NAME: Change in Definition of Computer File in Leader/06 (Type of record) in the USMARC Bibliographic Format
SOURCE: Library of Congress
SUMMARY: This paper explores issues on coding MARC records for computer files in Leader/06. Currently code "m" is defined broadly as any body of information encoded in a manner which allows it to be processed by a computer. It is suggested that the definition be changed so that code "m" is used only for executable software. If this were implemented, when an item has two or more attributes, one of which is computer file, the record would be coded for the characteristic other than the computer file aspect. Questions are raised concerning the use of the Leader/06 after format integration with the availability of 006.
KEYWORDS: Leader/06 (Bibliographic); Type of record; Computer files
RELATED: 95-9 (June 1995)
12/1/95 - Forwarded to USMARC Advisory Group for discussion at the Midwinter 1995 MARBI meetings.
1/20/96 - Results of USMARC Advisory Group discussion - Participants listed the various uses of the Leader/06 code: to separate databases based on form of material; to determine workform displays for keying the 008; sorting records; validation of fixed fields; support boolean searching; matching for duplicate detection; display of labels to identify fields; selecting subsets for products; generating icons to show format when searching multiple databases. There was general agreement that in cases where the content of the material is clear, that identifying the primary record type in the Leader/06 by its content rather than carrier better served users. These cases include electronic text, music CDs, digital maps, digital photographs, etc. However, the general feeling was that to define code "m" as only executable software was too restrictive for various reasons: the growing existence of hybrids, which include pictures, graphics, text, software; files that don't fit into a category, e.g. survey data; defining "m" only as executable software would not allow input of an 006 for computer file characteristics for electronic text, since its secondary characteristic is not an executable. It is likely that each constituency will need to issue guidelines. A new discussion paper will be prepared for the annual conference MARBI meetings to further explore this issue.
DISCUSSION PAPER NO. 92: Change in Definition of Computer File in Leader/06 (Type of record) 1. INTRODUCTION The last phase of Format Integration will include all changes to the Leader through 008 elements in the MARC bibliographic format. This includes field 006, which enables a user to supply coding for characteristics of a secondary form of material. Leader/06 (Type of record) contains a code that is used to determine what type of 008 (Fixed-Length Data Elements) is included in the record; the 008 character positions vary in 008/18-34 depending upon the type of material as coded in the Leader. It also may be used in some systems for record retrieval. Field 006 will include applicable codes that would otherwise be coded in 008/18-34, so that additional information may be given for other additional aspects of the item. The document Format Integration and its Effect on the USMARC Bibliographic Format included a model for coding records after the implementation of format integration. It divided the cases into an item that is basically textual and an item that is not basically textual (although it did not specifically define what "basically textual" means). For the former, it instructed that the Leader/06 be coded as language material or mixed material. For nontextual items, the record can be coded for any of the other types of material, but no preference was given when there are characteristics of two nontextual forms. The definition of computer file in Leader/06 of the USMARC bibliographic format currently reads as follows: m - Computer file Code m indicates that the content of the record is for a body of information encoded in a manner which allows it to be processed by a computer. The information in the computer file may be numeric or textual data, computer software, or a combination of these types. Although a file may be stored on a variety of media (such as magnetic tape or disk, punched cards, or optical character recognition font documents), the file itself is independent of the medium on which it is stored. Planning for Format Integration began in the late 1980s when the ability to digitize was not what it is now. Thus, it is necessary to reconsider how useful it is to designate an item as a computer file when it might be desirable to emphasize its content type. The question arises as to whether it serves users well to consider all digitized items to be computer files and assign them code "m" in Leader/06, or whether the definition should be limited in some way. In addition, the record for a computerized version of, for example, an original photograph will be coded differently than the record for the original (if separate records are created). This may cause problems for retrieval, particularly in systems that separate records by form of material. Also, because of economic considerations, many users are adding information about the digital item on the MARC record for the original, rather than creating a separate record. Proposal No. 95-9 (Encoding of Digital Maps in the USMARC Bibliographic Format) was considered by the USMARC Advisory Group in June 1995. It proposed renaming code "e" in Leader/06 from "Printed map" to "Cartographic material" so that all maps, whether digital or print, could be coded the same (there is also a code for "manuscript map"). Because of the increasing number of digital map images becoming available (resulting partly from digital library projects and the _Content Standards for Geospatial Metadata_), this change was considered necessary for the map community. In many cases the bibliographic record for the paper copy will contain information about the location of the digital image. This paper brought up the issue of coding for content rather than for physical carrier. Although the portion of the proposal concerning Leader/06 was approved, it was suggested that a broader discussion paper be presented. 2. DEFINITION OF COMPUTER FILE Because almost anything can be digitized and called a computer file, it may be necessary to limit the definition given in the Leader/06. If only executable software were included in the definition of computer file, it might read as follows: m - Computer file Code m indicates that the content of the record is computer software. Any other type of computer file is coded for the form of material it is when processed for display. Databases are coded for their intent, in most cases as language material. If the definition were changed, any electronic textual material (e.g. textual electronic serials) would be coded as "a" for language material. Coding for the content of the item for digitized materials is consistent with the method used for handling microforms. The USMARC bibliographic format in Leader/06 says the following: "Microforms, whether original or reproductions, are not identified by a distinctive Type of record code. The type of material characteristics described by the codes take precedence over the microform characteristics of the item." Digitized materials can also be either originals or reproductions of originals. This method of handling them as language, cartographic, music, etc. would ensure that records for digital reproductions are not separated from the originals, and allows flexibility for record creation (i.e., using one record and adding a field 856 with location information of the digital reproduction or creating a separate record). The statement above about the treatment of microforms could be revised to include digitized materials. Additional information about the computer file aspects can be given in an 006 for computer file fixed field data and in 007 for physical description. A general material designator (GMD) would be given in 245$h to indicate that the physical format is computer file; it is not necessary for the 008 to agree with the GMD, so the 008 for the content of the item would be given. After format integration, since all variable fields are available for all types of material, the Leader/06 code no longer determines field validity. Once the electronic aspects are moved from the Leader/06, then the format issues can be divorced from the cataloging rules. The cataloger still needs to choose which chapter of AACR2 to use, which will determine, among other things, which fields are needed in the record. The cataloger is no longer bound by the format, since any USMARC defined fields will be valid. 3. QUESTIONS Consideration needs to be given to the following questions. 1. How is the Leader/06 byte currently being used (e.g., filtering, file sorting, etc.)? 2. Do users need a dominant form specified (as it is in choosing the Leader/06 code? Or will the availability of 006 after format integration obviate this need? Since more than one set of 008 elements can now be given, does it matter what the Leader/06 code is? 3. If the change in the definition of computer file were implemented, how would this affect retrieval of records? If the change is not approved, how would using the Leader/06 for computer file for all digital items affect retrieval? 4. How many users split their files according to form of material? How would this change affect record selection for different files? 5. How important is it that the choice of Leader/06 be mandated, or could users emphasize the aspect they want to depending upon individual needs? Should there be options in determining the code in Leader/06? 6. Is further clarification needed for nontextual materials having two or more attributes when one is not computer file (e.g. music for America, the Beautiful on a wall chart)? 7. Does the GMD and the existence of a computer file 006 suffice to determine what is the actual physical fors of the item? For instance, if the Leader/06 were coded "e" for cartographic material and there is a field 006 for computer file, could one determine whether this record represents a paper map with accompanying computer disk or a computer file that displays maps? Note that the GMD is not a required data element. Does an additional data element need to be defined (perhaps in the Leader) for carrier? See Attachment A for LC examples using one record for the original and the digitized reproduction. Leader/06 represents the content type. ----------------------------------------------------------------- ATTACHMENT A EXAMPLE 1: LC bibliographic record (visual materials) using one record. Description for original, 856 for digital reproduction. Leader *****nkc##22*****#a#4500 001 $a94837685 $PP 008 950619i18601960xxunnn#|||||||###|kneng|| 035 $a(CStRLIN)DCLC94837685-F 050 00$aGuide Record 245 00$aSelected Civil War Photographs, 1861-1865 (Library of Congress)$h[graphic]. 246 33$aCivil War Photograph Collection (Library of Congress) 260 ##$cca. 1860-1960, bulk 1861-1865. 300 ##$a1,114 photographs +$e4 illustrations. 520 0$aImages depict military personnel and facilities, primarily from a Union perspective. Includes the main Eastern theater, the federal navy and seab orne expeditions against the Atlantic Coast of the Confederacy, the war in the West, Washington, D.C., African Americans, fortifications, battlefields, preparations for battle and the aftermath of battle. Also, many portraits of officers and enlisted men, and of federal and confederate government members, including Abraham Lincoln and his assassins. 500 ##$aCollection title devised. 500 ##$aMost photographs were taken during the American Civil War under the supervision of Mathew B. Brady. Photographers represented by more than 20 images include George N. Barnard, Alexander Gardner, James Gibson, Timothy H. O'Sullivan, and William Morris Smith. 500 ##$aIncludes 1,048 wet collodion glass negatives, 8 x 10 in. or smaller, and 66 modern black-and-white photographic prints, 8 x 10 in. or smaller. The prints are copies made by the Library ca. 1960 of ambrotypes, tintypes, and other portraits of enlisted men in private collections. 510 3#$3Selections from Anthony-Taylor-Rand-Ordway-Eaton Collection$aCivil War photographs, 1861-1865 / Library of Congress. Prints and Photographs Division. Washington, D.C. : Library of Congress, 1961, reprinted 1977. 530 ##$aAvailable on the Internet;$bLibrary of Congress World Wide Web site. 530 ##$3Selections from Anthony-Taylor-Ordway-Eaton Collection$aAvailable on 2 reels of microfilm;$bPublished as Civil War Photographs, 1861-1865 (Library of Congress Photoduplication Service, 1961) 530 ##$aAvailable on videodisc;$bLibrary of Congress, American Memory Program, 1994, unpublished. 530 ##$aCD-ROM;$bAustin, Tex. : Stokes Imaging Services, 1994. 540 ##$aNo known restrictions on reproduction. For information see LC P&P Restrictions Notebook. 545 ##$aThe bulk of the photographs were selected from the Anthony-Taylor-Rand-Ordway-Eaton Collection by the Library of Congress for inclusion in a microfilm in 1961. Additional images of enlisted men were selected from various sources by the Library's American Memory project. 555 8#$aIn the electronic finding aid, each image is described with full caption information and subject indexing. Electronic reproductions of each image and a narrative introduction accompany the records in the Library's Internet (World Wide Web) catalog. 555 8#$aIn the printed finding aid, 1,047 of the images have captions in a booklet that accompanies a published microfilm with reproductions of negatives. 650 #7$aBattlefields$zUnited States$y1860-1870.$2lctgm 650 #7$aForts & fortifications$zUnited States$y1860-1870.$2lctgm 650 #7$aMilitary officers$zUnited States$y1860-1870.$2lctgm 651 #0$aUnited States$xHistory$yCivil War, 1861-1865. 651 #0$aWashington (D.C.)$xHistory$yCivil War, 1861-1865. 655 #7$aPortrait photographs$y1850-1890.$2gmgpc 700 1#$aBarnard, George N.,$d1819-1902,$ephotographer. 700 1#$aBrady, Mathew B.,$d1823 (ca.)-1896,$ephotographer. 700 1#$aGardner, Alexander,$d1821-1882,$ephotographer. 700 1#$aGibson, James,$db. 1828,$ephotographer. 700 1#$aO'Sullivan, Timothy H.,$d1840-1882,$ephotographer. 700 1#$aSmith, William Morris,$ephotographer. 755 ##$aWet plate negatives$y1860-1870.$2gmgpc 755 ##$aPhotographic prints$y1860-1870.$2gmgpc 852 ##$aLibrary of Congress$bPrints and Photographs Division$eWashington, D.C. 20540-4840 USA$ndcu 856 7#$3finding aid$dcwp$nLibrary of Congress, Washington, D.C.$2file 040 ##$aDLC$cDLC$dDLC$egihc$dCStRLIN 043 ##$an-us--- 952 ##$aDCLC94837685F$bLibrary of Congress 005 $a19951018074651.2 [Note that this record is coded in Leader/06 as "k" for Two- dimensional nonprojectable graphic. Field 856 is used to indicate electronic location. In this case, LC has chosen to use a local implementation (indicated by "file" as the access method in the URL). The data in subfield $d and $f provide a unique name (similar to the function of a URN), which allows LC's local software to use a locator table to determine the host, software to display the file, and other necessary information. "CWP" (data in subfield $d) is the aggregate name for Civil war photographs.] ------------------------------------------------------------------- EXAMPLE 2: LC bibliographic record (books record) Separate record not created for digitized version. Leader *****nam##22*****#a#4500 001 $a92000507$cr95 008 920427s1993####dcua#####b###f##x###eng## 020 ##$a0844407399 040 ##$aDLC$cDLC$dDLC 043 ##$af-et--- 050 00$aDT373$b.E83 1993 082 00$a963$220 245 00$aEthiopia, a country study /$cedited by Thomas P. Ofcansky and LaVerle Berry. 250 ##$a4th ed. 260 ##$AWashington, D.C. :$bFederal Research Division, Library of Congress :$bFor sale by the Supt. of Docs., U.S. G.P.O.,$c1993. 300 ##$Axxxvi, 412 p. :$bill. ;$c24 cm. 440 #0$aArea handbook series,$x1057-5294 440 #0$aDA pam ;$x550-28 500 ##$aSupersedes the 1981 edition of Ethiopia: a country study, edited by Harold D. Nelson and Irving Kaplan. 500 ##$a"Research completed July 1991". 504 ##$aIncludes bibliographical references (p. 347- 376) and index. 651 #0$aEthiopia. 700 10$aOfcansky, Thomas P.,$d1947- 700 10$aBerry, LaVerle Bennette,$d1942- 710 20a$Library of Congress.$bFederal Research Division. 856 7#$3Full text$uhttp://rs6.loc.gov/ethiopia.html$2http