Skip Navigation Links  The Library of Congress >> Researchers
ScienceReference Services (Science, Technology, and Business Division)
  Home >> Tracer Bullets
Science Tracer Bullets Online


Photos of three invasive  species:  spotted Knapweed,  tree of heaven, and purple loosestrife.

Spotted knapweed - Plant Conservation Alliance, Alien Plant Working Group, Tree of Heaven - U.S. National Arboretum, and Purple Loosestrife, Plant Conservation Alliance, Alien Plant Working Group

Invasive Species

Tracer Bullet 05-3


Since earliest times, humans have deliberately or inadvertently moved organisms from one place to another. Most of our food and forestry crops and domesticated animals, for example, are introduced species, cultivated far beyond their normal ranges. In recent years, though, the rate of such translocations has increased dramatically because of greater movement of the human population, providing numerous new pathways for unintended movement of organisms.
Not all introduced species are able to spread successfully and become invasive; most quickly succumb in their new environments. However, when species are introduced into environments free of the diseases and predators they faced in their native habitat, or when species grow and reproduce more rapidly than similar organisms in their new habitat, they may pose a significant threat to local ecosystem functions and biodiversity or even cause harm to human health. Their economic impact can be substantial; it reaches billions of dollars each year in the United States alone.
This Tracer Bullet lists selected books and other resources related to the many aspects of invasive species. Not intended to be a comprehensive bibliography, it is intended–as the name of the series implies–to put the reader “on target.”



Bright, Chris. Bio-invasions: the spread of exotic species. World watch, v. 8, July/Aug. 1995: 10-19.
   HC79.E5W674 and Pamphlet box <SciRR>

Burdick, Alan. The truth about invasive species. Discover, v. 26, May 2005: 34-41, 85.
   Q1.D57 and Pamphlet box <SciRR>

Campbell, Faith Thompson. Killer pigs, vines, and fungi: alien species threaten native ecosystems. Endangered species technical bulletin, v. 19, Sept. 1994: 3-5.
   Pamphlet box <SciRR>

McGrath, Susan. Attack of the alien invaders. National geographic, v. 207, Mar. 2005: 92-117.
   Pamphlet box <SciRR>

McNeely, Jeffrey A. Strangers in our midst: the problem of invasive alien species. Environment, v. 46, July/Aug. 2004: 16-31.
   Pamphlet box <SciRR>

Reichard, Sarah Hayden, and Peter S. White. Invasion biology: an emerging field of study. Annals of the Missouri Botanical Garden, v. 90, no. 1, 2003: 64-66.
   QK1.M65 and Pamphlet box <SciRR>

Stein, Bruce A., and Stephanie R. Flack, eds. America’s least wanted: alien species invasions of U.S. ecosystems. Arlington, VA, The Nature Conservancy, 1996. 31 p.
   Pamphlet box <SciRR>



Subject headings used by the Library of Congress, under which books on invasive species can be located in most card, book, and online catalogs, are listed below. Many of these subject headings may be subdivided.

Highly Relevant






See also more specific topics such as “Brown Tree Snake,” “Bufo Marinus,” “Gypsy Moth,” “Hemlock Woolly Adelgid,” “Hydrilla,” “Kudzu,” “Purple Loosestrife,” “Zebra Mussel,” etc.



Baskin, Yvonne. A plague of rats and rubbervines: the growing threat of species invasions. Washington, Island Press/Shearwater Books, c2002. 377 p.
   “A SCOPE--GISP project.”
   Bibliographic notes: p. 321-354.
   QH353.B28 2002 <SciRR>

Biological invasions: a global perspective. Edited by J. A. Drake and others. Chichester, New York, Published on behalf of the Scientific Committee on Problems of the Environment (SCOPE) of the International Council of Scientific Unions (ICSU) by Wiley, c1989. 525 p. (SCOPE report, 37)
   Papers from a number of national and international workshops resulting from a SCOPE program on the ecology of biological invasions initiated in mid-1982.
   Includes bibliographies.
   QH353.B56 1989

Biological pollution: an emerging global menace. Edited by Kerry O. Britton. St. Paul, MN, American Phytopathological Society, c2004. 113 p.
   Includes bibliographies.
   SB990.B56 2003

Bright, Chris. Life out of bounds: bioinvasion in a borderless world. New York, Norton, c1998. 287 p. (Worldwatch environmental alert series)
   Bibliography: p. 227-278.
   QH353.B75 1998

Elton, Charles S. (Charles Sutherland). The ecology of invasions by animals and plants. With a foreword by Daniel Simberloff. Chicago, University of Chicago Press, 2000. 181 p.
   Originally published: London, Methuen, c1958. With a new foreword.
   Bibliography: p. 160-174.
   A classic work, by one of the founders of modern ecology. Simberloff’s foreword evaluates Elton’s work based on scientific advances since this pioneering title was published.
   QH541.E4 2000

Invasive species in a changing world. Edited by Harold A. Mooney and Richard J. Hobbs. Washington, Island Press, c2000. 457 p.
   “A Project of SCOPE: The Scientific Committee on Problems of the Environment.”
   Includes bibliographies.
   QH353.I59 2000

Todd, Kim. Tinkering with Eden: a natural history of exotics in America. New York, W. W. Norton, c2001. 302 p.
   Bibliography: p. 267-285.
   QL86.T64 2001

Van Driesche, Jason, and Roy Van Driesche. Nature out of place: biological invasions in the global age. Washington, Island Press, c2000. 363 p.
   Bibliography: p. 307-308.
   QH353.V36 2000



Titles about Particular Geographical Areas

Alien invaders in Canada’s waters, wetlands, and forests. Edited by Renata Claudi, Patrick Nantel, and Elizabeth Muckle-Jeffs. Ottawa, Canadian Forest Service, Science Branch, c2002. 320 p.
   Includes bibliographies.
   SB990.5.C3A45 2002

Biogeography of Mediterranean invasions. Edited by R. H. Groves and F. di Castri. Cambridge, Eng., New York, Cambridge University Press, 1991. 485 p.
   Includes bibliographies.
   QH353.B54 1991

Cox, George W. Alien species in North America and Hawaii: impacts on natural ecosystems. Washington, Island Press, c1999. 387 p.
   Bibliography: p. 315-357.
   SB990.5.U6C68 1999

Devine, Bob. Alien invasion: America’s battle with non-native animals and plants. Washington, National Geographic Society, c1998. 280 p.
    QH353.D48 1998

Invasive aquatic species of Europe: distribution, impacts, and management. Edited by Erkki Leppäkoski, Stephan Gollasch, and Sergej Olenin. Dordrecht, Boston, Kluwer Academic Publishers, c2002. 583 p.
   Bibliography: p. 548-583.
   SH174.5.I58 2002

Invasive species in the Pacific: a technical review and draft regional strategy. Technically edited by Greg Sherley. Samoa, South Pacific Regional Environment Programme, 2000. 190 p.
   Includes bibliographies.
   QH353.I597 2000

Low, Tim. Feral future: the untold story of Australia’s exotic invaders. Chicago, University of Chicago Press, 2002. 394 p.
   Originally published: Ringwood, Vic., Viking, 1999.
   Bibliography: p. 349-375.
   QH353.L68 2002

National Synthesis Symposium on the Ecology of Biological Invasions (1985, Stellenbosch, South Africa). The ecology and management of biological invasions in southern Africa: proceedings of the National Synthesis Symposium on the Ecology of Biological Invasions. Edited by I. A. W. Macdonald, F. J. Kruger, A. A. Ferrar. Cape Town, New York, Oxford University Press, 1986. 324 p.
   Held in Stellenbosch, South Africa, Nov. 27-29, 1985.
   Includes bibliographies.
   QH353.N37 1985

Strangers in paradise: impact and management of nonindigenous species in Florida. Edited by Daniel Simberloff, Don C. Schmitz, Tom C. Brown; foreword by Edward O. Wilson. Washington, Island Press, c1997. 467 p.
   Bibliography: p. 369-432.
   SB990.5.U6S88 1997

Yan, Xie, and others. Invasive species in China--an overview. Biodiversity and conservation, v. 10, Aug. 2001: 1317-1341.
   Includes an extensive bibliography.

Titles about Particular Types of Organisms

Invasive arthropods in agriculture: problems and solutions. Editors: Guy J. Hallman, Charles P. Schwalbe. Enfield, NH, Science Publishers, c2002. 447 p.
   Includes bibliographies.
   SB990.I564 2002

Lever, Christopher. Naturalized reptiles and amphibians of the world. Oxford, Oxford University Press, 2003. 318 p.
   Bibliography: p. 244-306.
   QL641.L48 2003 <SciRR>

Marine bioinvasions: proceedings of a conference, January 24-27, 1999. Edited by Judith Pederson. Cambridge, MA, MIT Sea Grant College Program, MIT SG Center for Coastal Resources, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, [1999?] 427 p.
   “The first National Conference on Marine Bioinvasions was held ... at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology.”
   Includes bibliographies.
   QH353.M27 1999

Myers, Judith H., and Dawn Bazely. Ecology and control of introduced plants. Cambridge, New York, Cambridge University Press, 2003. 313 p.
   Bibliography: p. 271-300.
   SB613.5.M94 2003

Nonindigenous freshwater organisms: vectors, biology, and impacts. Edited by Renata Claudi and Joseph H. Leach. Boca Raton, Lewis Publishers, c2000. 464 p.
   Includes bibliographies.
   QH102.C56 2000

Predicting invasions of nonindigenous plants and plant pests. Committee on the Scientific Basis for Predicting the Invasive Potential of Nonindigenous Plants and Plant Pests in the United States, Board on Agriculture and Natural Resources, Board on Life Sciences, Division on Earth and Life Studies, National Research Council. Washington, National Academy Press, c2002. 194 p.
   Bibliography: p. 152-175.
   SB990.5.U6P74 2002
   Available online at

Titles about Particular Topics

Biological invasions: economic and environmental costs of alien plant, animal, and microbe species. Edited by David Pimentel. Boca Raton, CRC Press, c2002. 369 p.
   Includes bibliographies.
   QH353.B57 2002

Cox, George W. Alien species and evolution: the evolutionary ecology of exotic plants, animals, microbes, and interacting native species. Washington, Island Press, 2004. 377 p.
   Bibliography: p. 287-344.
   QH353.C69 2004

The Economics of biological invasions. Edited by Charles Perrings, Mark Williamson, Silvana Dalmazzone. Cheltenham, UK, Northampton, MA, Edward Elgar, c2000. 249 p.
   Includes bibliographies.
   QH353.E36 2000

Exotic pests and diseases: biology and economics for biosecurity. Daniel A. Sumner, editor. Ames, IA, Iowa State Press, 2003. 265 p.
   Includes bibliographical references.
   SB990.5.U6E95 2003

The Great reshuffling: human dimensions of invasive alien species. Edited by Jeffrey A. McNeely. Gland, Switzerland, Cambridge, IUCN, 2001. 242 p.
   Bibliography: p. 213-237.
   SB613.5.G54 2001

Invasive species: vectors and management strategies. Edited by Gregory M. Ruiz and James T. Carlton. Washington, Island Press, c2003. 517 p.
   Includes bibliographies.
   QH353.I62 2003



Handbooks, Encyclopedias and Dictionaries containing supplementary material include:

Cronk, Quentin C. B., and Janice L. Fuller. Plant invaders: the threat to natural ecosystems. London, New York, Chapman & Hall, 1995. 241 p. (‘People and plants’ conservation manual)
   Bibliography: p. 211-231.
   “WWF International (World Wide Fund for Nature); UNESCO (United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization); Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew, UK.”
   SB613.5.C76 1995

Fuller, Pam L., Leo G. Nico, and James D. Williams. Nonindigenous fishes introduced into inland waters of the United States. Bethesda, MD, American Fisheries Society, c1999. 613 p. (American Fisheries Society special publication, 27)
   Bibliography: p. 489-548.
   QL627.F86 1999

Invasive alien species: a toolkit of best prevention and management practices. Edited by Rüdiger Wittenberg and Matthew J.W. Cock; Global Invasive Species Programme (GISP) ... [et al.]. Wallingford, Oxon, UK, New York, CABI Pub., c2001. 228 p.
   SB990.I56 2001
   “The toolkit was designed and partially drafted at an international workshop held in Kuala Lumpur, 22-27 March 1999.”

Invasive plants: weeds of the global garden. John M. Randall & Janet Marinelli, editors. Brooklyn, NY, Brooklyn Botanic Garden, c1996. 111 p. (21st-century gardening series, handbook #149)
   SB1.P56 no. 149

Long, John L. Introduced mammals of the world: their history, distribution, and influence. Wallingford, Oxon, UK, CABI Pub., Collingwood, VIC, c2003. 589 p.
   Bibliography: p. 535-576.
   QL703.L66 2004 <SciRR>

Randall, R. P. (Roderick Peter). A global compendium of weeds. Melbourne, R.G. and F.J. Richardson, c2002.
905 p.
   Bibliography: p. vii-xxvii.
   SB611.R34 2002 <SciRR>

Weber, Ewald. Invasive plant species of the world: a reference guide to environmental weeds. Wallingford, Oxon, UK, Cambridge, MA, CABI Pub., 2003. 548 p.
   Bibliography: p. 461-536.
   SB613.5.W43 2003 <SciRR>

World weeds: natural histories and distribution. LeRoy Holm ... [et al.]. New York, Wiley, c1997. 1129 p.
   Bibliography: p. 929-1023
   SB611.W39 1997 <SciRR>



International Conference on Marine Bioinvasions (2nd, 2001, New Orleans, La.). Marine bioinvasions: patterns, processes, and perspectives. Edited by Judith Pederson. Dordrecht, Boston, Kluwer Academic Publishers, 2003. 143 p.
   Includes bibliographies.
   “Reprinted from Biological Invasions, Volume 5(1-2), 2003.”
   QH353.I568 2001

Invasive species and biodiversity management. Edited by Odd Terje Sandlund, Peter Johan Schei, and Åslaug Viken. Dordrecht, Netherlands, Boston, Kluwer Academic, c1999. 431 p. (Population and community biology series, v. 24)
   Includes bibliographies.
   Based on papers from the Norway/United Nations (UN) Conference on Alien Species, held in Trondheim, Norway, July 1-5, 1996.
   SB990.I58 1999

Nonindigenous Estuarine & Marine Organisms (NEMO): proceedings of the conference and workshop, Seattle, Washington, April 1993. [Silver Spring, MD], U.S. Dept. of Commerce, National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, [1994]. 125 p.
   Includes bibliographies.
   QL86.N65 1994



Harmful non-indigenous species in the United States. Washington, U.S. Congress, Office of Technology Assessment, 1993. 391 p. (OTA-F-565)
   Includes bibliographies.
   SB990.5.U6H36 1993 <SciRR>
   Available online at

Invasive species: clearer focus and greater commitment needed to effectively manage the problem: report to Executive Agency Officials. United States General Accounting Office. Washington, GAO, 2002. 96 p. (GAO-03-1)
   SB990.5.U6I58 2002
   Available online at

Miller, James H. Nonnative invasive plants of southern forests: a field guide for identification and control. Asheville, NC, U.S. Dept. of Agriculture, Forest Service, Southern Research Station, 2003. 93 p. (General technical report SRS, 62)
   Bibliography: p. 85-86.
   QK124.M56 2003
   Available online at

Thomas, Lindsey Kay. The impact of three exotic plant species on a Potomac island. Washington, U.S. Dept. of the Interior, 1980. 179 p. (National Park Service scientific monograph, no. 13)
   Bibliography: p. 167-172.

Westbrooks, Randy G. Invasive plants: changing the landscape of America: fact book. Washington, Federal Interagency Committee for the Management of Noxious and Exotic Weeds, 1998. 109 p.
   Bibliography: p. 103-107.
   SB612.A2W47 1998



Technical Reports and other types of literature are indexed in the following guide:

Government Reports Announcements & Index (1946-)
   Z7916.G78 <SciRR A&I> and Electronic Format



Reports listed below are available in the microform collection of the Science Reading Room. These and other reports are sold by the National Technical Information Service, 5285 Port Royal Road, Springfield, Virginia 22161. NTIS telephone: (703) 605-6585. NTIS web site:

Lambdin, Paris L., and Jerome F. Grant. Assessment of exotic and invasive plants along roadways in Tennessee. Knoxville, TN, Agriculture Experiment Station, University of Tennessee, 2000. 166 p.

Ludke, Larry, and others. Invasive plant species inventory, mapping, and monitoring: a national strategy [Workshop report]. Denver, CO, Geological Survey, Water Resources Div., 2002. 20 p. (USGS/BRD/ITR-2002-0006)

Marine and aquatic nonindigenous species in California: an assessment of current status and research needs. Summary of a Program Development Workshop. Sponsored by the California Sea Grant System. Editors: Paul G. Olin and Jodi L. Cassell. La Jolla, CA, California Sea Grant College System, University of California, 1997. 38 p.

Pratt, Robert J. Invasive species–a threat to the homeland? Carlisle Barracks, PA, U.S. Army War College, 2003. 44 p.

Proceedings of the U.S. Department of Agriculture Interagency Research Forum (13th) on Gypsy Moth and Other Invasive Species. Held in Annapolis, Maryland, on January 15-18, 2002. Newton Square, PA, Northeastern Research Station, 2002. 134 p. (FSGTR-NE-300)



Dissertations can be identified by using online resources or the following indexes located in the Main Reading Room. Consult any reference librarian about options. Some dissertations may be available in full text through electronic resources on public terminals at the Library of Congress.

Comprehensive Dissertation Index, 1861-1972.
   Z5053.X47 1973

Comprehensive Dissertation Index. Supplement. (1973- annual)

Dissertation Abstracts International (1938- monthly)



Fernberg, Laurence Seth. Causes and consequences of purple loosestrife (Lythrum salicaria L.) invasions on native wetlands. Ann Arbor, MI, UMI, 1998.
   UMI publication number AAT 9816343
   Collation of the original: 281 p.
   Thesis (doctoral)--Fordham University, 1998.

Howe, Katherine Mitchell. The ecology of invasions in a Minnesota grassland: characteristics of invasive species and invaded communities and the effects of global change. Ann Arbor, MI, UMI, 2003.
   UMI publication number AAT 3072094
   Collation of the original: 167 p.
   Thesis (doctoral)--University of Washington, 2002.

Kellogg, Chever Harden. Plant community succession and invasion in restored freshwater marshes. Ann Arbor, MI, UMI, 2002.
   UMI publication number AAT 3040571
   Collation of the original: 164 p.
   Thesis (doctoral)--University of Notre Dame, 2002.

Saltonstall, Kristin. Phylogeography of Phragmites australis in North America: A historical perspective on a cryptic invasion. Ann Arbor, MI, UMI, 2003.
   UMI publication number AAT 3068344
   Collation of the original: 251 p.
   Thesis (doctoral)--Yale University, 2002.



Clewis, Beth. Biological invasions: a selected bibliography. Monticello, IL, Vance Bibliographies, 1991. 8 p.
   (Public administration series–bibliography, P3038)
   Z5322.B54C54 1991

Understanding and managing invasive plants in wilderness and other natural areas: an annotated reading list. Authors, Sophie Osborn and others. Fort Collins, CO, U.S. Dept. of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station, 2002. 65 p.
   (General technical report RMRS, GTR-79)
   Available online at



Abstracting and Indexing Services that index relevant journal articles and other types of literature are listed below. Some suggested terms for searching include Invasive Species, Invasive Plants, headings listed in the Subject Headings section of this guide, or more specific headings, depending upon the topic of interest. Many of the titles may now be available in electronic format. Consult a reference librarian for the location and format of abstracting and indexing services in the Science Reading Room

Applied Science & Technology Index (1913- )
   Z7913.I7 <SciRR A&I> and Electronic Format

Bibliography of Agriculture AGRICOLA (1942- )
   Z5073.U572 <SciRR A&I> and Electronic Format

Biological and Agricultural Index (1916- )
   Z5073.A46 <SciRR A&I> and Electronic Format

Ecological Abstracts (1974- )
   QH540.E27 <SciRR A&I>

Ecology Abstracts (1975- )
   QH540.A66 <SciRR A&I> and Electronic Format

Environmental Sciences & Pollution Management (1967- )
   Electronic Format
   Online in LC: CSA

General Science Abstract (1978- )
   Z7401.G46 <SciRR A&I> and Electronic Format

GEOBASE (1980- )
   Electronic Format

Readers’ Guide to Periodical Literature (1900-)
   AI3.R48 <BusRR> and Electronic Format

Science Citation Index (1961- )
   Z7401.S365 <SciRR A&I> and Electronic format

Wildlife & Ecology Studies Worldwide (1935- )br>    Electronic format

Zoological Record (1864- )
   Z7991.Z87 <SciRR A&I> and Electronic format



Journals that often contain relevant articles include the following:

Biodiversity and Conservation QH75.A1B513
Biological Conservation S900.B5
Biological Invasions QH353.B559
BioScience QH1.A277
Conservation Biology QH75.A1C665
Diversity & Distributions QH75.A1B53
Ecological Restoration QH76.R47
Ecology QH540.E3
Ecology Letters QH540.E316
Journal of Applied Ecology S3.J86
National Wildlife S964.U6N35
Natural Areas Journal QH76.J68
Nature Q1.N2
Science Q1.S35



Bax, N., and others. The control of biological invasions in the world’s oceans. Conservation biology, v. 15, Oct. 2001: 1234-1246.

Brooks, Matthew L., and others. Effects of invasive alien plants on fire regimes. BioScience, v. 54, July 2004: 677-688.

Chapuis, J. L., P. Boussès, and G. Barnaud. Alien mammals, impact and management in the French subantarctic islands. Biological conservation, v. 67, no. 2, 1994: 97-104.

Fine, Paul V. A. The invasibility of tropical forests by exotic plants. Journal of tropical ecology, v. 18, Sept. 2002: 687-705.

Ghazoul, Jaboury. Flowers at the front line of invasion? Ecological entomology, v. 27, Oct. 2002: 638-640.

Hall, S. R., and E. L. Mills. Exotic species in large lakes of the world. Aquatic ecosystem health and management, v. 3, no. 1, 2000: 105-135.

Kolar, Cynthia S., and David M. Lodge. Ecological predictions and risk assessment for alien fishes in North America. Science, v. 298, Nov. 8, 2002: 1233-1236.

MacIsaac, Hugh J., Igor A. Grigorovich, and Anthony Ricciardi. Reassessment of species invasions concepts: the Great Lakes basin as a model. Biological invasions, v. 3, no. 4, 2001: 405-416.

Mack, Richard N. Plant naturalizations and invasions in the eastern United States: 1634-1860. Annals of the Missouri Botanical Garden, v. 90, no. 1, 2003: 77-90.
   This issue includes five other articles on biological invasions.

Occhipinti-Ambrogi, A., and D. Savini. Biological invasions as a component of global change in stressed marine ecosystems [review]. Marine pollution bulletin, v. 46, May 2003: 542-551.

Reed, Catherine C. Keeping invasive plants out of restoration. Ecological restoration, v. 22, Sept. 2004: 210-216.

Simberloff, Daniel. How much information on population biology is needed to manage introduced species? Conservation biology, v. 17, Feb. 2003: 83-92.
   One of seven papers in a special section on population biology of invasive species.

Thomson, Diane. Competitive interactions between the invasive European honey bee and native bumble bees. Ecology, v. 85, Feb. 2004: 458-470.

Vivanco, Jorge M., and others. Biogeographical variation in community response to root allelochemistry: novel weapons and exotic invasion. Ecology letters, v. 7, Apr. 2004: 285-292.

With, Kimberly A. The landscape ecology of invasive spread. Conservation biology, v. 16, Oct. 2002: 1192-1203.

Ziska, Lewis H. Evaluation of the growth response of six invasive species to past, present, and future atmospheric carbon dioxide. Journal of experimental botany, v. 54, Jan. 2003: 395-404.


Selected materials available in the Science Reading Room pamphlet boxes include the following:

Bright, Christopher. Invasive species: pathogens of globalization. Foreign policy, no. 116, Fall 1999: 50-64.

Carlton, James T., and Jonathan B. Geller. Ecological roulette: the global transport of nonindigenous marine organisms. Science, v. 261, July 2, 1993: 78-82.

Ewel, John J., and others. Deliberate introductions of species: research needs. BioScience, v. 49, Aug. 1999: 619-630.

Hipps, Carol Bishop. Kudzu: a vegetable menace that started out as a good idea. Horticulture, v. 72, June/July 1994: 36-39.

Jenkins, Clinton N., and Stuart L. Pimm. How big is the global weed patch? Annals of the Missouri Botanical Garden, v. 90, no. 2, 2003: 172-178.

Manchester, Sarah J., and James M. Bullock. The impacts of non-native species on UK biodiversity and the effectiveness of control. Journal of applied ecology, v. 37, 2000: 845-864.

Meiners, Scott J., Mary L. Cadenasso, and Steward T. A. Pickett. Beyond biodiversity: individualistic controls of invasion in a self-assembled community. Ecology letters, v. 7, Feb. 2004: 121-126.

Mooney, H. A., and E. E. Cleland. The evolutionary impact of invasive species. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, v. 98, May 8, 2001: 5446-5451.
   A review article with 70 references.
   Available online at

Morrison, Janet A. Wetland vegetation before and after experimental purple loosestrife removal. Wetlands, v. 22, Mar. 2002: 159-169.

Palm, Mary E. Systematics and the impact of invasive fungi on agriculture in the United States. BioScience, v. 51, Feb. 2001: 141-147.
   One of eight articles in a special issue on global movement of invasive plants and fungi.

Pimentel, David. Environmental and economic costs of nonindigenous species in the United States. BioScience, v. 50, Jan. 2000: 53-64.

Richardson, David M., and others. Naturalization and invasion of alien plants: concepts and definitions. Diversity & distributions, v. 6, Mar. 2000: 93-107.

Simberloff, Daniel. Eradication – preventing invasions at the outset. Weed science, v. 51, Mar./Apr. 2003: 247-253.

Simberloff, Daniel, and Leah Gibbons. Now you see them, now you don’t! – population crashes of established introduced species. Biological invasions, v. 6, no. 2, 2004: 161-172.

Zavaleta, Erika. The economic value of controlling an invasive shrub. Ambio, v. 29, Dec. 2000: 462-467.
   Deals with tamarisk (Tamarix sp.)



Center for Aquatic and Invasive Plants
7922 NW 71st Street
Gainesville, FL 32653
Tel: (352) 392-1799
Fax: (352) 392-3462
Provides online access to the Aquatic, Wetland and Invasive Plant Information Retrieval System (APIRS), “the world’s largest information resource of its kind.” Also provides extensive plant information and images, plus links to other resources.

Center for Invasive Plant Management
P.O. Box 173120
Bozeman, MT 59717-3120
Tel: (406) 994-6832
Fax: (406) 994-1889
Email: [email protected]
“The Center for Invasive Plant Management (CIPM) promotes the ecological management of invasive plants in the West through education, by facilitating collaboration among researchers, educators, and land managers, and by funding research projects and weed management areas.”

Ecological Society of America
1707 H Street, NW, Suite 400
Washington, DC 20006-3915
Tel: (202) 833-8773
Email: [email protected]
See especially for an online brochure about invasive species.

Mid-Atlantic Exotic Pest Plant Council (MA-EPPC)
Attn: Faith Campbell
8208 Dabney Avenue
Springfield, VA 22152
“The purpose of the MA-EPPC is to address the problem of invasive exotic plants and their threat to the Mid-Atlantic region’s economy, environment, and human health by providing leadership, facilitating information development and exchange, and coordinating regional efforts.”

Southeast Exotic Pest Plant Council
4824 Torbay Drive
Nashville, TN 37211
Its Invasive Plant Manual is available at



The Internet offers a growing number of sites useful in the study of invasive species. Several of the organizations listed above provide links to related sites from their web sites. You might try the sites described below, or use your favorite search engine and appropriate key words to identify more specific resources. You could also use a search engine directory: examples include the Google Directory ( ) at which you can follow the links Science>Environment>Biodiversity>Invasive Species, or the Yahoo Directory ( ) reached by clicking on Science>Ecology>Invasive Species.

Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service of the U.S. Department of Agriculture
Includes news, “hot issues,” and a search feature.

From Microbes to Mammals - Invasive Species
Articles written by the U.S. Geological Survey.

Global Invasive Species Programme
Site features news items, articles, and an extensive list of links.

Institute for Biological Invasions
A very extensive site from the University of Tennessee. In addition to the information on the site itself, it includes a searchable literature database on exotic species and a wide-ranging list of links.

Invasive Plants
Produced by the United States National Arboretum. Provides general information plus links to state government departments or invasive plant workgroups and links to other major information sources.
A joint project of the Bugwood Network and several government and university organizations. Its overall objective is “ ... to provide an accessible and easily used archive of high quality images related to forest health and silviculture, with particular emphasis on educational applications.”
“A gateway to Federal and State invasive species activities and programs.” Includes species profiles, laws and regulations, resources, databases, etc.

Invasive Species Information Node
“ ... creates a central repository for information pertaining to the identification, description, management and control of invasive species.” Includes species information, data and maps, and other information.

IUCN - The World Conservation Union
This organization provides a number of features of interest to scientists and the general public, including the following:
Invasive Species Specialist Group
Global Invasive Species Database
General information on the alien invasive species issue

Management of Invasive Species
AgNIC Wildlife Damage Management; provides information and links

The Nature Conservancy Invasive Species Initiative
Its Weed Control Methods Handbook is at

Nonindigenous Aquatic Species (U.S. Geological Survey)
“ ... a central repository for accurate and spatially referenced biogeographic accounts of nonindigenous aquatic species. Provided are scientific reports, online/realtime queries, spatial data sets, regional contact lists, and general information.”

Noxious Weeds in the US and Canada
“... a searchable database of the noxious weed lists for all U.S. states and six southern provinces of Canada. The database can be searched by plant name, state name, or by clicking on a map.” Part of the INVADERS Database System from the Agricultural Research Service, U. S. Department of Agriculture.

SGNIS: Sea Grant Nonindigenous Species
A searchable collection of research publications and education materials produced by Sea Grant programs and other research institutions; includes links.

Southeast Exotic Pest Plant Council
Its Invasive Plant Manual is available at

Union of Concerned Scientists
Includes policy and legislative information, publications to download, and other resources.

Weeds Gone Wild (Alien Plant Working Group of the Plant Conservation Alliance)
This extensive National Park Service website features fact sheets, plant lists, publications, information links, etc.

Top of Page Top of Page
  Home >> Tracer Bullets
  The Library of Congress >> Researchers
   June 5, 2014
Legal | External Link Disclaimer

Contact Us:  
Ask a Librarian