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Chemical Exposure: Technology, Safety, and Risk Assessment

Tracer Bullet 91-11


This Tracer Bullet focuses on health and safety aspects of human exposure to chemicals known or suspected to be hazardous. Areas covered include toxic risk assessment, standards for permissible exposure levels, and safety precautions. References to older materials that document early scientific knowledge of the hazardous effects of chemical substances are included because of frequent requests in connection with litigation. Although this guide is not directed at health hazards deriving from pharmaceuticals, biologicals, or the physical environment (e.g., radiation), some of the cited works deal with these topics. Other guides in the Tracer Bullet series that relate to environmental hazards to health are Allergy and Asthma (TB 89-7), Asbestos (TB 87-1), Electromagnetic Fields--Physiological and Health Effects (TB 86-5), Indoor Air Pollution (TB 86-8), and Noise Pollution (TB 88-6). Not intended to be a comprehensive bibliography, the present guide is designed--as the name of the series implies--to put the reader "on target."



Ballantyne, Bryan. Toxicology. In Encyclopedia of chemical technology. 3rd ed. Supplement volume. New York, Wiley, 1984. p. 894-924.
   TP9.E685 1978 Suppl. <SciRR>
   Bibliography: p. 920-924.

Russell, Cristine. What, me worry? Hazards are everywhere, but you're probably nervous about the wrong ones. American health, v. 9, June 1990: 44-51.
   RA773.A55 and Pamphlet box <SciRR>
   Includes notes by Royce Flippin and Erica Franklin.

Segal, Marian. Is it worth the worry? Determining risk. FDA consumer, v. 24, June 1990: 7-11.
   HD9000.9.U5A1735 and Pamphlet box <SciRR>
   Includes note by Peter Sandman.

Stranahan, Susan Q. It's enough to make you sick. National wildlife, v. 28, Feb./Mar. 1990: 8-15.
   S964.U6N35 and Pamphlet box <SciRR>



Subject headings used by the Library of Congress, under which books on chemical exposure can be located in most card, book, and online catalogs include the following:

Highly relevant terms:
See also subdivision TOXICOLOGY under names of substances,


See also subdivision EFFECT OF CHEMICALS ON under names of organs or systems of the body,


See also subdivision PHYSIOLOGICAL EFFECT under names of substances,


Narrower terms:
See also subdivision CARCINOGENICITY under names of substances,


See also subdivision DISEASES under names of occupational groups,


See also subdivision HEALTH ASPECTS under names of industries, processes, or substances,


Related terms:



Casarett, Louis J. Casarett and Doull's toxicology: the basic science of poisons. Editors, Mary O. Amdur, John Doull, Curtis D. Klaassen. 4th ed. New York, Pergamon Press, c1991. 1033 p.
   RA1211.C296 1991 <SciRR>
   Includes bibliographical references.

Kamrin, Michael A. Toxicology: a primer on toxicology principles and applications. Chelsea, Mich., Lewis Publishers, c1988. 145 p.
   RA1211.K26 1988 <SciRR>
   Bibliography: p. 139-141.

Koren, Herman. Handbook of environmental health and safety: principles and practices. 2nd ed. Chelsea, Mich., Lewis Publishers; Denver, Colo., National Environmental Health Association, c1991. 2 v.
   RA565.K67 1991 <SciRR>
   Includes bibliographical references.

Ottoboni, M. Alice. The dose makes the poison: a plain-language guide to toxicology. 2nd ed. New York, Van Nostrand Reinhold, c1991. 244 p.
   RA1213.O88 1991 <SciRR>
   Bibliography: p. 225-226.

Toxics A to Z: a guide to everyday pollution hazards. John Harte and others. Berkeley, University of California Press, c1991. 479 p.
   RA1213.T76 1991
   Includes bibliographical references.


Citizen Participation

Fighting toxics: a manual for protecting your family, community, and workplace. Edited by Gary Cohen and John O'Connor; foreword by Barry Commoner. Washington, Island Press, c1990. 346 p.
   RA566.F54 1990 <SciRR>
   Includes bibliographical references.

Gabler, Raymond. Is your water safe to drink? Raymond Gabler and the editors of Consumer Reports Books. Mount Vernon, N.Y., Consumers Union, c1988. 390 p.
   RA592.A1G33 1988 <SciRR>
   Bibliography: p. 335-368.

The Health detective's handbook: a guide to the investigation of environmental health hazards by nonprofessionals. Edited by Marvin S. Legator, Barbara L. Harper, and Michael J. Scott. Baltimore, Johns Hopkins University Press, c1985. 256 p.
   RA653.H43 1985
   Bibliography: p. 241-247.

The Poisoned well: new strategies for groundwater protection. Sierra Club Legal Defense Fund. Eric P. Jorgensen, editor. Washington, Island Press, c1989. 415 p.
   TD426.P64 1989 <SciRR>
   Includes bibliographical references.

Risk Assessment

Cohrssen, John J., and Vincent T. Covello. Risk analysis: a guide to principles and methods for analyzing health and environmental risks. Washington, Executive Office of the President of the U.S., Council on Environmental Quality; Springfield, Va., For sale by the National Technical Information Service, c1989. 407 p. RA566.3.C64 1989 <SciRR>
   NTIS order no. PB89-137772.
   Includes bibliographical references (p. 377-395).

Methods for biological monitoring: a manual for assessing human exposure to hazardous substances. Edited by Theodore J. Kneip and John V. Crable. Washington, American Public Health Association, c1988. 496 p.
   RA1223.B54M48 1988 <SciRR>
   Includes bibliographies

Setting environmental standards: guidelines for decision-making. Edited by H. W. de Koning. Geneva, World Health Organization; Albany, N.Y., WHO Publications Center, USA distributor, 1987. 98 p.
   RA565.S48 1987
   Bibliography: p. 71-76.

Zimmerman, Rae. Governmental management of chemical risk: regulatory processes for environmental health. Chelsea, Mich., Lewis Publishers, c1990. 345 p.
   T55.3.H3Z56 1990 <SciRR>
   Includes bibliographical references (p. 309-331)

Specific Environments (occupations, hobbies, food, etc.)

Food contamination from environmental sources. Edited by Jerome O. Nriagu and Milagros S. Simmons. New York, Wiley, c1990. 785 p. (Advances in environmental science and technology, v. 23)
   TD180.A38 vol. 23 <SciRR>
   Includes bibliographical references.

Fundamentals of industrial hygiene. Barbara A. Plog, editor. 3rd ed. Chicago, National Safety Council, c1988. 915 p.
   RC967.F85 1988 <SciRR>
   Includes bibliographies.

Hamilton, Alice, Harriet L. Hardy, and Asher J. Finkel. Hamilton and Hardy's industrial toxicology. 4th ed. Boston, J. Wright, 1983. 428 p.
   RA1229.H35 1983 <SciRR>
   Previous editions published under title Industrial toxicology.
   Includes bibliographies.

Handbook of chemical and environmental safety in schools and colleges. The Forum for Scientific Excellence, Inc. Philadelphia, Lippincott, c1990. 654 p.
   T55.3.H3H34 1990 <SciRR>
   Includes bibliographical references (p. 633-636).

Health and safety beyond the workplace. Lester V. Cralley, Lewis J. Cralley, W. Clark Cooper, editors. New York, Wiley, c1990. 323 p.
   RA565.H375 1990
   Includes bibliographical references.

Health risks to female workers in occupational exposure to chemical agents. R. L. Zielhuis and others. Berlin, New York, Springer-Verlag, 1984. 120 p.
   RC963.6.W65H4 1984
   "International archives of occupational and environmental health supplement"--p. ii.
   Includes bibliographies.

Monitoring the worker for exposure and disease: scientific, legal, and ethical considerations in the use of biomarkers. Nicholas A. Ashford and others. Baltimore, Johns Hopkins University Press, c1990. 224 p.
   RA1229.4.M67 1990 <SciRR>
   Includes bibliographical references (p. 165-213).

Occupational medicine: principles and practical applications. Edited by Carl Zenz. 2nd ed. Chicago, Year Book Medical Publishers, c1988. 1273 p.
   RC963.O23 1988 <SciRR>
   Includes bibliographies.

Patty's industrial hygiene and toxicology.
   First published in 1948 (HD7263.P3), a 2nd ed. appeared in 1958 (RC967.P37) and a 3rd in 1978-82 (RC967.P37 1978). A 4th ed. is now being published (RC967.P37 1991). A 3rd volume was first published in 1979 and revised in 1985 (RC967.T48 1985). SciRR holds a mixed and incomplete set, described as follows:

Patty's industrial hygiene and toxicology. George D. Clayton, Florence E. Clayton, editors. 4th ed. v. 1, pt. A-B. General principles. New York, Wiley, c1991. 2 v.
   RC967.P37 1991, v. 1 <SciRR>

   Includes bibliographies.

Patty, F. A. Patty's industrial hygiene and toxicology. George D. Clayton, Florence E. Clayton, editors. 3rd rev. ed. v. 2, pt. A-C. Toxicology. New York, Wiley, c1981-1982. 3 v.
   RC967.P37 1978, v. 2 <SciRR>

   Includes bibliographic references.

   SciRR set lacks v. 2C.

Theory and rationale of industrial hygiene practice. Lewis J. Cralley, Lester V. Cralley, editors. 2nd ed. pt. A-B. New York, Wiley, c1985. 2 v. (Patty's industrial hygiene and toxicology, v. 3)
   RC967.T48 1985 <SciRR>

   Includes bibliographic references.

   SciRR set lacks v. 3B.


Ashford, Nicholas Askounes, and Claudia S. Miller. Chemical exposures: low levels and high stakes. New York, Van Nostrand Reinhold, c1991. 214 p.
   RA1216.A84 1991
   Bibliography: p. 183-206.
   Explores aspects of chemical hypersensitivity, including allergy, clinical ecology, and controversial therapies.

Calabrese, Edward J. Multiple chemical interactions. Chelsea, Mich., Lewis Publishers, 1991. 704 p.
   RA1220.5.C35 1991 <SciRR>
   Includes bibliographical references.

Handbook of pesticide toxicology. Wayland J. Hayes, Jr., Edward R. Laws, Jr., editors. San Diego, Academic Press, 1991. 3 v. RA1270.P4H36 1991 <SciRR>
   Includes bibliographical references.
   Contents: v. 1. General principles -- v. 2-3. Pesticides in humans.

IARC monographs on the evaluation of carcinogenic risks to humans. World Health Organization, International Agency for Research on Cancer. Lyon, France, The Agency; Distributed by World Health Organization, Distribution and Sales Service, 1971- irregular.
   RC268.6.I28a (RC268.57.I57 in <SciRR>)
   Includes bibliographies.


Dictionaries, Encyclopedias and Handbooks

Bretherick, L. Bretherick's handbook of reactive chemical hazards. 4th ed. London, Boston, Butterworths, 1990. 2005 p.
   T55.3.H3B73 1990 <SciRR>
   Previous editions published under title Handbook of reactive chemical hazards.
   Includes bibliographical references.

Encyclopedia of chemical technology. 3rd ed. New York, Wiley, c1978-1984. 31 v.
   TP9.E685 1978 <SciRR>
   See articles under "Industrial hygiene and toxicology," "Trace and residue analysis," etc. Other articles containing information about toxicity of specific chemicals or classes of chemicals can be located under index heading "Toxicity."

Encyclopedia of occupational health and safety. Technical editor, Luigi Parmeggiani. 3rd rev. ed. Geneva, International Labour Office, 1983. 2 v.
   RC963.3.E53 1983 <SciRR>
   Prepared under the auspices of the International Labour Organisation.
   Errata slip inserted in v. 2.
   Includes bibliographies.

Environmental regulatory glossary. Edited by G. William Frick and Thomas F. P. Sullivan. 5th ed. Rockville, Md., Government Institutes, c1990. 449 p.
Rev. ed. of Environmental glossary. 4th ed. (1986).
   TD169.3.E58 1990 <SciRR DICT.>

Gosselin, Robert E., Roger P. Smith, and Harold C. Hodge. Clinical toxicology of commercial products. With the assistance of Jeanette E. Braddock. 5th ed. Baltimore, Williams & Wilkins, c1984. 2009 p. in various pagings.
   RA1211.G63 1984 <SciRR>
   Includes bibliographies.

Hawley's condensed chemical dictionary. 11th ed. Rev. by N. Irving Sax and Richard J. Lewis. New York, Van Nostrand Reinhold, c1987. 1288 p.
   QD5.C5 1987 <SciRR DESK>
   Rev. ed. of The Condensed chemical dictionary. 10th ed. rev. by Gessner G. Hawley (1981).

Howard, Philip H. Handbook of environmental fate and exposure data for organic chemicals. Chelsea, Mich., Lewis Publishers, c1989-91. 3 v.
   TD176.4.H69 1989 <SciRR>
   Includes bibliographical references.
   Contents: v. 1. Large production and priority pollutants. -- v. 2. Solvents. -- v. 3. Pesticides.

Index of hazardous contents of commercial products in schools and colleges. The Forum for Scientific Excellence, Inc. Philadelphia, J. B. Lippincott, c1990. 633 p.
   T55.3.H3I53 1990 <SciRR>

Kaye, Sidney. Handbook of emergency toxicology: a guide for the identification, diagnosis, and treatment of poisoning. 5th ed. Springfield, Ill., Thomas, 1988. 556 p. (American lecture series, no. 1034)
   RA1224.5.K38 1988 <SciRR>
   Includes bibliographies.

Lewis, Richard J. Carcinogenically active chemicals: a reference guide. New York, Van Nostrand Reinhold, c1991. 1153 p.
   RC268.6.L48 1991 <SciRR>
   Includes bibliographical references (p. 1135-1153).

----- Food additives handbook. New York, Van Nostrand Reinhold, c1989. 592 p.
   RA1270.F6L49 1989 <SciRR>
   Focuses on toxicological effects of food additives.

----- Hazardous chemicals desk reference. 2nd ed. New York, Van Nostrand Reinhold, 1991. 1579 p.
   T55.3.H3L49 1991 <SciRR>

The Merck index: an encyclopedia of chemicals, drugs, and biologicals. Susan Budavari, editor. 11th ed., centennial ed. Rahway, N.J., Merck, 1989. 1 v. (various pagings)
   RS51.M4 1989 <SciRR DESK>

OSHA regulated hazardous substances: health, toxicity, economic, and technological data. Occupational Safety and Health Administration, U.S. Dept. of Labor. Park Ridge, N.J., Noyes Data Corp., c1990 2 v. (2294 p.)
   T55.3.H3O79 1990 <SciRR>
   Includes bibliographical references.

Pestline: material safety data sheets for pesticides and related chemicals. Occupational Health Services, Inc. New York, Van Nostrand Reinhold, c1991. 2 v. (2097 p.)
   SB952.5.P48 1991 <SciRR>
   Includes bibliographical references.

Registry of toxic effects of chemical substances. Microfiche ed. Oct. 1987- Cincinnati, Ohio, U.S. Dept. of Health and Human Services, Public Health Service, Centers for Disease Control, National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health. Washington, U.S. Govt. Print. Off., quarterly.
   <SciRR DESK>
   Published in print format, 1971-86 (RA1215.N37a). Title, 1971-74, Toxic substances.
   SciRR also holds last printed ed. (1985-86. 5 v. RA1215.N37a).
   SuDocs call no. HE 20.7112/3: month year, in N&CPR.

Sax, N. Irving, and Richard J. Lewis. Dangerous properties of industrial materials. 7th ed. New York, Van Nostrand Reinhold, c1989. 3 v.
T55.3.H3S3 1989 <SciRR DESK>
   First published in 1951 under title Handbook of dangerous materials (T55.S3); 1957 and subsequent editions published under present title. Call number changed to T55.3.H3S3 with 1968 ed.
   Includes bibliographies.

Shepard, Thomas H. Catalog of teratogenic agents. 6th ed. Baltimore, Johns Hopkins University Press, c1989. 793 p.
   QM691.S53 1989 <SciRR>
   Includes bibliographies.
   1st ed. (1973. QL991.S48 1973). New edition announced for 1992.

The Sigma-Aldrich library of chemical safety data. Edited by Robert E. Lenga. 2nd ed. Milwaukee, Wis., Sigma-Aldrich Corp., c1988. 2 v. (4098 p.)
   T55.3.H3S54 1988 <SciRR>

Sittig, Marshall. Handbook of toxic and hazardous chemicals and carcinogens. 2nd ed. Park Ridge, N.J., Noyes Publications, c1985. 950 p.
   RA1193.S58 1985 <SciRR>
   Bibliography: p. 14-18.
   3rd ed., c1991.

Directories and Catalogs

Best's safety directory. Oldwick, N.J., A. M. Best Co., 1946- annual.
   T55.A1B4 <SciRR>
   "Featuring digests of OSHA guidelines and the Manual of modern safety techniques."
   Catalog of safety products and distributors.

Directory of environmental information sources. Edited by Thomas F. P. Sullivan; compiled by editorial staff, Government Institutes, Inc. 3rd ed. Rockville, Md., Government Institutes, Inc., c1990. 299 p.
   TD169.5.D57 1990 <SciRR DESK>

Directory of state and territorial environmental health services. Rev. Washington, Public Health Foundation, 1986. 1 v.
   RA566.3.D57 1986 <SciRR>
   "Produced by the Public Health Foundation with support from the Center for Environmental Health, Centers for Disease Control."

Directory of testing laboratories. Compiled by ASTM. Philadelphia, Pa., American Society for Testing and Materials, c1987- annual.
   TA416.5.U6D55 <SciRR DESK>
   Continues the updated monograph: American Society for Testing and Materials. Directory of testing laboratories, commercial-institutional.
   Contains both U.S. and international listings.

Directory of toxicological and related testing laboratories. Regulatory Assistance Corporation. New York, Hemisphere Pub. Corp., c1991. 103 p.
   RA1193.7.D56 1991 <SciRR>

EPA risk assessment guidelines and information directory. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. Rockville, Md., Government Institutes, 1988. 1 v.
   RC268.65.E63 1988 <SciRR>
   At head of title: U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Office of Health & Environmental Assessment, Office of Emergency & Remedial Response, Office of Solid Waste & Emergency Response.
   Directory includes sections on data bases, computer models, bibliographic resources, and human resources.

Regulations and Standards

Code of federal regulations. Washington, Office of the Federal Register, National Archives and Records Administration; For sale by the Supt. of Documents, U.S. Govt. Print. Off., 1938- annual.
   KF70.A3 <LAW>
   SuDocs call no. AE2.106/3:year, in N&CPR.
   Selected relevant regulations, as of 1991, are listed below. State regulations may be more stringent than federal regulations.
   29 CFR 1910 -- Occupational safety and health standards. Subpart Z lists toxic and hazardous substances, and permissible exposure limits.
   40 CFR 50 -- National primary and secondary ambient air quality standards.
   40 CFR 61 -- National emission standards for hazardous air pollutants.
   40 CFR 141 -- National primary drinking water regulations.
   40 CFR 143 -- National secondary drinking water regulations.
   40 CFR 170 -- Worker protection standards for agricultural pesticides.
   40 CFR 180 -- Tolerances and exemptions from tolerances for pesticide chemicals in or on raw agricultural commodities.
   40 CFR 185 -- Tolerances for pesticides in food.
   40 CFR 186 -- Tolerances for pesticides in animal feeds.
   40 CFR 302 -- Designation, reportable quantities, and notification. Identifies reportable quantities for releases of substances designated in the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act and the Clean Water Act.

Cook, Warren A. Occupational exposure limits--worldwide. Akron, Ohio, American Industrial Hygiene Assoc., c1987. 308 p.
   RA1229.5.C66 1987 <SciRR>
   Includes bibliographies and indexes.

Documentation of the threshold limit values and biological exposure indices. 5th ed. Cincinnati, Ohio, American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists, 1986. 695, 49 p.
   RA1229.5.D63 1986
   Earlier editions: 1962 and 1966, Documentation of threshold limit values (RA1211.A6); 1971, Documentation of threshold limit values for substances in workroom air (RA1211.A58 1971); 1980, present title (RA1229.D6 1980).
   Includes bibliographies.

Suspect chemicals sourcebook. Burlingame, Calif., Roytech Publications, c1981- quarterly.
   TP202.S872 <SciRR>
   Annual from 1981 to 1987, quarterly loose-leaf from 1988.
   Key guide to 7,000 substances covered by approximately 60 different federal and state advisory programs.

Threshold limit values for chemical substances and physical agents and biological exposure indices. Cincinnati, Ohio, American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists, [1975]-
   RA1229.5.T57 <SciRR>
   Includes bibliographical references.
   Former title TLVs, threshold limit values for chemical substances in the work environment adopted by ACGIH for ... (title and call number vary).
   LC does not have a complete set.

Young, Daniel J. How to comply with the OSHA hazard communication standard: a complete guide to compliance with OSHA worker right-to-know regulations. New York, Van Nostrand Reinhold, c1989. 193 p.
   T10.68.Y68 1989 <SciRR>
   Includes bibliographical references (p. 109-110).

Historical Sources which reflect prior scientific knowledge of hazardous effects of chemical substances are important in cases of toxic exposure litigation. In addition to publications listed here, earlier editions of important works are noted in other sections of this guide.

Browning, Ethel Chadwick. Toxicity and metabolism of industrial solvents. Amsterdam, New York, Elsevier Pub. Co., 1965. 739 p.
   RA1270.S6B72 <SciRR>
   Includes bibliographical references.
   Earlier versions published as The Toxicity of industrial organic solvents: summaries of published work. (1937. HD7695.A3 no. 80); Rev. ed. (1952. HD7695.A3 no. 80b).

Castleman, Barry I. Historical research on toxic substances. In Asbestos: medical and legal aspects. 3rd ed. Englewood Cliffs, N.J., Prentice Hall Law & Business, c1990. p. 569-650.
   RC775.A8C38 1990 <SciRR>
   Includes bibliographical references.

Cook, Warren A. Historical development of occupational exposure limits. In Occupational exposure limits--worldwide. Akron, Ohio, American Industrial Hygiene Association, c1987. p. 9-16.
   RA1229.5.C66 1987 <SciRR>

Pollution, major sources for research, 1800-1950 [microform]. Washington, University Publications of America, c1980. 36 microfilm reels. 35 mm.
   Microfilm 88/247 (H) <MicRR>
   Accompanied by a printed reel guide (MicRR Guide No. 105-116).
   Contents: pt. 1. Environmental pollution. -- pt. 2. Pollution and health.

Threshold limit values: discussion and thirty-five year index with recommendations. Edited by Marshall E. LaNier. Cincinnati, Ohio, American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists, 1984. 535 p. (Annals of the American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists, v. 9)
   RA1229.5.T52 1984 <SciRR>
   Spine title Thirty-five years of TLVs.
   Includes bibliographies


British Library. Lending Division. Index of Conference Proceedings Received (1974-)
   Z7403.B8b <SciRR>
   Does not index individual papers.
   Conference Papers Index (1973- )
   Z7403.C84 <SciRR>
   Indexes individual papers.

Directory of Published Proceedings. Series SEMT: Science/engineering/ medicine/technology (1965- )
   Z7409.D56 <SciRR>
   Does not index individual papers.

Index to Scientific & Technical Proceedings (1978- ) Z7403.I4 <SciRR>
   Indexes individual papers.

Proceedings in Print (1964- )
   Z5063.A2P7 <SciRR>
   Does not index individual papers.

Selected Conference Proceedings

Conference on Environmental Health in the 21st Century, Research Triangle Park, N.C., 1988. [Proceedings] Environmental health perspectives: EHP, v. 86, June 1990: 173-309.
   Sponsored by the National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences.

Exposure assessment for epidemiology and hazard control. Edited by S. M. Rappaport and Thomas J. Smith. American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists. Chelsea, Mich., Lewis Publishers, c1991. 313 p.
   RA566.27.E97 1990
   Proceedings of the International Workshop on Exposure Assessment for Epidemiology and Hazard Control, held at Woods Hole, Mass., Apr. 18-19, 1988.
   Includes bibliographical references.

Methods for assessing and reducing injury from chemical accidents. Edited by Philippe Bourdeau and Gareth Green. Prepared by Scientific Group on Methodologies for the Safety Evaluation of Chemicals (SGOMSEC). Chichester, Eng., New York, Wiley, c1989. 303 p. (IPCS joint symposia, 11) (SCOPE, 40)
   RA565.A2 M48 1989
   Papers from a workshop held in New Delhi, Jan. 27-Feb. 2, 1987.
   "Published on behalf of the Scientific Committee on Problems of the Environment (SCOPE) of the International Council of Scientific Unions (ICSU) ... [and other bodies]."
   Includes bibliographies.

Pesticide residues and food safety: a harvest of viewpoints. Developed from a special conference sponsored by the Division of Agrochemicals of the American Chemical Society, Point Clear, Alabama, January 21-25, 1990. B. G. Tweedy and others, editors. Washington, American Chemical Society, 1991. 360 p. (ACS symposium series, 446)
   TX571.P4P464 1991
   Includes bibliographical references.


American Statistics Index (1974- )
   Z7554.U5A46 <MRR>, <N&CPR>
   (CD-ROM, Statistical Masterfile, available in MRR)

CIS Index to Publications of the United States Congress (1970- )
   KF49.C62 <MRR>, <N&CPR>
   (CD-ROM in MRR)

Monthly Catalog of United States Government Publications (1895- )
   Z1223.A18 <SciRR>, <MRR>
   (CD-ROM in N&CPR)

Selected Government Publications

Annual report on carcinogens. Prepared by National Toxicology Program, U.S. Public Health Service. Washington, Dept. of Health and Human Services, 1980- irregular. SuDocs HE20.23/4:year <N&CPR>
   National Library of Medicine call no. W1 AN7 62T
   Available for purchase from National Technical Information Service.
   "Pursuant to section 301(b) (4) of the Public Health Service Act as amended by section 262, PL 95-622."
   Executive summary, foreword, introduction, categories of chemicals catalogued, and the Regulatory Council's statement on setting priorities for regulating carcinogens, for 1980- also issued separately as Annual report on carcinogens. Executive summary.

Genetic monitoring and screening in the workplace. Washington, Congress of the U.S., Office of Technology Assessment, U.S. Govt. Print. Off., 1990. 262 p.
   "OTA-BA-455." RA1224.3.G456 1990
   Includes bibliographical references.

Identifying and regulating carcinogens. Washington, Congress of the U.S., Office of Technology Assessment, U.S. Govt. Print. Off., 1987. 251 p.
   RC268.6.I34 1987 <SciRR>
   Bibliography: p. 235-249.

Neurotoxicity: identifying and controlling poisons of the nervous system: new developments in neuroscience. Washington, Congress of the U.S., Office of Technology Assessment, U.S. Govt. Print. Off., 1990. 361 p.
   RC347.5.N5 1990
   Includes bibliographical references.

Reproductive health hazards in the workplace. Washington, Congress of the U.S., Office of Technology Assessment, U.S. Govt. Print. Off., 1985. 422 p.
   RA1224.2.R47 1985
   Includes bibliographies.


Technical reports and other types of literature are indexed in the following guides:

EPA Publications Bibliography (1977- )

   Z5863.P7U58a <SciRR>

Government Reports Announcements & Index (1946- )

   Z7916.G78 <SciRR A&I>

NTIS Title Index on Microfiche (1964- )

   Uncataloged <SciRR>


The following selected technical reports are available in the microform collection of the Science Reading Room. They may also be purchased from the National Technical Information Service, Springfield, Virginia 22161.

Directory of information resources related to health, exposure, and risk assessment of air toxics. Sponsored by and prepared in cooperation with Eastern Research Group, Inc., Arlington, Mass. Research Triangle Park, N.C., Environmental Protection Agency, Air Risk Information Support Center, Aug. 1989. 92 p. (EPA/450/3-88/015)
   PB90-119785 <SciRR>

Glossary of terms related to health, exposure, and risk assessment. Research Triangle Park, N.C., Environmental Protection Agency, Air Risk Information Support Center, Mar. 1989. 43 p. (EPA/450/3-88/016)
   PB89-184584 <SciRR>

   Also available from Supt. of Docs.

Immerman, F. W., and J. L. Schaum. Nonoccupational pesticide exposure study (NOPES). (Final rept. Aug 85-Feb 88). Prepared for U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Atmospheric Research and Exposure Assessment Lab. Research Triangle Park, N.C., Research Triangle Inst., Jan. 1990. 256 p. (EPA/600/3-90/003)
   PB90-152224 <SciRR>

Konz, J. J., and others. Exposure factors handbook. Prepared for U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Office of Health and Environmental Assessment. Springfield, Va., Versar, Inc., July 1989. 273 p. (OHEA-E-286)
   PB90-106774 <SciRR>

Toxicological profile for lead (final rept). Sponsored by Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry, Atlanta, Ga., and Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, D.C. Syracuse, N.Y., Syracuse Research Corp., June 1990. 217 p. (ASTDR/TP-88/17)
   PB90-267378 <SciRR>

Toxicological profile for mercury (final rept). Sponsored by Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry, Atlanta, Ga., and Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, D.C. Fairfax, Va., Clement Associates, Inc., Dec. 1989.
178 p. (ATSDR/TP-89/16)
   PB90-181256 <SciRR>

Toxicological profile for pentachlorophenol (final rept). Sponsored by Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry, Atlanta, Ga., and Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, D.C. Washington, Clement Associates, Inc., Dec. 1989.
146 p. (ATSDR/TP-89/19)



Denning, John V. Women's work and health hazards: a selected bibliography. London, Dept. of Occupational Health, London School of Hygiene & Tropical Medicine, 1984. 345 p.
   Z7963.E7D46 1984 <SciRR>

Environmental toxins: psychological, behavioral, and sociocultural aspects, 1973-1989. Cheryl Brown Travis, Barbara E. McLean, Carlotta Ribar, editors. Washington, American Psychological Association, c1989. 127 p. (Bibliographies in psychology, no. 5)
   Z7892.B44E58 1989

Toxic and hazardous materials: a sourcebook and guide to information sources. Edited by James K. Webster. New York, Greenwood Press, 1987. 431 p. (Bibliographies and indexes in science and technology, no. 2)
   Z7914.S17T69 1987 <SciRR>

Wexler, Philip. Information resources in toxicology. 2nd ed. New York, Elsevier, c1988. 510 p. RA1193.4.W49 1988 <SciRR>



Abstracting and indexing services that index relevant journal articles and other literature are listed below. Some terms are suggested as aids in searching. In most indexes, names of chemicals or classes of chemicals can be searched directly. See also indexes for locating government publications, conference proceedings, and technical reports, listed in other sections of this Tracer Bullet. Consult reference librarian for locations of abstracting and indexing services.

Applied Science & Technology Index (1913 - )

   Z7913.I7 <SciRR A&I>

   See: Environmental Health

Hazardous Substances
Health Risk Assessment
Occupational Diseases
Occupational Health

   See subheadings:

-- Disease and Hygiene; under specific occupations, e.g., Office Workers -- Diseases and Hygiene
-- Physiological Effect; under chemical names, e.g., Solvents--Physiological Effect.

Biological Abstracts (1926- )

   QH301.B37 <SciRR>

   Search using key words from article title.

Biological & Agricultural Index (1916- )
   Z5073.A46 <SciRR>

   (Formerly Agricultural Index, 1916-1964)

   See: Food Analysis--Pesticides

Genetic Toxicology
Mutagenic Substances
Occupational Diseases
Pesticide Residues in the Body

   See subheading:

-- Injurious Effects; under types of chemicals, e.g., Pesticides--Injurious Effects

Chemical Abstracts (1907- )
   QD1.A51 <SciRR>

   See headings in General Subject Index:

Air Pollution
Disease, Occupational
Environmental Pollution

   See subheading in Chemical Substance Index:

-- Biological Studies; under names of chemicals, e.g., Benzene, Biological Studies

Environment Abstracts Annual (1971- )
   GF1.E553 <SciRR>

   (Formerly published with companion volume Environment Index, 1971-1987.)

   See: Food Contamination

Health Safety, Occupational
Risk Assessment
Toxic Substances

Environmental Periodicals Bibliography (1972 -)
   Z5863.E57E58 <SciRR A&I>

   See: Dose-Response Relationship

Exposure Effect
Health Hazard
Occupational Exposure
Risk Assessment
Toxic Substance Exposure

General Science Index (1978- )
   Z7401.G46 <SciRR A&I>
   See: Chemicals--Safety Measures

Environmental Health
Hazardous Substances
Industrial Health
Occupational Diseases

Health and Safety Science Abstracts (1973-)
   HD7260.S339 <SciRR>

   (Formerly Safety Science Abstracts, 1973-1987)

   See: Federal Regulations

Risk Assessment
Threshold Limit Values

Index Medicus (1960-)
   Z6660.I42 <SciRR>

   See: Environmental Exposure

Hazardous Substances
Occupational Diseases

Magazine Index (1980- )
   Available in several formats in LC
   See: Environmental Health

Environmentally Induced Diseases
Hazardous Substances
Health Risk Assessment
Industrial Hygiene
Occupational Diseases

Pollution Abstracts (1970- )
   TD172.P65 <SciRR>

   See: Dose Response Effects

Hazardous Materials
Occupational Exposure
Risk Assessment

PAIS International in Print (1915- )

   Formerly Public Affairs Information Service Bulletin, 1915-1990, Z7163.P9)

   See: Environmental Health

Hazardous Materials
Industrial Hygiene
Industrial Toxicology
Occupational Diseases

   See subheadings:

-- Diseases and Hygiene; under specific occupations, e.g., Medical Workers--Diseases and Hygiene

Readers' Guide to Periodical Literature (1900- )
   See: Chemicals

Environmental Health
Hazardous Materials
Pesticide Residues in Food

Toxicology Abstracts (1978- )
   RA1190.T695 <SciRR>

   See: Dose-Response Effects

Occupational Exposure
Risk Assessment
Safety Regulations
Threshold Limits

Many of the indexes listed above are also available online or in CD-ROM format. Some libraries may provide access to these formats. Other electronic databases likely to be useful for topics related to chemical exposure include:

Chemical Carcinogenesis Research Information System (CCRIS)
Environmental Mutagen Information Center (EMIC)
Hazardous Substances Data Bank (HSDB)
Registry of Toxic Effects of Chemical Substances (RTECS)



Journals that often contain articles on chemical exposure, risk assessment, chemical safety and toxicology include:

American Industrial Hygiene Association. Journal
Archives of Environmental Health
Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety QH545.A1E29
Environmental Health Perspectives RA565.A1E13
Environmental Science & Technology
FDA Consumer HD9000.9.U5A1735 <SciRR>
International Archives of Occupational and Environmental Health RC963.A1I58
Journal of Environmental Health RA565.A1S3
Journal of Environmental Pathology, Toxicology, and Oncology RA1190.J66
Occupational Medicine: State of the Art Reviews RC963.A1S83
Regulatory Toxicology and Pharmacology



Agocs, Mary M., and others. Mercury exposure from interior latex paint. New England journal of medicine, v. 323, Oct. 18, 1990: 1096-1101.

Annas, George J. Fetal protection and employment discrimination: the Johnson Controls Case. New England journal of medicine, v. 325, Sept. 5, 1991: 740-743.

Dunnette, David A. Assessing risks and preventing disease from environmental chemicals. Journal of community health, v. 14, fall 1989: 169-186.

Edelman, Philip. Environmental and workplace contamination in the semiconductor industry: implications for future health of the workforce and community. Environmental health perspectives: EHP, v. 86, June 1990: 291-295.

Ettinger, Harry J. Keeping the OSHA Permissible Exposure Limits current. In American Industrial Hygiene Association. Journal, v. 51, Oct. 1990: A679-A686.

Gregory, Arthur Robert. Uncertainty in health risk assessments. Regulatory toxicology and pharmacology, v. 11, Apr. 1990: 191-200.

Hadden, Susan G. Providing citizens with information about health effects of hazardous chemicals. Journal of occupational medicine, v. 31, June 1989: 528-534.

Matte, Thomas D., and others. Guidelines for medical screening in the workplace. Occupational medicine: state of the art reviews, v. 5, July/Sept. 1990: 439-456.

Nelkin, Dorothy. Communicating technological risk: the social construction of risk perception. Annual review of public health, v. 10, 1989: 95-113.

Shane, Barbara S. Human reproductive hazards. Environmental science & technology, v. 23, Oct. 1989: 1187-1195.

Solet, David, Thomas G. Robins, and Carlos Sampaio. Perchloroethylene exposure assessment among dry cleaning workers. In American Industrial Hygiene Association. Journal, v. 51, Oct. 1990: 566-574.

Tilton, Beverly E. Health effects of tropospheric ozone. Environmental science & technology, v. 23, Mar. 1989: 257-263.

Van Camp, Ann J. Material safety data sheets: online and CD-ROM sources. Online, v. 14, Mar. 1990: 97-99.

Zeckhauser, Richard J. Risk within reason. Science, v. 248, May 4, 1990: 559-564.



Selected materials available in the Science Reading Room pamphlet boxes include the following:

Access to medical and exposure records. Washington, U.S. Department of Labor, Occupational Safety and Health Administration, 1989. 11 p. (OSHA 3110)

Cancer risk from outdoor exposure to air toxics. Final report. Research Triangle Park, N.C., U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Office of Air Quality Planning and Standards, Sept. 1990. 2 v. (EPA-450/1-90-004a, EPA-450/1-90-004b)

Chemicals in progress bulletin. Washington, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. Office of Toxic Substances. v. 12, April 1991.

Environmental health data files available from the Federal Computer Products Center. Springfield, Va., National Technical Information Service, Sept. 1990. (PR-758) 16 p.

Hazard communication guidelines for compliance. Washington, U.S. Department of Labor, Occupational Safety and Health Administration, 1990. 21 p. (OSHA 3111)

Safety & health guide for the chemical industry. Washington, U.S. Department of Labor, Occupational Safety and Health Administration, 1986. 20 p. (OSHA 3091)

TIP: Toxicology Information Program. Bethesda, Md., U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. National Institutes of Health, Mar. 1991. (National Library of Medicine Fact Sheet) 2 p.


Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry
Public Health Service
U.S. Dept. of Health & Human Services
1600 Clifton Road
Atlanta, Georgia 30333
Telephone: (404) 639-6000

Environmental Defense Fund
257 Park Avenue South
New York, New York 10010
Telephone: (212) 505-2100, (202) 387-3500
Provides information on legislative interests, publications.

National Toxics Campaign Fund
168 Commonwealth Avenue
Boston, Massachusetts 02134
Telephone: (617) 232-0327
Publications and information on hazardous waste and other pollutants. Sponsors the Citizen's Environmental Testing Laboratory, which provides laboratory testing services for drinking water and other suspected hazardous waste samples.

Certified poison control centers are listed in Physicians' Desk Reference (RS75.P5 <SciRR DESK>), among other sources. Poison control centers are regional, open 24 hours a day, and provide direct dialing or toll-free access. Staff members of these centers are trained to provide information and referrals to hospitals when necessary.

To identify the current addresses of other relevant organizations and research projects, consult Encyclopedia of Associations (AS22.E5 <SciRR DESK>) and Research Centers Directory (AS25.D5 <SciRR DESK>) under such keywords as Hazardous Substances, Toxicology, Environment(al), etc.

Key to symbols:
<SciRR> Science Reading Room
<B&E> Business and Economics alcove
<LAW> Law Library
<MRR> Main Reading Room
<MicRR> Microform Reading Room
<N&CPR> Newspaper and Current Periodical Reading Room
<NLM> National Library of Medicine, Bethesda, Md.



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