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Jurisdictions Surveyed: Angola | Argentina | Botswana | Bulgaria | Cambodia | China | Democratic Republic of the Congo | Côte d’Ivoire | Egypt | Gabon | Georgia | Ghana | Greenland | Guyana | India | Indonesia | Kazakhstan | Liberia | Nepal | Pakistan | Russia | Thailand | Turkey | Vietnam
Appendix: Mexico | Saudi Arabia | United Arab Emirates | United Kingdom

Kazakhstan

Kazakhstan has no designated wild animal wet markets. Meat and fish, including wild-caught, is sold at regular farmers markets. General veterinary and sanitary control rules apply in all situations for selling farm and farm-produced products. Hunting is mainly a recreational activity and a means for the collection of non-food remains of wild animals.

I. Introduction

As a member state, Kazakhstan is subject to the veterinary regulations of the Eurasian Customs Union of the Eurasian Economic Union.[1].

Kazakhstan has very little wooded area, amounting to only approximately 3% of the territory. Many animals, including antelope and elk, inhabit the plains. Wolves, bears, and snow leopards, as well as commercially important ermine and sable, are found in the hills. Fishermen acquire sturgeon, herring, and roach from the Caspian Sea.[2]

II. Legal Status of Markets

A. General Considerations

After the collapse of the Soviet Union, Kazakhstan underwent market reforms and privatization reforms. All farmers markets and bazaars (agricultural markets) became private enterprises. Farmers markets are privately owned and managers of the markets are obliged to follow standards and veterinary norms introduced by the government. Traditionally, almost all cities and villages have several farmers markets.

Kazakhstan became the 162nd World Trade Organization member in November 2015.[3]  Since then sanitary and phytosanitary measures in the local markets have improved.[4]

B. Veterinary and Sanitary Standards Legislation

Kazakhstani legislation does not stipulate the classification of specific animals, instead dividing them into the broad categories of “wild,” “farming,” or “pets,” with a heavy emphasis on sanitary norms, public health, and environmental protection in regard to the treatment of all types of fauna. Wildlife usage in Kazakhstan is regulated by the Law on the Protection, Reproduction and Usage of Wildlife, No. 593-II, adopted on July 9, 2004.[5] This Law recognizes the following categories of wild animals:

1) Rare and endangered animal species;
2) Animal species, being the object of hunting;
3) Animal species, being the object of fishing;
4) Animal species, used for other economic purposes (except for hunting and fishing);
5) Animal species, not used for the economic purpose, but having ecological, cultural and other values;
6) Animal species, the number of which is subject to regulation for the purpose of health protection of population, protection from diseases of farm and other domestic animals. Prevention of damage to the environment, prevention of the danger of causing significant damage to agricultural activity.[6]

The same Law declares the animal world as solely state-owned property.[7] Local authorities have broad competencies in the field of wildlife management and exercise control and coordination of hunting permit issuance.[8] The Law authorizes the following uses of the animal world:

1) Hunting;
2) Fishing, including seizure of invertebrate animals and marina mammals;
3) Use of animals, not referring to the objects of hunting and fishing for economic purposes;
4) Use of animals for scientific, cultural, educational, aesthetic purposes, as well as for prevention of epizootics;
5) Use of useful properties and products of vital activities of animals;
6) Use of species of animals for reproductive purposes.[9]

The Environmental Code of Kazakhstan allows the usage of wild animals for obtaining products of their life without the seizure and destruction of animals, deterioration of their habitats, or infliction of harm on animals.[10]

The Law on Veterinary of the Republic of Kazakhstan does not differentiate veterinary requirements for domestic and wild animals.[11] General rules apply to the entire category and measures refer to all sorts of animals and animal products. The national policy in the veterinary domain has as its objectives

1) implementation of the state veterinary inspection over production, storage, and realization of cargoes subject to the state veterinary supervision;
2) retention of national monopoly on certain types of veterinary activities, established by Article 11 of this Law;
3) protection from bringing and dissemination of infectious and exotic animal diseases into the [Republic of Kazakhstan] territory from other countries;
4) guaranteeing of independence of the state veterinary supervision;
5) development of veterinary rules and norms based on scientific approach with consideration of objective assessment of epizootic situation and international veterinary norms;
6) achievement of the higher level of veterinary measures comparing to those of the stipulated by international recommendations provided that they are based on scientific grounds;
7) non-admission of unreasonable restrictions in realization of cargoes subject to the state veterinary supervision in a course of implementation of veterinary measures with the purpose to ensure veterinary and sanitary safety; [and]
8) establishment of a procedure for costs recovery of seized and destroyed animals posing a danger for health of animals and humans.[12]

Under the Veterinary Law, markets are subject to mandatory veterinary and sanitary examinations. Goods and raw materials of animal origin cannot be sold without veterinary and sanitary examinations. All procedures for such examinations at markets are established by the state and the authorized veterinary body. Transported cargo must be inspected for conformity to state veterinary regulations through a review of veterinary shipping documents and an examination of the subject animals, goods, and primary materials of animal origin.[13]

Goods and raw materials of animal origin are prohibited from sale without veterinary and sanitary examination.[14] In order to implement state veterinary supervision and veterinary and sanitary examination market administrators must provide office facilities for veterinary inspectors and veterinary and sanitary testing laboratories complying with veterinary norms based on agreements within the procedure established by Republic of Kazakhstan Law.[15]

The Technical Regulation on Requirements for the Safety of Meat and Meat Products on Approval of the Technical Regulation on Requirements for the Safety of Meat and Meat Products regulates conditions for the circulation of meat and meat products on the market,[16] stating as follows:

Meat and meat products that have obvious signs of poor quality, do not have accompanying documents confirming safety, origin, and quality, as well as if the properties and labeling do not comply with the requirements of the current legislation and with an unspecified shelf life, are withdrawn for veterinary and sanitary examination in an accredited (certified) veterinary laboratory.[17]

The Regulation also provides safety requirements for the preparation of animals and birds for slaughter. According to the Regulation animals and birds that do not pass the mandatory identification procedure cannot be sent to processing plants.[18] Additionally, each batch of animals and birds sent for slaughter must be accompanied by a veterinary certificate issued in accordance with the established procedure.[19]

The Decree of the Minister of Agriculture of the Republic of Kazakhstan on the Approval of Veterinary (Veterinary and Sanitary) Requirements for Production Facilities Carrying Out Procurement (Slaughter of Animals), Storage, Processing and Sale of Animal Products and Raw Materials Origin regulates rules and establishes norms for the administrations of markets selling all types of products of animal origin.[20] According to the Decree the administration (owner) of a facility, including a market, must provide appropriate conditions for trade in meat and other products of animal origin in accordance with the requirements of veterinary and sanitary rules, and must conduct sanitary days, a regular cleaning and disinfection territory, trading places, other auxiliary premises, refrigerators, and market inventory.[21] Additionally, the Decree states that for purposes of carrying out veterinary and sanitary examinations of products and raw materials of animal origin, markets must have laboratories for veterinary and sanitary expertise.[22] All meat and other raw products of slaughter animals, fish, poultry, milk and dairy products, and other animal products of animal origin must conform to the results of the veterinary and sanitary examination and must be sold in separately designated premises of the market and on separate counters.[23]

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Prepared by Iana Fremer
Legal Research Analyst
August 2020


[1] Ministry of Internal Affairs, Ministry of Internal Affairs along with Environment and Natural Resources Protection and Finance Ministries, Has Signed Memorandum of Understanding (June 25, 2015), https://perma.cc/B4DH-SH5U.

[2] Kazakhstan, Encyclopedia Britannica (July 16, 2020), https://perma.cc/2D9Q-27QU.

[3] Jürgen Wandel, Agroholdings or Clusters in Kazakhstan’s Agri-Food Sector?, IAMO Forum 2008, https://perma.cc/S42C-X26Q.

[4] Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, Country Fact Sheet on Food and Agriculture Policy Trends: Kazakhstan (Aug. 2017), https://perma.cc/A4GF-4EVK.

[5] Law on Protection, Reproduction and Use of Animal World of the Republic of Kazakhstan, No. 593, July 9, 2004, last updated Oct. 28, 2019, https://perma.cc/U7SN-GDTN (in Kazakh), https://perma.cc/NJH5-AJMD (in English translation).

[6] Id. art. 3(1).

[7] Id. art. 4(1). 

[8] Id. art. 9.

[9] Id. art. 24.

[10] Environmental Code of the Republic of Kazakhstan, No. 212, art. 243(2), Jan. 9, 2007, https://perma.cc/77BA-8VAQ (unofficial translation).

[11] Law of the Republic of Kazakhstan (RK) on Veterinary, No. 339-II, July 10, 2002 (amended through RK Laws No. 13-III of Dec. 20, 2004 & No. 45-III of Apr. 15, 2004), https://perma.cc/YUT5-MZGT

[12] Id. art. 4.

[13] Id. art. 14.

[14] Id.  art. 22.

[15] Id. art. 22(7).

[16] Technical Regulation, “Requirements for the safety of meat and meat products” on approval of the Technical Regulation “Requirements for the safety of meat and meat products,” Resolution of the Government of the Republic of Kazakhstan, No. 336, Apr. 8, 2008, https://perma.cc/G8ZT-8ZN9 (in Russian).

[17] Id. § 3 (translation by author).

[18] Id. § 7.

[19] Id.

[20] Decree of the Minister of Agriculture of the Republic of Kazakhstan on the Approval of Veterinary (Veterinary and Sanitary) Requirements for Production Facilities Carrying Out Procurement (Slaughter of Animals), Storage, Processing and Sale of Animal Products and Raw Materials Origin, No. 7-1/832, Sept. 18, 2015, Registered with the Ministry of Justice of the Republic of Kazakhstan on Oct. 29, 2015, https://perma.cc/JY5D-SKG2 (in Russian). 

[21] Id. art. 86(1) & (5).

[22] Id. art. 87(1).

[23] Id. art. 119(4).

Last Updated: 12/31/2020