology in Korea. In: Bases for science and technology promotion in developing countries. Tokyo, Asian Productivity Organization, 1983. p. 105-144.
   T173.8.C4613 1983

Environmental performance reviews. Paris, Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development, c2001- , v. 1-
   See especially v. 21: Korea.
   GE170.E57664 2001, v. 21

Horticulture in Korea. Chief editors, Jung-Myung Lee, Geun-Won Choi, Jules Janick. Suwon, Korea, Korean Society for Horticultural Science, c2007. 390 p.
   SB319.3.K6H67 2007 <SciRR>

Industrialization and the state: the Korean heavy and chemical industry drive. Joseph J. Stern, and others. Cambridge, MA, Harvard Institute for International Development and Korea Development Institute; Distributed by Harvard University Press, 1995. 206 p.
   Bibliography: p. 193-198.
   HD3616.K852I535 1995

Korea nanotechnology: policy, infrastructure, R&D and commercialization. In: Emerging nanotechnology power: nanotechnology R&D and business trends in the Asia Pacific Rim. Editor, Lerwen Liu. Singapore, Hackensack, NJ, World Scientific, c2009. p. 237-257.
   T174.7.E47 2009

Korean sea power and the Pacific era. Edited by Dalchoong Kim, Doug-Woon Cho. Seoul, Institute of East and West Studies, Yonsei University, c1990. 313 p. (East and West studies series, 15)
   Includes bibliographical references
   VA667.K6K67 1990

KORUS 2004 (2004, Tomsk Polytechnic University). Proceedings, KORUS 2004: 8th Korea-Russia International Symposium on Science and Technology: June 26-July 3, 2004 at Tomsk Polytechnic University, Russia. Organized by Tomsk Polytechnic University, University of Ulsan, Novosibirsk State Technical University. Piscataway, NJ, IEEE, c2004. 3 v.
   Includes bibliographical references.
   Q101.K677 2004

Lansbury, Russell D., Chung-Sok Suh, and Seung-Ho Kwon. The global Korean motor industry: the Hyundai Motor Company's global strategy. London, New York, Routledge, 2007. 132 p. (Routledge advances in Korean studies, 10)
   Bibliography: p. 122-129.
   HD9710.K64H965 2007

Lee, Jeonghwa, and Choonjae Lee. Introduction to traditional Korean medicine. Edited by Taewon Song, translated by Insik Jeong, Myongsu Park. Daejeon, Korea, Korea Institute of Oriental Medicine, 2007. 143 p.
   R627.L44 2007

Sŏng, So-mi, and Steven W. Popper. Strategic choices in science and technology: Korea in the era of a rising China. Santa Monica, CA, RAND Corporation, 2005. 183 p.
   Bibliography: p. 175-183.
   HC470.H53S66 2005



History of Science and Technology in Korean Peninsula

Chŏn, Sang-un. A history of science in Korea. Seoul, Jimoondang Pub. Co., c1998. 396 p. (Korean studies series, no. 11)
   Rev. ed. of Science and technology in Korea. Cambridge, MA, M.I.T. Press, 1974.
   Bibliography: p. 373-380.
   Q127.K8C49 1998 <SciRR>

Chŏn, Sang-un. Science and technology in Korea: traditional instruments and techniques. Cambridge, MA, M.I.T. Press, 1974. 383 p. (The M.I.T. East Asian science series, v. 4)
   Based largely on the author's Han’guk kwahak kisul sa, 1966.
   Bibliography: p. 316-357.

Fifty wonders of Korea. Edited and published by Korean Spirit & Culture Promotion Project. Flushing, NY, KSCPP, Diamond Sutra Recitation Group, c2007-2008. 2 v. (Korean spirit and culture series, 4-5)
   Contents: v. 1. Culture and art.--v. 2. Science and technology.
   Bibliography: p. 132-133.
   DS904.F54 2007

The Hall of Heavenly Records: Korean astronomical instruments and clocks, 1380-1780. Joseph Needham and others. Cambridge, New York, Cambridge University Press, 2004. 201 p. (Antiquarian Horological Society monograph, no. 25)
   Originally published in 1986.
   Bibliography: p. 183-191.
   QB85.8.H35 2004

Oriental astronomy from Guo Shoujing to King Sejong: proceedings of an international conference, Seoul, Korea, 6-11 October, 1993. Edited by Nha I.-S., F. Richard Stephenson. Seoul, Yonsei University Press, 1997. 401 p.
   Includes bibliographical references.
   QB17.O75 1997

Pak, Ch´ang-bŏm. Astronomy: traditional Korean science. Translated by Yoon-jung Cho and Hyun-ju Park. Seoul, Ewha Womans University Press, 2008. 177 p. (Spirit of Korean cultural roots, 22)
   Bibliography: p. 169-172.
   QB33.K6P34713 2008 <SciRR>

Pak, Sŏng-nae. Science and technology in Korean history: excursions, innovations, and issues. Fremont, CA, Jain Pub. Co., c2005. 313 p.
   Includes bibliographical references.
   Q127.K8P35313 2005

Underwood, Horace Horton. Korean boats and ships. Seoul, Yonsei University Press, 1979. 99 p. (A Series of reprints of Western books on Korea, no. 7) (English publication, no. 2)
   Bibliography: p. 95-99.
   VK113.K6U5 1981

Xu, Zhentao, David W. Pankenier, and Yaotiao Jiang. East Asian archaeoastronomy: historical records of astronomical observations of China, Japan and Korea. Amsterdam, Published on behalf of the Earth Space Institute by Gordon and Breach Science Publishers, c2000. 430 p. (Earth Space Institute book series, v. 5)
   Includes bibliographical references.
   GN799.A76X82 2000

Information and Communication Technology

Bytes and bullets: information technology revolution and national security on the Korean Peninsula. Edited by Alexandre Y. Mansourov. Honolulu, HI, Asia-Pacific Center for Security Studies, 2005. 409 p.
   Bibliography: p. 405-409.
   UA853.K6B98 2005;

Kim, Young-sam. Information technology in Korea. In: Hanna, Nagy, Sandor Boyson, and Shakuntala Gunaratne. The East Asian miracle and information technology: strategic management of technological learning. Washington, World Bank, c1996. p. 69-119. (World Bank discussion papers, 326)
   HC460.5.H365 1996

Korea and the knowledge-based economy: making the transition. Edited by Carl J. Dahlman and Thomas Andersson. Washington, International Bank for Reconstruction and Development/the World Bank; Organisation for Economic Co-Operation and Development, c2000. 152 p.
   Includes bibliographical references.
   HC470.I55K67 2000

Larson, James F. The telecommunications revolution in Korea. Hong Kong, New York, Oxford University Press, 1995. 336 p.
   Bibliography: p. 325-328.
   HE8420.5.Z5L37 1995

Lee, Kwang-Suk. IT development in Korea: a broadband nirvana? London, New York, Routledge, 2012. 176 p. (Routledge advances in Korean studies, 25)
   Bibliography: p. 153-171.
   HM851.L446 2012

O, Myŏng, and James F. Larson. Digital development in Korea: building an information society. Abingdon, Oxon., New York, Routledge, 2011. 237 p. (Routledge advances in Korean studies, 22)
   Includes bibliographical references.
   HM851.O3 2011 <SciRR>

Korean Women in Science and Technology

Advancement of women in science and technology: a case study of Korea. Edited by Jhon Gil Ja, Lee Hei Sook, and Lee Kye Woo. Seoul, Ewha Womans University Press, 2006. 257 p.
   Bibliography: p. 211-221.
   Q130.A34 2006 <SciRR>

Lee, Kong-Ju-Bock. Women in science, engineering and technology (SET) in Korea: improving retention and building capacity. International journal of gender, science and technology, v. 2, no. 2, 2010: 235-248.

Women in science & technology: why and how must they be supported? Chief researcher, Kong-Ju-Bock Lee, associate researchers, Ki-Wan Kim and others. Seoul, NIS WIST Women in Science and Technology, 2007. 135 p.
   Bibliography: p. 133-135.
   Q130.W654 2007

Science and Technology Policy

Campbell, Joel R. The technology policy of the Korean state since 1961: successful development of science and technology. Lewiston, NY, Edwin Mellen Press, c2008. 394 p.
   Bibliography: p. 347-380.
   HC470.T4C36 2008

Ch'oe, Yŏn-hong. South Korea's environmental policy and management. Seoul, Shinkwang, c2008. 227 p.
   Includes bibliographical references.
   GE190.K6C486 2008

Chŏn, Sŏng-hun. Toward greater transparency in non-nuclear policy: a case of South Korea. Seoul, Korea Institute for National Unification, 2005. 140 p.
   Bibliography: p. 135-140.
   TK9106.5.C45 2005

Kang, Chin-wŏn. Implementation analysis of science, technology and innovation policy: the case of Korean National Nanotechnology Initiative. Saarbrücken, Lambert Academic Pub., c2010. 194 p.
   Bibliography: p. 176-193.
   T177.K6K36 2010

Khan, Mohsin U. India and Korea: a comparison of electronic technology policy. New Delhi, Har-Anand Publications, c1997. 304 p.
   Includes bibliographical references.
   HC435.2.K534 1997

Kim, Chŏk-kyo. Korea's development policy: experience and implications for developing countries. Seoul, Korea Institute for International Economic Policy, c2008. 486 p.
   Includes bibliographical references.
   HC467.756.K55 2008

Korea. Paris, OECD, c2009. 264 p. (OECD reviews of innovation policy) 
   Bibliography: p. 259-264.
   HC470.T4K66 2009

Review of science and technology policy for industrial competitiveness in Korea. Science and Technology Policy Institute (STEPI); sponsored by Ministry of Foreign Affairs, Republic of Korea and Association of South-East Asian Nations. Seoul, Science and Technology Policy Institute, 1995. 239 p.
   Includes bibliographical references.
   Q127.K6R48 1995

Reviews of national science and technology policy. Republic of Korea. Paris, Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development; Washington, OECD Publications and Information Centre, c1996. 205 p.
   HQ127.K8R48 1996

Yi, Kong-nae. Promoting innovative clusters through the RRC (regional research center) policy program in Korea. Seoul, Science & Technology Policy Institute, 2002. 36 leaves. (Chŏngch´aek charyo, 2002-07)
   Includes bibliographical references.
   T177.K6Y522 2002

Yim, Deok Soon. The evolution of Korea’s national innovation system and science and technology policy. In: Science, technology policy, and the diffusion of knowledge: understanding the dynamics of innovation systems in the Asia Pacific. Edited by Tim Turpin, V. V. Krishna. Cheltenham, Eng., Northampton, MA, Edward Elgar, c2007. p. 132-158.
   Q127.P24.S35 2007

Technology Transfer

Cyhn, Jin W. Technology transfer and international production: the development of the electronic industry in Korea. Northampton, MA, Edward Elgar Pub., c2002. 317 p.
   Bibliography: p. 299-312.
   HD9696.A3K74565 2002

Enos, John L., and W.-H. Park. The adoption and diffusion of imported technology: the case of Korea. New York, Croom Helm in association with Methuen, c1988. 272 p.
   Bibliography: p. 258-261.
   HC470.T4E56 1988

Westphal, Larry E., Yung W. Rhee, and Garry Pursell. Korean industrial competence: where it came from. Washington, World Bank, c1981. 76 p. (World Bank staff working paper, no. 469)
   Bibliography: p. 73-76.



Korea's strategy for leadership in research and development. Washington, U. S. Dept. of Commerce, Office of Technology Policy, 1997. 36 p.
   T177.K6K668 1997

South Korea: a country study. 4th ed. Edited by Andrea Matles Savada and William Shaw. Washington, Federal Research Division, Library of Congress; For sale by the Supt. of Docs., U. S. G.P.O., 1992. 408 p. (DA pam, 550-41)
   Bibliography: p. 347-375.
   DS902.S68 1992

United States. Congress. House. Committee on Foreign Affairs. Subcommittee on Arms Control, International Security, and Science. Korean fighter program: joint hearing before the Subcommittees on Arms Control, International Security, and Science and Asian and Pacific Affairs of the Committee on Foreign Affairs, House of Representatives, One Hundred Second Congress, first session, August 1, 1991. Washington, U. S. G.P.O.; For sale by the U. S. G.P.O., Supt. of Docs., Congressional Sales Office, 1992. 48 p.
   KF27.F636 1991d

United States. Congress. House. Committee on Foreign Affairs. Subcommittee on Asia, the Pacific, and the Global Environment. A new beginning for the U. S.-South Korea strategic alliance: hearing before the Subcommittee on Asia, the Pacific, and the Global Environment of the Committee on Foreign Affairs, House of Representatives, One Hundred Tenth Congress, second session, April 23, 2008. Washington, U. S. G.P.O.; For sale by the Supt. of Docs., U. S. G.P.O., 2008. 42 p.
   KF27.F639 2008a

United States-Japan Parliamentary Committee on Science and Technology. Meeting (4th, 1986, P'anmunjŏm-ni, Korea, etc.). Oversight visit to South Korea and Japan: Fourth Meeting of the United States-Japan Parliamentary Committee on Science and Technology: report to the Committee on Science and Technology, U. S. House of Representatives, Ninety-ninth Congress, second session. Washington, U. S. G.P.O.; For sale by the Supt. of Docs., Congressional Sales Office, U. S. G.P.O., 1986. 116 p.
   Q127.U6U493 1986

Zaslow, David. Scientists and engineers in South Korea, 1990. Washington, International Programs Center, Population Division, U. S. Bureau of the Census, 1997. 35 p. (IPC staff paper, no. 87)
   "This report is based on activities supported by the National Science Foundation under Agreement no. SRS-9528607. Any opinions, findings, conclusions, or recommendations expressed herein are those of the author and do not necessarily reflect the views of the National Science Foundation."
   Bibliography: p. 34-35.
   Q149.K6Z38 1997



TECHNICAL REPORTS and other types of literature are indexed in the following guides:

Defense Technical Information Center (DTIC)

Education Resources Information Center (ERIC)

GPO Access: a service of the U. S. Government Printing Office

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)



These selected reports are available in the Library’s Technical Reports and Standards Collection (// and may be requested at the Science Reading Room desk. These reports may also be purchased from the National Technical Information Service (NTIS), 5301 Shawnee Rd., Alexandria, VA 22312 (1-888-584-8332), or ordered online from its website.

Bade, Bruce C. Korean defense industry: threat or ally? Washington, National War College, 1994. 13 p.

Bracken, Paul. Korea in the 21st century. Alexandria, VA, Center for Naval Analyses, 1996. 50 p.

Choe, G. H. Standardization and conformity assessment in the Republic of Korea. Gaithersburg, MD, National Institute of Standards and Technology, 2003. 74 p.

Larney, C., M. Heil, and G.-A. Ha. Case studies from the climate technology partnership: landfill gas projects in South Korea and lessons learned. Oak Ridge, TN, U. S. Dept. of Energy, Technical Information Center, 2006. 35 p.

Phase transition in Korea-U.S. science and technology relations. Caroline Wagner and others. Santa Monica, CA, Rand, 2003. 108 p.

Stone, C. A., and S. J. Uccetta. Technology transfer to a developing nation, Korea. Chicago, IIT Research Institute, Management and Social Science Research, 1973. 90 p.

U. S. Energy Information Administration. Country analysis brief: South Korea. Washington, U. S. Dept. of Energy, Energy Information Administration, 2010. 9 p.



Dissertations can be identified by using online resources or the following indexes located in the Main Reading Room. Consult any reference librarian about options. Some dissertations may be available in full text through electronic resources on public terminals in the Library of Congress.

Comprehensive Dissertation Index, (1861-1972)
   Z5053.X47 1973

Comprehensive Dissertation Index. Supplement. (1973- annual)

Dissertation Abstracts International. (1938- monthly)

Proquest Dissertations & Theses (1861-)
   <Electronic format>



Campbell, Joel Ross. Creating technology capacity: the changing role of the Korean state since the Third Republic. Ann Arbor, MI, UMI, 1994.
   Collation of the original: 557 p.
   Thesis (doctoral)--Miami University, 1994.
   UMI publication number AAT 9424048

Chung, Jongpil. Understanding the relationship between new networked information technology and governance in China and South Korea. Ann Arbor, MI, UMI, 2005.
   Collation of the original: 230 p.
   Thesis (doctoral)--Syracuse University, 2005.
   UMI publication number AAT 3193850

DiMoia, John Paul. Hanmi Hyŏpcho (Korean-American cooperation) and the origins of South Korean state science (1945-1975). Ann Arbor, MI, UMI, 2007.
   Collation of the original: 577 p.
   Thesis (doctoral)--Princeton University, 2007.
   UMI publication number AAT 3281300

Ma, EunJeong. Medicine in the making in post-colonial Korea (1948-2006). Ann Arbor, MI, UMI, 2009.
   Collation of the original: 253 p.
   Thesis (doctoral)--Cornell University, 2008.
   UMI publication number AAT 3329982

Menon, Siddhartha Shankar. The evolution of South Korea’s broadband convergence network, 2004-2007. Ann Arbor, MI, UMI, 2010.
   Collation of the original: 173 p.
   Thesis (doctoral)--Michigan State University, 2010.
   UMI publication number AAT 3435210

Yang, Zie-eun. South Korea’s nuclear decision: explanations for South Korea’s nuclear motivation and renouncement. Ann Arbor, MI, UMI, 2011.
   Collation of the original: 61 p.
   Thesis (masters)--Georgetown University, 2011.
   UMI publication number AAT 1491601

Yoon, Bang-Soon Launius. State power and public R&D in Korea: a case study of the Korea Institute of Science and Technology. Ann Arbor, MI, UMI, 1992.
   Collation of the original: 383 p.
   Thesis (doctoral)--University of Hawaii, 1992.
   UMI publication number AAT 9230530



Abstracting and Indexing Services that index relevant journal articles and other literature are listed below. The titles in electronic format are available onsite in the Library of Congress.

Abstracts in New Technologies and Engineering (1997- )
   Z7913.B7T45 <SciRR A&I>

Applied Science & Technology Index (1913- )
   Z7913.I7 <SciRR A&I> and <Electronic format>

Engineering Index (1884- )
   Z5851.E62 <SciRR A&I>

General Science Index (1978- )
    Z7401.G46 and <Electronic format>

Readers’ Guide to Periodical Literature (1900- )
   AI3.R48 <BusRR> and <Electronic format>

Science Citation Index (1900- )
   Z7401.S365 <SciRR A&I> and <Electronic format >



Journals that often contain information relevant to S & T development in South Korea:

Asia Pacific Tech Monitor T27.A1A85
Asia Policy DS1.A47279
International Journal of Technology Transfer and Commercialisation T174.3.I549
Korea Focus DS902.K527
Korea Internet White Paper TK5105.875.I57K67
Korea Observer DS901.K717
Science, Technology and Innovation Policy Review
Technology and Culture T1.T27



Cho, Hyun-Dae, and Kichul Lim. Government’s initiatives and R&D players roles in promoting high technology developments in Korea. International journal of technology transfer and commercialisation, v. 3, no. 1, 2004: 56-83.

Choi, Yearn Hong. Technology transfer from the U.S. to Korea: a commentary. Korea observer, v. 22, autumn 1991: 301-310.

DiMoia, John Paul. Atoms for sale? Cold War institution-building and the South Korean Atomic Energy Project, 1945-1965. Technology and culture, v. 51, July 2010: 589-618.

Hwang, Chin Young. Space activities in Korea: history, current program and future plans. Space policy, v. 22, Aug. 2006: 194-199.

Jeon, Chihyung. A road to modernization and unification: the construction of the Gyeongbu Highway in South Korea. Technology and culture, v. 51, Jan. 2010: 55-79.

Kim, Chang-yup. Health technology assessment in South Korea. International journal of technology assessment in health care, v. 25, 2009, suppl. 1: 219-223.

Kim, Linsu, and Jinjoo Lee. Korea’s entry into the computer industry and its acquisition of technological capability. Technovation, v. 6, Sept. 1987: 277-293.

Shgapiro, Matthew, Minho So, and Han Woo Park. Quantifying the national innovation system: inter-regional collaboration networks in South Korea. Technology analysis & strategic management, v. 22, no. 7, 2010: 845-857.

Wang, Jenn Hwan and Ching-jung Tsai. National model of technological catching up and innovation: comparing patents of Taiwan and Korea. The Journal of development studies, v. 46, Sept. 2010: 1404-1423.

Yoon, Jeong-Ro. Korean women in science and technology. Asian women, v. 10, June 2000: 33-42.



Selected materials available in the Science Reading Room pamphlet boxes include the following:

Crail, Peter. U. S. and South Korea reach technology pact. Arms control today, v. 37, Sept. 2007: 27-28.

Han, Moo-Young. Annotated chronology of Korea’s science and technology: from rice paddies to flat panel displays.

Holt, Mark. U. S. and South Korean cooperation in the world nuclear energy market: major policy consideration. The Library of Congress. Congressional Research Service.

Park, Woo Hee. Absorption and diffusion of imported technology: a case study in the Republic of Korea. In: Absorption and diffusion of imported technology: proceedings of a workshop held in Singapore, 26-30 January 1981. p. 79-89.

Perrett, Bradley. Beyond the KF-X, South Korea prepares the way for a domestically developed combat drone. Aviation week & space technology, v. 172, Feb. 22, 2010: 30-31

Um, Young-Rhan. South Korea: human embryo research. Cambridge quarterly of healthcare ethics, v. 12, summer 2003: 268-278.

Weber, Eric T. Learning from others: what South Korea technology policy can teach the U.S. The Review of policy research, v. 25, Nov. 2008: 608-613



The Internet offers a growing literature on the science and technology development of South Korea. You may try to use the sites described below, or use your favorite search engines and appropriate key words to identify more specific resources.

Asia Science and Technology Portal (ASTP)
   ASTP, developed and maintained by Japan Science and Technology Agency (JST), serves as an information sharing station for participating countries (currently 16), on S&T policies, regulations of member countries, information on R&D funding, and international meetings.

Association for Asian Studies, Ann Arbor, Michigan. Bibliography of Asian studies.
   The bibliography concentrates on Western language articles and book chapters and is updated continuously.

Korea Institute of Industrial Technology (KITECH)
   KITECH is an R&D institute founded in 1989 to support Korea’s small and medium-sized industries in their efforts to penetrate the global market. KITECH supports development of advanced technologies with commercialization potential while acquiring new industrial technologies from other countries.

Korean Academy of Science and Technology (KAST)
   KAST is South Korea’s highest academy of science, whose members play a leading role in promoting science and technology in South Korea.

The Ministry of Education, Science and Technology (MEST)
   Formed in 2008, MEST is a cabinet-level division of the South Korea government. It absorbed the former Ministry of Science and Technology (MOST). MEST coordinates science and technology activities in the country, and is responsible for determining the country’s science and technology policies and directions.

The National Bureau of Asian Research (NBR)
   NBR is a non-governmental and nonpartisan institution established in 1989 to bring together specialists, policy makers, business leaders to study critical issues facing Asia in energy, health, economics, politics, security, and globalization. The study results are made available to public through online forums, briefings, and publications.

National Institute for Supporting Women in Science and Technology (NIS-WIST)
   NIS-WIST was established by the South Korean government in 2004 to foster and support women in science and technology fields.

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