DATE: December 5, 1997

NAME: Reading Program information

SOURCE: MicroLIF Committee

SUMMARY: This discussion paper presents solutions for dealing with information related to interactive multimedia Reading Programs that involve relationships with published reading materials.

KEYWORDS: Field 521; Field 787; Nonspecific Relationship Entry; Reading Program information; Target Audience Note



12/5/97 - Forwarded to USMARC Advisory Group for discussion at the January 1998 MARBI meetings.

1/11/98 - Results of USMARC Advisory Group discussion - Because of the strong need expressed by the K-12 community for reading program information in the record, there was support for this paper to come back as a proposal. Most participants agreed that it needs to be possible for a system to strip out the information if desirable, which makes using one field instead of several already defined fields the better solution. In order to make it stripable, if using the linking entry fields a new one would need to be defined. However, there are not enough subfields in the linking field block to add the necessary elements needed for reading programs. In addition, field to field linking would be necessary if all the reading program information were not all in one field. Thus, the consensus was to define a new field in the 5XX block. This new field should be generalized so that it might be used for other types of material (e.g. slide sets).

DISCUSSION PAPER NO. 105: Reading Program information


The school library community has made significant strides towards
using MARC fully for bibliographic control and catalog access. 
Success in the implementation of MARC has been possible due to the
cooperation and collaboration of vendors with teachers and school
librarians.  Library system and product vendors continue to work to
foster better cooperation between activity in classrooms and the
library within a school.  Interactive multimedia educational
products are appearing in the marketplace that take advantage of
the relationship between the classroom and the school library. 
Some of these products, mostly on CD-ROM, tie into traditional
library materials such as printed books.  This discussion paper
focuses on the encoding of the relationships between these
interactive products and other (usually traditional) library
materials.  (It does not deal with the bibliographic description or
MARC encoding of the interactive multimedia.)


General Need

The availability of computer technology and interactive multimedia
such as CD-ROM have led to the development of tools that can
improve the success of learning programs.  Automated multimedia
reading programs have become particularly popular and at least
three well known CD-ROM based programs are installed in thousands
of schools.  While each program is intended to build literacy,
readership, and library circulation through a predetermined body of
published material, none of the programs currently provides an
adequate link to the separately published reading items, a subset
of which must be held in the collections of a school library
intending to make use of one of these programs.  Reading Program
suppliers need to be able to link items to be read to the programs
that use them.  They would like to build on the success of using
MARC for bibliographic control.

The primary use of Reading Program information would be to provide
access to or from specific published titles intended to be read by
a student as part of a Reading Program module.  Students, teachers,
and schools librarians need to be able to identify materials that
have a relationship to a Reading Program.  A student needs to be
able to find out which titles suggested by a Reading Program are
available in the school library.  Teachers and schools librarians
need to be able to identify available titles as well with the added
possibility of seeing to it that additional titles are acquired if
needed to make the use of a Reading Program more successful.

The title of a related Reading Program needs to be recorded in the
bibliographic record for each published title specified as a
candidate for use with the program.  Vendors of Reading Programs
report that this may involve the records of up to 10,000 published
works.  A specific published work may relate to several Reading
Programs, so multiple links should be possible.  

Experimental Solution

Reading Program vendors have been working on providing an automated
link between their products and the separately published titles. 
Working through the MicroLIF committee, vendors suggested using
several 5XX note fields in the records for related textual works to
link them to specific Reading Programs.  Experimental use of a new
field 526 illustrates the information needed to refer to the
Reading Programs in records for the items to be read.  MicroLif
created this new field for information about Reading Programs since
they were unsure where else to record such information in the
USMARC bibliographic format.  They felt that recording this
information in a separate tag would facilitate data entry and
processing.  The separate data elements allow Reading Program
specific indexes to be built, orders to be placed, and services to
be delivered.

New field suggested by the MicroLIF Committee:

526 - Reading Program Note  (R)

     1st indicator - Disk/Test Presence
          Value # - Unknown
          Value 1 - Not Present
          Value 2 - Present

     $a - Reading Program Name  (NR)
     $f - Reading Program Volume  (NR)
     $b - Reading Program Issue/Disk Number  (NR)
     $g - Reading Program Disk Title  (NR)
     $c - Reading Program Series/Set  (NR)
     $d - Reading Program Sub-series  (NR)

     $e - Reading Program Order/Stock Number  (NR)

     $h - Reading Program Interest Level  (NR)
     $i - Reading Program Title Reading Level  (NR)
     $j - Reading Program Title Point Value  (NR)

Besides the new field 526, information relating to reading level
and target audience was also placed in existing field 521 (Target
Audience).  Identification of the grade level of the reader was
typically the only information recorded in field 521 in the
full-record samples created by the MicroLIF Committee.

Alternative Solution

Alternatively the Reading Program information may be recorded in
existing MARC fields.  The content of the suggested field 526
includes data that pertains to the related entity, i.e., the
reading program, and to the item described in the record, i.e., the
published item to which the reading program refers.  

Holdings information.  The field 526 first indicator, which was
suggested to show whether a library holds the specific reading
program part that is being referenced in the field, would be better
placed in the bibliographic record for the reading program CD-ROM

Identification of the Reading Program.  The identification of the
Reading Program (titles, volume, issue, series, subseries) could be
described in field 787 (Nonspecific Relationship Entry).  The 7XX
linking entry fields refer to bibliographic items related to the
one described in the record.  In this case the related item is the
Reading Program CDROM.

Stock/order number information.  Stock numbers of a related Reading
Program could be provided in field 787 also.

Target audience information.  The remaining information -- interest
level, reading level, and point values assigned -- pertain to the
item to be read rather than to the Reading Program, even though
they are assigned by the Reading Program.  They could therefore be
carried in field 521 (Target Audience).

One advantage to using already existing fields 787 and 521 is they
do not involve any changes to the USMARC bibliographic format.  The
existing data elements suggested above should be available in any
fully MARC-compliant library system.  Another advantage is that
indexing for titles in field 787 should be supported by existing
systems.  If a new note field such as 526 were defined, it might
not be indexed in some any systems, and if it were it might not be
indexed as a title.

Mapping of field 526 to existing MARC elements:

Holdings information (field 852 of record for Reading Program):
     526 Ind.1      = 852 $a - Disk/Test Presence
Identification information (field 787):
     526 $a    = 787 $k - Reading Program Name
     526 $f    = 787 $g - Reading Program Volume
     526 $b    = 787 $g - Reading Program Issue/Disk Number
     526 $g    = 787 $t - Reading Program Disk Title
     526 $c    = 787 $k - Reading Program Series/Set
     526 $d    = 787 $k - Reading Program Sub-series
Order information (field 787):
     526 $e    = 787 $o - Reading Program Order/Stock Number
Audience information (field 521):
     526 $h    = 521 $a, Ind.1=2 - Reading Program Interest Level
     526 $i    = 521 $a, Ind.1=0 - Reading Program Title Reading
     526 $j    = 521 $a, Ind.1=8 - Reading Program Title Point


This example shows the title "Bridge to Teribithia" which is
referenced on the That's A Fact, Jack! disc.

     100  1#$aPaterson, Katherine.
     245  10$aBridge to Terabithia /$cKatherine Paterson ;
          illustrated by Donna Diamond.
     260  ##$aNew York :$bCrowell,$c1977.
     300  ##$a128 p. :$bill. ;$c23 cm.
     521  0#$a6.0.$bFollett Library Resources.
     521  2#$a5-8.$bFollett Library Resources.
     521  2#$a5-10$bTAFJ
     521  0#$a6.0$bTAFJ
     650  #1$aFriendship$xFiction.
     650  #1$aDeath$xFiction.
     787  0#$kThat's A Fact, Jack!$g4$tMysterious happenings and
          coping with difficult times$o48104T

This example shows the title "A Brush with magic" which is referred
to on the That's A Fact, Jack! disc.

     100  1#$aBrooke, William J.
     245  12$aA brush with magic :$bbased on a traditional
          Chinese story /$cWilliam J. Brooke ; illustrations by
          Michael Koelsch.
     260  ##$aNew York :$bHarper Collins,$c1993.
     300  ##$a137 p. :$bill. ;$c24 cm.
     521  2#$a3-6.$bFollett Library Resources.
     521  2#$a3-7$bTAFJ
     521  0#$a4.9$bTAFJ
     650  #1$aArtists$xFiction.
     650  #1$aMagic$xFiction.
     787  0#$kThat's A Fact, Jack!$g29$tWild rides and historic

This example shows the title "Number the stars" which is on three
Reading Program discs: Accelerated Reader/Advantage Learning
Systems, That's A Fact, Jack! and Accelerated Reader.

     100  1#$aLowry, Lois.
     245  10$aNumber the stars /$cLois Lowry.
     260  ##$aBoston :$bHoughton Mifflin,$c1989.
     300  ##$137 p. ;$22 cm.
     521  2#$a5-8.$Follett Library Resources.
     521  2#$aMiddle Grades$bAR
     521  0#$a5.0$bAR
     521  8#$aPoint value: 4.0$bAR
     521  2#$a3-9$bTAFJ
     521  0#$a4.9$bTAFJ
     650  #1$aWorld War, 1939-1945$zDenmark$xFiction.
     650  #1$aWorld War, 1939-1945$xJews$xRescue$xFiction.
     650  #1$aFriendship$xFiction.
     651  #1$aDenmark$xFiction.
     787  1#$kAccelerated Reader/Advantage Learning
          Systems$gA-08$tOur diverse heritage$o0730 (DOS) 0915
          (MAC) 0072 (Apple2)
     787  1#$kAccelerated Reader$gSL-13$tNC-Battle of the books
          94$o1102 (DOS) 1103 (MAC) 1098 (Apple2)
     787  1#$kAccelerated Reader$gSL-47$tNC-Battle of the books
          97$o2628 (DOS) 2635 (MAC) 2621 (Apple2)
     787  1#$kThat's A Fact, Jack!$g5$tAdjusting to life's big
          changes and challenges$o48105T

This example shows the title "Journey of the sparrows" which is on
two Reading Program discs, the Accelerated Reader and That's A
Fact, Jack!.

     100  1#$aBuss, Fran Leeper,$d1942-
     245  10$aJourney of the sparrows /$cFran Leeper Buss with
          the assistance of Daisy Cubias.
     250  ##$a1st ed.
     260  ##$aNew York :$bLodestar Books,$cc1991.
     300  ##$a155 p. ;$c22 cm.
     521  2#$a5-8.
     521  2#$a5-12$bTAFJ
     521  0#$a6.3$bTAFJ
     521  2#$aUpper Grades$bAR
     521  0#$a6.4$bAR
     521  8#$aPoint value: 7.0$bAR
     650  #1$aSalvadorans$zUnited States$xFiction.
     650  #1$aIllegal aliens$xFiction.
     700  1#$aCubias, Daisy.
     787  1#$kThat's A Fact, Jack!$g6$tThe challenges today's
          minorities face$o48106T
     787  1#$kAccelerated Reader$tYoung adult$gvolume
          II$gC-19$o0834 (DOS) 0967 (MAC) 0468 (Apple2)


For some time there has been pressure from users for an efficient
and uniform way of providing Reading Program information.  As more
programs such as AASL's "Count on Reading" are put in place, the
pressure to come to a workable solution is sure to grow.  Schools
want to make greater use of their collections when they select a
Reading Program tool.  Vendors want to be able to communicate this
information to a variety of systems.  Great progress has been made
within the school community with regard to using the MARC standards
and this is an opportunity to use that progress.  By being able to
match through the MARC record a Reading Program with the titles
actually held in a library, the investment in both books and the
Reading Program can be optimized, automation vendors can build
features into their OPACs to support the Reading Programs in place
within the library, and reports for collection development and
circulation can be developed.

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