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Global Warming & Climate Change

Tracer Bullet 08-5



Photo: two polar bears with snow and sea.

Photo: "Melting Arctic Circle Ice Drives Polar Bears Closer to Extinction." From the Web site of the Select Committee on Energy Independence and Global Warming, U.S. House of Representatives.





What do melting glaciers, eroding coastlines, worldwide crop damage, food shortages, absence of rainfall, shrinking aquifers, wildfires and lowered water tables all have in common? These are all possible results from the increased accumulation of “greenhouse gases” in the atmosphere, commonly called global warming, or global climate change.

Scientists study climate change over the æons of the Earth’s history as well as the much shorter period since human-induced changes have started to affect the atmosphere. Engineers attempt to devise technological solutions to problems caused by these changes and policy-makers and governments struggle with international protocols and methods of enforcement. The ever-increasing demands for fossil fuels and increasing energy consumption worldwide complicate the problem. Can technological innovations in energy production, or conservation methods, or innovative market solutions reverse the current trends soon enough? These and other questions confront us as we face the possibility of crossing the “point of no return.”

The following guide, an update of TB 06-6, is a review of the literature and vetted online resources on the topic. This and other recent Tracer Bullets are available online from the Science Reference Section, at: //



Global climate change. In McGraw-Hill encyclopedia of science & technology. 10th ed., v. 8. New York, McGraw-Hill, c2007. p. 146-147.
   Q121.M3 2007 <SciRR>

Johansen, Bruce E. A sketch of the problem. In his The global warming desk reference. Westport, Conn., Greenwood Press, 2002. p. 1-32.
   C981.8.G56 J64 2002 <SciRR>



Subject headings used by the Library of Congress, under which materials on climate change and global warming can be found include the following:


   May be subdivided geographically, e.g., CLIMATIC CHANGES--ANTARCTICA







Allaby, Michael. A change in the weather. New York, Facts on File, c2004. 200 p.
   Bibliography: p. 187-190.
   QC981.8.C5A435 2004 <SciRR>

Climate change: science, strategies, & solutions. Edited by Eileen Claussen, Vicki Arroyo Cochran, and Debra P. Davis. Leiden, Boston, Brill, c2001. 399 p.
   Includes bibliographical references.
   "Pew Center on Global Climate Change."
   QC981.8.C5C611 2001 <SciRR>

Hardy, J. T. Climate change: causes, effects, and solutions. New York, J. Wiley, c2003. 247 p.
   Includes bibliographical references.
   QC981.8.C5H2565 2003 <SciRR>

Houghton, John Theodore. Global warming: the complete briefing. 3rd ed. Cambridge, Eng., New York, Cambridge University, 2004. 351 p.
   Includes bibliographical references.
   QC981.8.G56H68 2004 <SciRR>

Maslin, Mark. Global warming: a very short introduction. Oxford, New York, Oxford University Press, 2004. 162 p. (Very short introductions, no. 118)
   Bibliography: p. 151-152.
   QC981.8.G56M38 2004

O’Hare, Greg, John Sweeney, and Rob Wilby. Weather, climate, and climate change: human perspectives. Harlow, Eng., New York, Pearson Prentice Hall, 2005. 403 p.
   Includes bibliographical references.
   QC861.3 .O35 2005 <SciRR>

Reid, Stephen J. Ozone and climate change: a beginner’s guide. Amsterdam, Gordon and Breach Science Publishers, c2000. 210 p.
   Includes bibliographical references
   QC881.2.O9R45 2000



Encyclopedia of atmospheric sciences. Edited by James R. Holton, Judith A. Curry, and John A. Pyle. Amsterdam, Boston, Academic Press, c2003. 6 v. 2780 p.
   Includes bibliographical references.
   QC854.E522 2003 <SciRR>

Encyclopedia of global change: environmental change and human society. Edited by Andrew S. Goudie and David J. Cuff. Oxford, New York, Oxford University Press, 2002. 2 v.
   Includes bibliographical references.
   GE149.E445 2002 <SciRR>

Encyclopedia of global environmental change. Editor-in-chief, Ted Munn. Chichester, Eng., New York, Wiley, c2002. 5 v.
   Includes bibliographical references.
   GE149.E443 2002 <SciRR>
   Contents: v. 1. The earth system: physical and chemical dimensions of global environmental change.-- v. 2. The earth system: biological and ecological dimensions of global environmental change.--v. 3. Causes and consequences of global environmental change.-- v. 4. Responding to global environmental change.-- v. 5. Social and economic dimensions of global environmental change.



Climate change 2007: the physical science basis: contribution of Working Group I to the Fourth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. Edited by Susan Solomon and others. Cambridge, Eng., New York, Cambridge University Press, 2007. 996 p. + 1 CD-ROM.
   Includes bibliographical references.
   Published for the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change
   QC981.8.C5C511345 2007 <SciRR>

Global climate change. Edited by Paul McCaffrey. Bronx, N.Y., H. W. Wilson Company, 2006. 192 p. (The reference shelf, v. 78, no. 1)
   Bibliography: p. 173-185.
   QC981.8.C5G644 2006

Johansen, Bruce E. Global warming in the 21st century. Westport, Conn., Praeger Publishers, 2006. 3 v.
   Includes bibliographical references.
   Contents: v. 1. Our evolving climate crisis.--v. 2. Melting ice and warming seas.--v. 3. Plants and animals in peril.
   QC981.8.G56J643 2006 <SciRR>

Long, Douglas. Global warming. New York, Facts on File, c2004. 300 p.
   Includes bibliographical references.
   QC981.8.G56L66 2004 <SciRR>



Historical Perspectives

Andersen, Stephen O., and K. Madhava Sarma. Protecting the ozone layer: the United Nations history. Edited by Lani Sinclair. London, Sterling, Va., Earthscan, 2004. 513 p.
   Bibliography: p. 443-449.
   QC879.7.A53 2004

Burroughs, William James. Climate change in prehistory: the end of the reign of chaos. Cambridge, Eng., New York, Cambridge University Press, 2005. 356 p.
   Bibliography: p. 322-345.
   QC981.8.C5B864 2005

Cox, John D. Climate crash: abrupt climate change and what it means for our future. Washington, Joseph Henry Press, c2002. 215 p.
   Bibliography: p. 191-193.
   QC884.C69 2002

Paleoclimate, global change, and the future. Edited by Keith D. Alverson, Raymond S. Bradley, and Thomas F. Pedersen. Berlin, New York, Springer, c2003. 220 p.
   Bibliography: p. 181-216.

Parson, Edward. Protecting the ozone layer: science and strategy. Oxford, New York, Oxford University Press, 2003. 377 p.
   Bibliography: p. 343-367.
   QC879.7.P37 2003

Ruddiman, W. F. Plows, plagues, and petroleum: how humans took control of climate. Princeton, N.J., Princeton University Press, 2005. 272 p.
   Bibliography: p. 195-196.
   QC981.R763 2005

Biodiversity, Ecosystems and the Carbon Cycle

Climate change and biodiversity. Edited by Thomas E. Lovejoy and Lee Hannah. New Haven, Yale University Press, c2005. 418 p.
   Includes bibliographical references.
   QH541.15.B56C62 2005

Global biodiversity in a changing environment: scenarios for the 21st century. Edited by F. Stuart Chapin III, Osvaldo E. Sala, and Elisabeth Huber-Sannwald. New York, Springer, c2001. 376 p. (Ecological studies, v. 152)
   QH541.15.B56G59 2001

The Global carbon cycle: integrating humans, climate, and the natural world. Edited by Christopher B. Field and Michael R. Raupach. Washington, Island Press, c2004. 526 p. (SCOPE report, 62)
   Includes bibliographical references.
   QC879.8.G55 2004

Global change and terrestrial ecosystems. Edited by Brian Walker, Will Steffen. Cambridge, Eng., New York, Cambridge University Press, 1996. 619 p. (International Geosphere-Biosphere Programme book series, 2)
   Includes bibliographical references.
   QK754.5.G58 1996

Kondratyev, Kirill Ya, Vladimir F. Krapivin, and Costas A. Varotsos. Global carbon cycle and climate change. Berlin, New York, Springer, c2003. 368 p.
   Bibliography: p. 321-351.
   QC981.8.C5K6535 2003

Markham, Adam, Nigel Dudley, and Sue Stolton. Some like it hot: climate change, biodiversity, and the survival of species. Gland, Switzerland, WWF International, 1993. 144 p.
   Includes bibliographical references.
   "... prepared for the August 1993 meeting of the Intergovernmental Negotiating Committee (INC) of the UN Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC).”
   QH545.T4M37 1993

Tropical forests & global atmospheric change. Edited by Yadvinder Malhi and Oliver L. Phillips. Oxford, New York, Oxford University Press, 2005. 260 p.
   Bibliography: p. 227-249.
   S600.7.C54T76 2005 <SciRR>

Agriculture, Crops & Food

Agrometeorology related to extreme events. H. P. Das and others, CAgM-XI Working Group on Agrometeorology Related to Extreme Events. Geneva, Switzerland, Secretariat of the World Meteorological Organization, 2003.
137 p. (WMO, no. 943) (Technical note, (World Meteorological Organization) no. 201)
   Includes bibliographical references.
   QC851.W6445 no.943

Climate change and global crop productivity. Edited by K. R. Reddy and H. F. Hodges. Wallingford, Oxon, Eng., New York, CABI Pub., c2000. 472 p.
   Includes bibliographical references.
   S600.7.C54C65 2000

Effects of climate change and variability on agricultural production systems. Edited by Otto C. Doering and others. Boston, Kluwer Academic Publishers, c2002. 275 p.
   Includes bibliographical references.
   S600.7.C54E46 2002

Global climate change and agricultural production: direct and indirect effects of changing hydrological, pedological, and plant physiological processes. Edited by Fakhri Bazzaz and Wim Sombroek. Rome, Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations; Chichester, Eng., New York, Wiley, 1996. 345 p.
   Includes bibliographical references.
   S600.7.C54G58 1996

Monitoring and predicting agricultural drought: a global study. Edited by Vijendra K. Boken, Arthur P. Cracknell, and Ronald L. Heathcote. Sponsored by the World Meteorological Organization. Oxford, New York, Oxford University Press, 2005. 472 p.
   Includes bibliographical references.
   S600.7.D76A36 2005

Natural disasters and extreme events in agriculture: impacts and mitigation. Edited by Mannava V. K. Sivakumar, Raymond P. Motha, and Haripada P. Das. Berlin, New York, Springer, c2005. 367 p.
   Includes bibliographical references.
    S589.75.N36 2005

Pritchard, Seth G., and Jeffrey S. Amthor. Crops and environmental change: an introduction to effects of global warming, increasing atmospheric CO2 and O3 concentrations, and soil salinization on crop physiology and yield. New York, Food Products Press, c2005. 421 p.
   Includes bibliographical references.
   SB112.5.P75 2005 <SciRR>

Carbon Storage & Emissions Reduction

Bachu, Stefan. Geological sequestration of anthropogenic carbon dioxide: applicability and current issues. In Geological perspectives of global climate change. Edited by Lee C. Gerhard, William E. Harrison, and Bernold M. Hanson. Tulsa, OK, American Association of Petroleum Geologists in collaboration with the Kansas Geological Survey and the AAPG Division of Environmental Geosciences, c2001. (AAPG studies in geology, no. 47) p. 285-303.
   QC981.8.C5G46 2001

Climate change and carbon markets: a handbook of emission reduction mechanisms. Edited by F. Yamin. London, Sterling, Va., Earthscan, 2005. 430 p.
   Includes bibliographical references.
   QC981.8.C5C511346 2005 <SciRR>

Geological storage of carbon dioxide. Edited by Shelagh J. Baines and Richard H. Worden. London, Geological Society; Tulsa, Okla., Distributed by AAPG Bookstore, c2004. 255 p. (Geological Society special publication, no. 233)
   Includes bibliographical references.
   QH344.G46 2004

IPCC special report on carbon dioxide capture and storage. Edited by Bert Metz and others. Cambridge, Eng., Cambridge University Press, for the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, 2005. 431 p.
   Includes bibliographical references.
   QC879.8.I63 2005 <SciRR>

Inventory of U.S. greenhouse gas emissions and sinks: 1990-2005. Washington, Environmental Protection Agency, Office of Atmospheric Programs, 2007. 1 v. + 1 CD-ROM.
   Includes bibliographical references.
   EPA 430-R-07-002.
   TD885.5.G73I5932 2007 <SciRR>

The Potential of U.S. grazing lands to sequester carbon and mitigate the greenhouse effect. Edited by R. F. Follett, J. M. Kimble, and R. Lal. Boca Raton, Fla., Lewis Publishers, 2001. 442 p.
   Includes bibliographical references.
   S592.6.C35P68 2001

Storing carbon in agriculture soils: a multi-purpose environmental strategy. Edited by Norman J. Rosenberg and Roberto C. Izaurralde. Dordrecht, Boston, Kluwer Academic Publishers, c2001. 117 p.
   Includes bibliographical references.
   S592.6.C35S76 2001

Economics & Global Security

Climate change and global food security. Edited by R. Lal and others. Boca Raton, Fla., Taylor & Francis, 2005. 778 p.
   Includes bibliographical references.
   S600.7.C54C6524 2005 <SciRR>

Lacy, Mark J. Security and climate change: international relations and the limits of realism. New York, Routledge, 2005. 164 p. (Routledge research in environmental politics, 9)
   Bibliography: p. 151-159.
   QC981.8.C5L33 2005

Stowell, Debbie. Climate trading: development of greenhouse gas markets. Houdmills, Basingstoke, Hampshire, Eng., New York, Palgrave Macmillan, 2005. 246 p.
   Bibliography: p. 237-243.
   HC79.A4S76 2005

Van Kooten, G. C. Climate change economics: why international accords fail. Cheltenham, Eng., Northhampton, Mass., Edward Elgar, c2004. 167 p.
   Bibliography: p. 152-163.
   QC981.8.C5V36 2004

International Cooperation

Building on the Kyoto Protocol: options for protecting the climate. Edited by Kevin A. Baumert and others. Washington, World Resources Institute, c2002. 252 p.
   Bibliography: p. 237-248.
   QC981.8.C5B852 2002

Climate change: five years after Kyoto. Edited by Velma I. Grover. Enfield, N.H., Science Publishers, c2004. 455 p.
   Includes bibliographical references.
   QC981.8.C5C5153 2004 <SciRR>

Climate-change policy. Edited by Dieter Helm. Oxford, Oxford University Press, 2005. 399 p.
   Bibliography: p. 341-380.
   QC981.8.C5C5114155 2005

Dolle, Meinhard. From hot air to action: climate change, compliance and the future of international environmental law. Toronto, Thomson/Carswell, c2005. 415 p.
   Bibliography: p. 331-390.
   K3593.D65 2005 <LawRR>

Global crises, global solutions. Edited by Bjørn Lomborg. Cambridge, Eng., New York, Cambridge University Press, 2004. 648 p.
   Includes bibliographical references
   JZ1318.G5566 2004

Hoffman, Matthew J. Ozone depletion and climate change: constructing a global response. Albany, State University of New York Press, c2005. 259 p.
   Bibliography: p. 229-248.
   QC879.7.H64 2005

Implementing the climate regime: international compliance. Edited by Olav Schram Stokke, Jon Hovi, and Geir Ulfstein. London, Sterling, Va., Earthscan, 2005. 240 p.
   Includes bibliographical references.
   QC981.8.C5I457 2005

Rübbelke, Dirk T. G. International climate policy to combat global warming: an analysis of the ancillary benefits of reducing carbon emissions. Cheltenham, Eng., Northampton, MA., Edward Elgar, c2002. 185 p.
   Bibliography: p. 157-177.
   QC981.8.C5R84 2002

Wicke, Lutz. Beyond Kyoto: a new global climate certificate system: continuing Kyoto commitments or a global ’cap and trade’ scheme for a sustainable climate policy? With a section (VIII.C) about "Legal feasibility of the GCCS" by Jurgen Knebel; the ... English translation of the two studies was prepared by Helen Dalton-Stein and Ralph Wittgrebe. Berlin, New York, Springer, c2005. 320 p.
   Includes bibliographical references.
   QC981.8.C5W53 2005

Yamin, Farhana, and Joanna Depledge. The international climate change regime: a guide to rules, institutions and procedures. Cambridge, Eng., New York, Cambridge University Press, 2004. 699 p.
   Bibliography: p. 653-675.
   QC981.8.C5Y35 2004 <SciRR>



Climate change and human health: risks and responses. Edited by A. J. McMichael and others. Geneva, World Health Organization, 2003. 322 p.
   Includes bibliographical references.
   RA793.C582 2003

Stability of life on earth: principal subject of scientific research in the 21st century. Kirill Ya Kondratyev and others. Berlin, Springer, c2004. 165 p.
   Published in association with Praxis Pub., Chichester, UK.
   Bibliography: p. 155-162.
   QH541.S654 2004

Tourism, recreation, and climate change. Edited by C. Michael Hall and James Higham. Clevedon, Eng., Buffalo, Channel View Publications, c2005. 309 p. (Aspects of tourism, 22)
   Includes bibliographical references.
   G155.A1T592435 2005

Tropical forests & global atmospheric change. Edited by Yadvinder Malhi and Oliver L. Phillips. Oxford, New York, Oxford University Press, 2005. 260 p.
   Bibliography: p. 227-249.
   S600.7.C54 T76 2005 <SciRR>

Williams, M. A. J., and Robert C. Balling. Interactions of desertification and climate. Prepared for World Meteorological Organisation, United Nations Environment Programme. London, New York, Wiley, 1996. 270 p.
   Bibliography: p. 220-258.
   GB612.W55 1996



CONFERENCE PROCEEDINGS frequently provide more up-to-date research than is available in other published sources. Search using the LC subject heading subdivision “CONGRESSES.”

Advances in the geological storage of carbon dioxide: international approaches to reduce anthropogenic greenhouse gas emissions. Edited by S. Lombardi, L. K. Altunina, and S. E. Beaubien. Dordrecht, Springer, c2006. 362 p. (NATO science series. Series IV, Earth and environmental sciences, v. 65)
   Includes bibliographical references.
   “Proceedings of the NATO Advanced Research Workshop on Advances in CO2 Geological Sequestration in Eastern and Western European Countries, Tomsk, Russia, November 15-18, 2004.”
   QD181.C1N384 2004

Climate change, carbon, and forestry in northwestern North America: proceedings of a workshop, November 14-15, 2001, Orcas Island, Washington. Editors: David L. Peterson, John L. Innes, and Kelly O’Brian. Sponsors: Climate Impacts Group at the University of Washington and others. Portland, Ore., U.S. Dept. of Agriculture, Forest Service, Pacific Northwest Research Station, 2004. 117 p. (General technical report PNW, GTR-614)
   Includes bibliographical references.
   SD390.7.C55C59 2004 (PDF 1.24 MB)
(The freely available Adobe Acrobat Reader is required to view and print this resource.)

Fisheries in a changing climate: proceedings of the Sea Grant symposium held at Phoenix, Arizona, 20-21 August 2001. Nature A. McGinn, editor. Bethesda, Md., American Fisheries Society, 2002. 295 p. (American Fisheries Society symposium, 32)
   Includes bibliographical references.
   SH343.3.F57 2002

The Ocean carbon cycle and climate. Edited by Mick Follows and Temel Oguz. Dordrecht, Boston, Kluwer Academic Publishers, c2004. 395 p. (NATO science series. Series IV, Earth and environmental sciences, v. 40)
   Includes bibliographical references.
   "Proceedings of the NATO Advanced Study on the Ocean Carbon Cycle and Climate, Ankara, Turkey, 5-16 August 2002"
   GC117.C37N38 2002

Proceedings of International Conference "The Role of Permafrost Ecosystems in Global Climate Change": held by Institute for Biological Problems of Cryolithozone of Siberian Division of Russian Academy of Sciences, Yakutsk, Russia, at National Academy of Sciences of the Sakha Republic (Yakutia), 3-5 May 2000. Edited by Boris Ivanov and Trofim Maximov. Yakutsk, Izd-vo SO RAN, 2001. 207 p.
   Includes bibliographical references.
   QC981.8.C5I615 2000



GOVERNMENT PUBLICATIONS can be identified and located by going to individual agency web sites, listed below in the section “Agencies and Organizations,” or by searching the Catalog of U.S. Government Publications. Government technical report access is described in the section “Technical Reports.” Older government publications may be identified by using the Government Reports and Monthly Catalog indexes, described in the next section. Selected government publications are listed below.

Climate change: EPA and DOE should do more to encourage progress under two voluntary programs. Washington, Government Accountability Office, Apr. 2006. 51 p.
   Fulltext online: (PDF 994 KB)
(The freely available Adobe Acrobat Reader is required to view and print this resource.)

Climate change: federal reports on climate change funding should be clearer and more complete. Washington, Government Accountability Office, Aug. 2005. 56 p.
   Fulltext online: (PDF 458 KB)
(The freely available Adobe Acrobat Reader is required to view and print this resource.)

The economics of climate change: a primer. Washington, Congressional Budget Office, for sale by the Supt. of Docs., U.S.G.P.O., 2003.
   Bibliography: p. 58-66.
   QC981.8.G56E27 2003
   (SuDoc: Y10.2:EC 7/10)

Matthews, Stephen N., and others. Atlas of climate change effects in 150 bird species of the Eastern United States. Newtown Square, Pa.., U.S. Dept. of Agriculture, Forest Service, Northeastern Research Station, 2004. (General technical report NE, 318). 1 atlas (340p.)
   Bibliography: p. 10-12.
   G1206.D4A4 2004 <G&M>
   (SuDoc: A13.88:NE-318)



Abstracting and Indexing Services that index relevant journal articles and other periodical literature, conference papers and proceedings, government reports, as well as technical reports and other ‘grey literature,’ are listed below. Additional targeted search engines, online indexes and e-print archives are listed under the section “Additional Online Resources.” For the current status of LC online subscription indexes, go to web page (Selected open-source indexes are also listed on this web page.) For more information consult a reference librarian.

Applied Science & Technology Index (1913- )
   Z7913.I7 <SciRR A&I>

ASTA (Applied Science & Technology Abstracts) (1983- )
   Online in LC: WilsonWeb

   Online in LC: First Search’s OCLC

Current Technology Index (1962- )
   Z7913.B7 <SciRR A&I>

EI Compendex Plus (1995- )
   Online in LC: Dialog Site

Engineering Index (1884- )
   Z5851.E62 <SciRR A&I>

General Science Index (1978- )
   Z7401.G46 <SciRR A&I>

General Science Index (1984- )
   Online in LC: WilsonWeb

GEOBASE (1980- )
   Online in LC: First Search’s OCLC

GeoREF (1785- )
   Online in LC: CSA Illumina

Government Reports Announcements & Index (1946-1996)
   Z7916.G78 <SciRR A&I>

Index to Scientific & Technical Proceedings (1978- )
   Z7403.I4 <SciRR A&I>

International Aerospace Abstracts (1961- )
   TL500.I57 <SciRR A&I>

   Online in LC: JSTOR

Monthly Catalog of United States Government Publications
   Z1223.A18 <SciRR A&I>

National Climatic Data Center Climate Data
   Online in LC: NCDC

(NTIS) National Technical Information Service (1964- )
   Microfiche <SciRR A&I>

(NTIS) National Technical Information Service (1964- )
   Online in LC: CSA

Oceanic Abstracts (1964- )
   GC1.O24 <SciRR A&I>

Readers’ Guide Abstracts (1983- )
   Online in LC: WilsonWeb

Readers’ Guide Retrospective (1890-1982)
   Online in LC: WilsonWeb

Readers’ Guide to Periodical Literature (1900- )
   AI3.R45 <BRS>

Science Citation Index (ISI) (1945-2001)
   Z7401.S365 <SciRR A&I>

Science Citation Index Expanded (1997- )
   Online in LC: ISI Web



Journals that often contain relevant articles include the following (some may be available in full-text through LC online databases). For more information consult the LC Online Catalog or a reference librarian.

Ambio QH540.A52
Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society QC851.A6
Climatic Change QC981.8.C5C54
Conservation Biology QH75.A1C665
Energy & Environment TJ163.13.E517
Environment UF767.S33
Geophysical Research Letters QE500.G37
Geotimes QE1.G56
Global Change Biology QC981.8.C5G6323
Journal of Arid Environments QH541.5.A74J68
Journal of Climate QC851.J56
Journal of Coastal Research GB450.J68
Journal of Geophysical Research D: Atmospheres QC811.J6
Meteorological Applications QC875.A2M48
Nature Q1.N2
New Scientist Q1.N52
Oecologia QH540.O3
Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series A, Mathematical and Physical Sciences Q41.L849617b
Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences QH301.R648a
Proceedings. Biological sciences / The Royal Society QH301.P7415
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences Q11.N26
Reviews of Geophysics QC801.R463
Science Q1.S35
Tellus. Series A, Dynamic Meteorology and Oceanography QC880.T53
Trends in Ecology and Evolution QH540.T67



REPRESENTATIVE ARTICLES selected mainly from journals listed above.

Changnon, S. A., and D. Changnon. Lessons from the unusual impacts of an abnormal winter in the USA. Meteorological applications, v. 12, Sept. 2005: 187-191.

Hinzman, Larry, and others. Evidence and implications of recent climate change in northern Alaska and other Arctic regions. Climatic change, v. 72, Oct. 2005: 251-298.

Keller, Klaus, and others. Avoiding dangerous anthropogenic interference with the climate system. Climatic change, v. 73, Dec. 2005: 227-238.

Khasnis, A. A., and M. D. Nettleman. Global warming and infectious disease. Archives of medical research, v. 36, Nov./Dec. 2005: 689-696.

Kovats, R. S., and others. Early effects of climate change: do they include changes in vector-borne disease? Philosophical transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological sciences, v. 356, July 29, 2001: 1057-1068.

Li, Mai-He, Norbert Kräuchi, and Su-Ping Gao. Global warming: can existing reserves really preserve current levels of biological diversity? Journal of integrative plant biology, v. 48, Mar. 2006: 255-259.

Malcolm, Jay R., and others. Global warming and extinctions of endemic species from biodiversity hotspots. Conservation biology, v. 20, Apr. 2006: 538-548.

Perrings, Charles. The economics of abrupt climate change. Philosophical transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series A, Mathematical and physical sciences. v. 361, Sept. 15, 2003: 2043-2059.

Pielke, R. A., and others. 2005: Hurricanes and global warming. Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society, v. 86, Nov. 2005: 1571-1575.

Rowden-Rich, Murray. Antarctic ice & Australian Antarctic science: are they collapsing? Energy & environment, v. 17, Jan. 2006: 37-52.

Saunders, M. A. Earth’s future climate. Philosophical transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series A, Mathematical and physical sciences. v. 357, Dec. 1999: 3459-3480.

Schwartz, Mark D., Rein Ahas, and Anto Aasa. Onset of spring starting earlier across the Northern Hemisphere. Global change biology, v. 12, no. 2, 2006: 343-351.

Verdin, J., and others. Climate science and famine early warning. Philosophical transactions of the Royal Society. Series B, Biological sciences, v. 360, Nov. 29, 2005: 2155-2168.



Publishers are increasingly providing free and open access to journal content, including everything from tables of content and abstracts, to full text. The list below offers a representative selection.

American Meteorological Society (AMS) Journals (1914- )
   Searches all AMS journals online: Journal of the Atmospheric Sciences, Journal of Applied Meteorology and Climatology, Journal of Physical Oceanography, Monthly Weather Review, Journal of Atmospheric and Oceanic Technology, Weather and Forecasting, Journal of Climate, Journal of Hydrometeorology, Earth Interactions, Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society, Meteorological Monographs.

AMS Update (formerly AMS newsletter) (1996-2003)

Geotimes (2000- )

Journal of Coastal Research (2005- )

Nature (1950- )

Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences (1915- )



TECHNICAL REPORTS are indexed and archived by several government clearinghouses and many are available online in full-text at no cost. For many reports in the LC Technical Reports Collection the National Technical Information Service (NTIS) index provides access. The LC Electronic Resources web page has an extensive list of both subscription and open-access indexes for identifying Technical Reports & Standards. For more information ask a reference librarian for assistance, or contact the Technical Reports Section

Emissions of greenhouse gases in the United States. Washington, Office of Integrated Analysis and Forecasting, Energy Information Administration, Dec. 2005. 134 p.
   (DOE/EIA-0573 (2004))
   Fulltext online: (PDF1.24 MB)
  (The freely available Adobe Acrobat Reader is required to view and print this resource.)

Titus, J. G. Greenhouse effect, sea level rise, and barrier islands: case study of Long Beach Island, New Jersey. Washington, Urban and Economic Development Policy Div., Environmental Protection Agency, 2004. 26 p.



Dissertations in addition to technical reports describe research results that have been completed, or report research in progress. Abstracting and indexing services are useful in locating dissertations, and a few selected titles are listed below.

Bohr, Gregory S. Trends in extreme daily temperature events in the south-central United States. Ann Arbor, MI, University Microfilms, 2005.
   Collation of the original: 247 p.
   Thesis (doctoral)–Louisiana State University and Agricultural & Mechanical College, Baton Rouge, LA, 2005.
   UMI Publication Number AAT 3166901

Elgaali, Elgaali Attalla. Modeling regional climate change impacts on available water for agriculture. Ann Arbor, MI, University Microfilms, 2005.
   Collation of the original: 137 p.
   Thesis (doctoral)–Colorado State University, Fort Collins, CO, 2005.
   UMI Publication Number AAT 3173060

Peters, Halton Adrian. Consumer control of plant communities in current and future environments.
Ann Arbor, MI, University Microfilms, 2005.
   Collation of the original: 143 p.
   Thesis (doctoral)–Stanford University, Palo Alto, CA, 2005.
   UMI Publication Number AAT 3171729



Selected Materials such as pamphlets, newspaper clippings, short articles, and similar miscellany are available in the Science Reading Room pamphlet box for this Tracer Bullet. Example citations are below. Ask a reference librarian for the shelf location.

Revkin, Andrew C. Warming Causes Surge in Western Fires, Researchers Find. The New York Times/Science/Environment. July 7, 2006.

Revkin, Andrew C. Yelling 'Fire' on a hot planet. The New York times/Science/Environment. April 23, 2006.

Tynan, Dan. Going green. Global climate crisis? Technology can help. US Airways magazine. Apr. 2008: 34.



Non-Governmental & Non-Profit Organizations

Aspen Global Change Institute
100 East Francis Street
Aspen, Colo. 81611
Tel: (970) 925-7376
Fax: (970) 925-7097
Email: [email protected]
   Aspen Global Change Institute furthers the scientific understanding of Earth systems and global environmental change through interdisciplinary science meetings, publications, and educational programs about global change science.

Climate Ark
Ecological Internet, Inc.
P.O. Box 433
Denmark, Wisc. 54208-0433
Tel: (for media and sponsorship queries only): (920) 776-1075
Email: [email protected]
   A climate change and global warming portal and search engine.

Global Environmental Change and Human Security (GECHS)
GECHS International Project Office
University of Oslo
Department of Sociology and Human Geography
P.O. Box 1096 Blindern
N-0317 Oslo, Norway
Tel: +4 (7 2) 284-4386
Fax: +4 (7 2) 285-5253
Email: [email protected]
   The GECHS project focuses on the relationships between environmental change and human society, with an emphasis on the implications for human security.

Natural Resources Defense Council
40 West 20th Street
New York, N.Y. 10011
Tel: (212) 727-2700
Fax: (212) 727-1773
   See especially the page on Global Warming and the Annual Report on Global Warming.

Pacific Institute
654 13th Street
Oakland, Calif. 94612
Tel: (510) 251-1600
Fax: (510) 251-2203
Email: [email protected]
   Provides independent research and policy analysis.

The Pembina Institute
Box 7558
Drayton Valley, Alberta
T7A 1S7 Canada
Tel: (780) 542-6272
Fax: (780) 542-6464
   Independent environmental policy research and education organization. Major programs are in the areas of sustainable energy, climate change, environmental governance, ecological fiscal reform, sustainability indicators, and the environmental impacts of the energy industry.

Pew Center on Global Climate Change
2101 Wilson Boulevard, Suite 550
Arlington, Va. 22201
Tel: (703) 516-4146
Fax: (703) 841-1422
   The Center’s mission is to provide credible information, straight answers, and innovative solutions in the effort to address global climate change.

World Resources Institute
10 G Street, NE
Washington, DC 20002
   Non-profit think tank: “Climate change, energy and transportation” are major topics.

U. S. Government Agencies & Organizations

U.S. Department of Agriculture
1400 Independence Avenue, SW
Washington, DC 20250
Tel: (202) 720-4197
   See especially Economic Research Service Global Climate Change Briefing Room, and the Agricultural Research Service Crops Systems And Global Change Lab.

U.S. Department of Energy
1000 Independence Avenue, SW
Washington, DC 20585
Tel: (800) 342-5363
Fax: (202) 586-4403
   See especially Climate Change

U.S. Environmental Protection Agency
Ariel Rios Building
1200 Pennsylvania Avenue, NW
Washington, DC 20460
Tel: (202) 272-0167
TTY: (202) 272-0165
Climate Change:
   Links to Greenhouse Gas Emissions Inventories in PDF format, and a full page of Reference Documents. See especially Global Warming Information on the World Wide Web (PDF 994KB)
(The freely available Adobe Acrobat Reader is required to view and print this resource.)

U.S. Geological Survey
Department of the Interior
12201 Sunrise Valley Drive
Reston, Va. 20192
Tel: (703) 648-4000
   Sponsors the Global Change Research Program, the Global Change Hydrology Program, and provides online data and research publications.

U.S. National Oceanic & Atmospheric Administration (NOAA)
14th Street & Constitution Avenue, NW
Room 6217
Washington, DC 20230
Tel: (202) 482-6090
Fax: (202) 482-3154
   See especially NOAA Climate Program Office, which incorporates the Office of Global Programs, the Arctic Research Office, and the Climate Observations and Services Program, and coordinates climate activities across all NOAA.

International Organizations

Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC)
The IPCC Secretariat
c/o World Meteorological Organization
7 bis Avenue de la Paix
C.P. 2300
CH - 1211 Geneva 2
Tel: +41 (22) 730-8208
Fax: +41 (22) 730-8025
Email : [email protected]
   Jointly established by the World Meteorological Organization (WMO) and the United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP) in 1988 to assess information on climate change, its potential impacts, and options for adaptation and mitigation.

United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC)
Haus Carstanjen
Martin-Luther-King-Strasse 8
53175 Bonn, Germany
   Since 1994, the Convention on Climate Change has set an overall framework for intergovernmental efforts to tackle the challenge posed by climate change. This site has the text of the Convention in multiple languages, as well as the Kyoto Protocol. See especially the UNEPNet: Climate Change United Nations Environmental Programme. The UNEP provides this global portal to authoritative environmental information based on themes and regions.

Research Programs

Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Program
U.S. Department of Energy
   Site provides access to a searchable bibliography.

Climate Change Science Program/Global Change Research Program
1717 Pennsylvania Avenue, SW, Suite 250
Washington, DC 20006
Tel: (202) 223-6262
Fax: (202) 223-3065
Email: [email protected]
   Supports research on the interactions of natural and human-induced changes in the global environment and their implications for society. Data and information are disseminated by the Global Change Research Information Office (GCRIO).

Climate Change Technology Program
1000 Independence Avenue, SW
Washington, DC 20585
Tel: (202) 586-0070
Fax: (202) 586-0092
Email: [email protected]
   A multi-agency research and development program for the development of climate change technology.

International Energy Agency Greenhouse Gas R&D Programme (IEA GHG)
Orchard Business Centre
Stoke Orchard, Cheltenham
Glos. GL52 7RZ, United Kingdom
Tel: +44 (0)1242 680753
Fax: +44 (0) 1242 680758
Email: [email protected]
   An international collaborative research programme. IEA GHG focuses its efforts on studying technologies to reduce greenhouse gas emissions.

National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR)
1850 Table Mesa Drive
Boulder, CO. 80305
Tel: (303) 497-1000
   The NCAR and the University Corporation for Atmospheric Research (UCAR) Office of Programs (UOP) provide research, facilities, and services for the atmospheric and Earth sciences community. See especially NCAR Climate Research

North American Carbon Program Office
1717 Pennsylvania Avenue, NW, Suite 250
Washington, DC 20006
Tel: (202) 419-3462
Fax: (202) 419-3064
Email: [email protected]
   The central objective of the North American Carbon Program is to measure and understand carbon stocks and the sources and sinks of carbon dioxide (CO2), methane (CH4), and carbon monoxide (CO) in North America and in adjacent ocean regions.

Data Sources

Assessments of Impacts and Adaptations to Climate Change in Multiple Regions and Sectors (AIACC). [U.S. Agency for International Development (USAID). Copyright© 2004]
   Access to extensive data, software and bibliographic resources related to climate impacts, adaptation, and vulnerability across multiple sectors.

Carbon Sequestration Data Sets & Analyses [Office of Science, U.S. Department of Energy]

Climate Change Integrated Assessment Modeling. The Model Visualization and Analysis (MVA) Service. (The Trustees of Columbia University in the City of New York. Copyright © 1997-2006)
   MVA examines relationships between human activities and global climate change, with integrated assessment models (IAMs). See also Data and Products. NOAA Climate Program Office.

U.S. Greenhouse Gas Inventory Archive
   This page contains past versions of the U.S. Greenhouse Gas Inventories developed by the U.S. Government to meet U.S. commitments under the Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC). Includes the Inventory of U.S. Greenhouse Gas Emissions and Sinks: 1990-2008.

National Center for Atmospheric Research, Research Data Archive.
   Read An Introduction to Atmospheric and Oceanographic Datasets, NCAR Technical Note, an overview of data types, formats, and sources used by researchers in meteorology and oceanography. The document is available in the following formats: HTML, Postscript, PDF.

National Climatic Data Center (NCDC). U.S. Department of Commerce.
   The world’s largest active archive of weather data, NCDC operates the World Data Center for Meteorology which is co-located at NCDC in Asheville, North Carolina, and at the World Data Center for Paleoclimatology which is located in Boulder, Colorado.

USDA Economic Research Service Data Sets, Natural Resources & Environment.



Indexes and Eprint Archives

E-print Network
Department of Energy, Office of Scientific & Technical Information

HighWire Press
Stanford University

University of Michigan Digital Library

Books & Reports

Abrupt climate change: inevitable surprises. Committee on Abrupt Climate Change, National Research Council. Washington, National Academy Press, 2002. 230 p.
   Includes bibliographical references.
   QC981.8.C5A26 2002

Arctic climate impact assessment. Lead authors, Jim Berner and others. Carolyn Symon, Lelani Arris, and Bill Heal, editors. Cambridge, Eng., New York, Cambridge University Press, 2005. 1042 p.
   Includes bibliographical references.
   QC994.8.A695 2005 <SciRR>
   "The scientific results reported herein provided the scientific foundations for the ACIA synthesis report, entitled ‘Impacts of a Warming Arctic,’ released in November 2004. This English language report is the only official document containing the comprehensive scientific assessment of the ACIA."

Climate change 2001: the scientific basis: contribution of Working Group I to the third assessment reports of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. Edited by J. T. Houghton. Cambridge, Eng., New York, Cambridge University Press, 2001. 881 p.
   Includes bibliographical references.
   QC981.8.C5C511345 2001

Economics of sequestering carbon in the U.S. agricultural sector. Jan Lewandrowski and others. Washington, U.S. Dept. of Agriculture, Economic Research Service, 2004. 61 p. (Technical bulletin, no. 1909)
   Bibliography: p. 48-50.
   SD387.C37E375 2004 (PDF 1.76 MB)
(The freely available Adobe Acrobat Reader is required to view and print this resource.)

Justus, John R., and Susan R. Fletcher. Global climate change. CRS Issue Brief for Congress. Congressional Research Service, Library of Congress. Updated May 12, 2006. 19 p. (PDF 100 KB)
(The freely available Adobe Acrobat Reader is required to view and print this resource.)

Kane, Thomas M. Hot planet, cold wars: climate change and ideological conflict. Human Security and Climate Change. An international workshop, Holmen Fjord Hotel, Asker, Norway, 21-23 June 2005. 30 p.
   Bibliography: p. 24-30. (PDF117 KB)
(The freely available Adobe Acrobat Reader is required to view and print this resource.)

Radiative forcing of climate change: expanding the concept and addressing uncertainties. Committee on Radiative Forcing Effects on Climate, National Research Council of the National Academies. Washington, National Academies Press, c2005. 207 p.
   Bibliography: p. 159-190.
   QC981.8.C5R34 2005

Weart, Spencer. The Discovery of Global Warming. Cambridge, Mass., Harvard University Press, 2003. 228 p.
   Includes bibliographical references and index.
   QC981.8.G56 W43 2003

Westerling, A. L., and others. Warming and earlier spring increases U.S. forest wildfire activity. ScienceExpress., July 6, 2006. 9 p.
(The freely available Adobe Acrobat Reader is required to view and print this resource.)

Programs & Projects

Arctic Climate Impact Assessment
International project of the Arctic Council and the International Arctic Science Committee (IASC)

Carbon Sequestration
Office of Science, U.S. Department of Energy

Climate Program Office, National Oceanic & Atmospheric Administration

Global Climate Change Program Office
U.S. Department of Agriculture

U.S. Climate Change Science Program

Bibliographies & Resource Lists

Climatology, Meteorology, Weather Subject Guide
Science Reference Section, Library of Congress

The Environment - Selected Internet Resources
Science Reference Section, Library of Congress

Global Warming
   World News (WN) Network

Global Warming and Climate Change Science - Webliography
Science and Technology Sources on the Internet. K.T.L. Vaughan, NCSU Libraries Fellow, North Carolina State University.

Other Resources

35 Critical Facts About . . . Global Warming
Specifically for readers who enjoy a more bullet-pointed, straight-to-the-punch approach to knowledge.

Climate Ark: Climate Change and Global Warming Portal
An Internet search tool that provides access to reviewed climate change, global warming and renewable energy conservation news, information retrieval tools, and original analysis and action opportunities.

Dot Earth. The New York Times
Articles and multimedia about global warming.

Earth System Science Partnership

EnviroLink Network

Environment. The New York Times
Articles, news feeds, video, and more on current environmental topics.

Global Warming
Environmental Defense

Global Warming FAQ
National Climatic Data Center

Global Warming FAQ
Union of Concerned Scientists

Joint Science Academies Statement: Global Response to Climate Change
National academies of science of 11 countries, including the U.S., 7 June 2005. (PDF388 KB)
   (The freely available Adobe Acrobat Reader is required to view and print this resource.)

IPCC Special Reports on Climate Change
Multiple IPCC reports online in full text.

MIT Center for Global Change Science
Massachusetts Institute of Technology

NOAA Paleoclimatology

The Science of Global Warming
Union of Concerned Scientists

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