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Reports indicate that there are a number of traditional markets in Indonesia where meat from wild animals is sold. The most well-known market is the Tomohon Faithful Market in North Sulawesi province, which, along with other markets in the province, serves as a hub for the multi-province bat bushmeat trade. Unprotected animals, including bats, can be hunted and traded with a permit, and a quota system applies, although this system is reportedly not fully implemented or enforced. In response to the COVID-19 pandemic, local authorities in North Sulawesi have sought to limit the supply of wild meats and have encouraged traders and consumers to switch to other products. However, they have not closed the relevant markets.
Traditional markets are established and managed under central and local government regulations. Traditional market management may be carried out by a cooperative, private sector entity, state-owned company, or regional-owned company, with managers required to hold a traditional market business license. Central and local governments, in accordance with their areas of responsibility, are to conduct “guidance and supervision” of the markets. City/regency regulations contain provisions on the responsibilities and oversight of traditional market managers. For example, the regional market company that manages the Tomohon Faithful Market has responsibilities related to community welfare, including social aspects, health, and cleanliness.
A Minister of Health decree on “healthy markets” contains detailed environmental health criteria relating to traditional market locations, buildings, sanitation, and the promotion of “clean and healthy behavior” for traders, visitors, and market managers, and refers to regular assessments by local health authorities. Inspections of traditional markets and the food sold at them appear to be carried out by provincial food safety offices of the National Agency of Drug and Food Control and by provincial and city/regency health offices. In addition, numerous studies have been conducted on the cleanliness and sanitation facilities of traditional markets throughout the country.
I. Wild Animal Wet Markets in Indonesia
A. Prevalence of Wild Animal Markets
The largest and most well-known market selling “extreme,” “wild,” “exotic,” or “unique” meats in Indonesia appears to be the Tomohon Traditional Market (or Tomohon Faithful Market, Pasar Beriman Tomohon) in the province of North Sulawesi (Sulawesi Utara), on the island of Sulawesi. The New York Times reported in May 2020 that the Tomohon market was one of seven large markets identified by the central government as selling wild meat, with others situated on Sulawesi as well as the islands of Bali and Java, although activists claim smaller markets in the country also sell wildlife meat.
A study on the bat bushmeat trade in North Sulawesi, published in 2015, stated that
Manado, the capital of North Sulawesi province, Indonesia, is the center of the high intensity bushmeat trade in Indonesia. The predominantly Christian population is not prohibited from eating wildlife like bats and boar, unlike other parts of Indonesia where a majority of people are Muslim and must observe halal dietary restrictions (Lee et al., 2005). Eight markets scattered throughout the province represent the trading hubs for bushmeat: Karombasan (PK) and Beserhati (PB) in Manado; Airmadidi (PAi) in North Minahasa; Tomohon (PT), Kawangkoan (PKa), and Langowan (PL) in Minahasa; and Amurang (PA) and Motoling (PM) in South Minahasa.
The article explained that
[l]ocals believe that during holidays or other special occasions (e.g. birthdays, weddings), they should serve several types of “unique meat” (daging unik) to enliven the atmosphere. Despite its name, “unique meat” belies the level of abundance and ubiquity at which it occurs in the market. “Unique meat” encompasses any kind of meat not available through domestication (e.g. beef, pork, chicken, duck) and refers to wild animals such as: endemic black macaques (Macaca nigra), pythons from Kalimantan (Python reticulatus or P. curtus) (Stuebing, 1991), water monitors (Varanus salvator), Sulwaesi wild pigs (Sus celebensis) (Milner-Gulland and Clayton, 2002), and Bornean bearded pigs (Sus barbatus). Species are valued by rarity, and occasionally available in the market in limited quantities. Flying foxes are commonly found in the market, making them considerably cheaper and more accessible than these other types of “unique meat”. The price of other bushmeat varies from Rp 20,000 to 60,000 (US$2.00 to $6.00), depending on the season, market, and availability of stock. These “unique meats” can only be found in North Sulawesi, making it the iconic local delicacy of the province.
[t]he bushmeat trade that previously existed only on a local level increased in intensity over the past few decades and developed into a sophisticated multi-province trade network. The markets in North Sulawesi are connected via a distribution network, with Tomohon, Langowan, and Motoling at the center as supply hubs for other markets by receiving bats from external sources directly. Tomohon established itself as the main market by maintaining a stockpile of bats as inventory.
B. Legality of the Wild Meat Trade
Different Indonesian laws apply to the hunting and trading of “protected” and “unprotected” wild animals. There are currently 919 protected endemic species. According to a 1999 regulation, unprotected wild animal species may only be traded by business entities established in accordance with Indonesian law, unless the trading is conducted on a limited scale in the local community around the hunting area. Hunting is further regulated by regulations and decrees related to hunting licenses, game hunting, and the designation of hunting locations. In addition, a 2003 Minister of Forestry regulation concerning the capture or harvesting and distribution of wild animals and plants established a quota system for various unprotected species.
According to the 2015 study on bat bushmeat referred to above,
most bats are unprotected by law, but hunting and trading can only be conducted with a legal permit (Law Number 5 year, 1990, Government Act Number 8 year, 1999). However, there is no legal enforcement to ensure hunters and traders have permits. Furthermore, the legally mandated quota for inter-provincial trade of unprotected animals set by LIPI [Lembaga Ilmu Pengatahuan Alam, Indonesian Institute of Sciences] and BKSDA [Balai Konservasi Sumber Daya Alam, Natural Resources Conservation Agency] has not been implemented yet (Broad et al., 2003, Shepherd, 2006). The BKSDA in North Sulawesi, which acts as the executor for the quota focuses mostly on endemic animals, and the enforcement of trade of other animals was a lower priority.
A 2017 BBC Indonesia article reported that, of the unprotected wild species most traded at the Tomohon Faithful Market, only pythons were subject to a quota set in North Sulawesi. A species of bat, Pteropus vampyrus, was subject to quotas in North Sumatra and Central Java, while the bats endemic to Sulawesi were not included in the quota list. The head of the North Sulawesi Natural Resources Conservation Center also explained that “law enforcement measures related to quotas on the use of wild animals had not yet been applied to traders in traditional markets for cultural reasons.”
A biologist quoted in a May 2020 Jakarta Post article regarding wild meat stated that there was a need for stricter regulations to protect wildlife, as well as efforts to educate the public on the risks for the environment and public health from eating wild animals. The director general of the Center for International Forestry Research, a nonprofit scientific institution based in Indonesia, was reported as calling for more awareness campaigns to be run in rural areas on proper sanitary methods for processing wild meats, stating that “[w]ild meat is neither more dangerous nor more unsafe than improperly processed domestic meat,” and “[t]he main issue is that very often the processing of carcasses and the markets where the meat is sold have very low standards of hygiene and cleanliness.”
In August 2018, it was reported that Indonesia was “preparing a regulation to ban the trade of meat derived from pets and exotic animals, aiming to promote animal welfare and rein in disease.” A spokesman for the Ministry of Agriculture stated that the Ministry was gathering material to support the planned regulation, and that already, under the food law, dog meat is not a food. However, no information was located on subsequent regulations or amendments related to this issue.
C. Responses to the COVID-19 Pandemic
The director of biodiversity conservation at the Ministry of Environment and Forestry was reported by the New York Times in May 2020 as stating that closing markets selling wild meat is the responsibility of local officials, although the Ministry had encouraged this action in response to the 2019 novel coronavirus. The article further stated that “[o]fficials in Tomohon and other localities have resisted calls to close the sections of markets selling wildlife because they provide an important source of traditional food and income” and “Tomohon city officials, in response to the coronavirus, cut the market’s hours by more than half in March to reduce social contact.”
A February 2020 ABC News article in Australia reported that the deputy mayor of Tomohon had called on residents to temporarily stop consuming wild meats such as bat meat until the official cause of the novel coronavirus was known. However, the deputy mayor noted that “the popularity of the historic market made it difficult to shut down.”
March 2020 reports from Indonesian news outlets indicate that the Tomohon city government (Pemerintah Kota Tomohon) was immediately preventing snake and bat meat from being sent to the city, with traders advised to switch to other meats. The regional secretary stated that the government would establish two surveillance posts to stop the meat coming in from outside North Sulawesi. A team formed of representatives from several local agencies, including the Tomohon Regional Market Company, Agriculture and Fisheries Service, Health Service, Civil Service Police Unit, and Tohomon City Industry and Trade Office, were involved in the plans and operations for preventing the meat entering the area.
The Jakarta Post reported in May 2020 that demand for bat meat had decreased in the Tomohon market, although some considered that this was primarily due to economic factors rather than fears about viruses. The article also stated that “many local administrations have already tried to discourage residents from eating wild animal meat.” For example, the Tomohon city administration had “tried to put a cap on the trade of wild meat by limiting the supply of bats and snakes from outside North Sulawesi, while also urging vendors to sell more common farmed meats such as pork, chicken and beef.” In addition, the mayor of Surakatra, in Central Java, said that “although his administration could not forcibly close down wild meat vendors, they would be supervised and persuaded to change products.”
II. Ownership and Management of Traditional Markets
According to the US Department of Agriculture, in Indonesia “[t]he traditional sector continues to maintain a large majority market share in Indonesian food retailing. This sector includes warungs or small food stalls, often found in traditional markets.” Traditional markets (pasar tradisional) are established and managed under government regulations issued at the national, provincial, and city/regency level. These regulations often contain provisions that relate to promoting or protecting the traditional sector, with certain restrictions placed on the development and operation of modern stores, although some rules have become more relaxed in recent years.
At the national level, Law Number 7 of 2014 on Trade includes provisions on “people’s markets” (pasar rakyat), stating that the central government and local governments will collaborate in order to develop, empower, and improve the quality of management of people’s markets in the context of increasing competitiveness. This includes the development or revitalization of such markets, the implementation of professional management, facilitating access to quality goods with competitive prices, and facilitating access to finance for market traders.
Presidential Regulation No. 112 of 2007 concerning Administration and Development of Traditional Markets, Shopping Centers and Modern Stores defines “traditional market” as a market that is built and managed by central government, local government, or the private sector, or state and regional-owned enterprises, including in cooperation with the private sector. Such markets consist of businesses in the form of shops, kiosks, stalls, and tents that are owned/managed by small or medium-scale traders, “community self-support” or cooperatives, with small-scale business, small capital, and where the buying and selling of traded goods is conducted through bargaining. The regulation provides that the location and establishment of traditional markets must be based on city/regency plans and zoning regulations, and that their establishment must take into account the social and economic conditions of the community and the existence of other traditional markets and retail stores; provide a minimum amount of parking; and provide facilities that guarantee the traditional market is a “clean, healthy (hygienic), safe, orderly and comfortable public space.”
Under the 2007 regulation, in order to conduct business, managers of traditional markets must have a “Traditional Market Business License” (IUPPT) and the central government and local government, in accordance with their areas of responsibility, are to conduct “guidance and supervision” of traditional markets and modern stores. In order to foster traditional markets, local governments have responsibility for seeking alternative sources of funding for traditional market empowerment, improving the competence of traders and market managers, prioritizing the opportunity for existing traders to get a place in a traditional market that has been renovated or relocated, and evaluating the management of traditional markets.
A 2013 Minister of Trade Regulation contains guidelines for the administration and development of traditional markets, shopping malls, and modern stores. The regulation provides that traditional market management may be carried out by a cooperative, private sector entity, state-owned company, or regional-owned company. It states that the Minister, governor, and mayor may “individually or jointly carry out the empowerment of the Traditional Market management in the framework of improving competition capacity.” Such improvement is carried out in the form of “renovation or revitalization of the traditional market building; application of professional management; provision of trading goods of good quality and with competitive prices; and/or facilitation of the financing process of market traders in order to obtain capital credit and credit for the business place ownership.” Traditional market managers have various roles, including “carrying out the guidance, mentoring and control of the traders” through “improvement of services to the consumers, either on the quality of goods, hygiene, dosage, packing, presentation/set up of goods or in utilizing the market facilities” and “the improvement of traders competence through education, training and counseling.”
Multiple city/regency regulations were located relating to traditional markets from throughout Indonesia. These regulations include provisions on the responsibilities and oversight of traditional market managers and on funding for traditional markets, among other matters. The Tomohon Traditional Market, for example, is managed by a “regional market company,” Perusahaan Daerah (PD) Pasar Tomohon, under the supervision of the Tomohon city government (Pemerintah Kota Tomohon). The company was established by a 2006 Tomohon city regulation and has responsibilities related to community welfare, including social aspects, health, cleanliness, and general service. It appears that a supervisory board, appointed by the city government, oversees the company.
III. Market Sanitation Requirements
A 2008 Minister of Health decree sets out guidelines for the implementation of “healthy markets.” The decree followed the issuance of a joint regulation of the Minister of Home Affairs and the Minister of Health in 2007 on healthy cities/regencies, which stated that healthy markets is a main factor in realizing a healthy city/regency. The decree was also promulgated in anticipation of the potential spread of epidemic diseases, including SARS and avian influenza. The guidelines in the decree are targeted at health workers in charge of environmental health and health promotion within the central, provincial, and regency/city governments, as well as relevant government institutions, market managers, traders, market associations, and other stakeholders.
The decree states that “healthy market” is a market condition that is clean, comfortable, safe, and healthy through the cooperation of all relevant stakeholders in providing safe and nutritious food for the community. Stakeholders include the central government, local governments, market managers, suppliers, sellers, other market workers, and consumers.
Part V of the decree lists detailed environmental health criteria for a healthy market relating to location; buildings; sanitation; promoting “clean and healthy behavior” for traders, visitors, and market managers; security; and the provision of other facilities, including religious facilities. For example, building requirements include the division of areas based on the type of commodity sold, according to its nature, such as wet, dry, live poultry, and slaughtering of poultry, and the selling of meat, carcasses of poultry, and fish in a special place. In addition, the distance between poultry shelters and slaughterhouses and the main market must be at least 10 meters or be divided by a parapet at least 1.5 meters in height. There are also requirements relating to “wet food” stores, including with respect to types of tables, hanging of meat, cutting mats, the type of knife used, storage of food, availability of a place to wash food and equipment, availability of hand washing facilities, and availability of bins.
In terms of sanitation, the decree contains requirements related to the availability and placement of clean water, bathroom and toilet facilities, waste management, drainage, hand washing facilities, animal-borne disease vectors (e.g., requirements that there must be no rats in the market area and that there is no more than a maximum density of flies and cockroaches), food quality, and disinfection of the market.
Implementation of the decree appears to primarily fall within the responsibility of regional and local governments in partnership with market managers, traders, and other stakeholders. The decree sets out guidance regarding the following steps: advocacy for the development and implementation of healthy markets, capacity building through training, situation analysis, the setting of priorities and establishing work plans and funding to address problems, implementation of the work plan, guidance and supervision, and reporting mechanisms. In the context of guidance and supervision, the decree refers to assessments by the local health office, at least every six months, using the Market Inspection Form attached to the decree, as well as monitoring and evaluation of the implementation of resulting recommendations by a relevant team of specialists at least every three months using the Market Appraisal Form also attached to the decree.
In addition, Indonesia’s food safety laws require that everyone involved in activities related to food, including transportation and distribution, must meet sanitary requirements and guarantee food safety. Additional Minister of Health decrees contain hygiene and sanitation requirements for different types of food businesses.
Multiple press releases and news articles were located that refer to inspections of traditional markets and the food sold at them by provincial food safety offices of the National Agency of Drug and Food Control (Badan Pengawas Obat dan Makanan, BPOM) and by provincial and city/regency health offices. In addition, it appears that numerous studies have been conducted on the cleanliness and sanitation facilities of traditional markets throughout the country, including a study that examined the knowledge and practices of traders within the Tomohon market with respect to food hygiene and sanitation. In May 2018, it was reported that the mayor of Tomohon had stressed that the Tomohon Faithful Market must be a “healthy market” in accordance with the 2008 decree, and said he would therefore tighten market surveillance. He was speaking at the opening of a forum, organized by the Manado Center for Drug and Food Control, on the framework for implementing safe markets free from hazardous materials.
Prepared by Kelly Buchanan
Foreign Law Specialist
 Sheherazade & Susan M. Tsang, Quantifying the Bat Bushmeat Trade in North Sulawesi, Indonesia, with Suggestions for Conservation Action, 3 Global Ecology & Conservation 324, 325 (2015), https://perma.cc/SF5G-UF7C.
 Id. at 327.
 Law No. 5 of 1990 concerning Conservation of Living Resources and Their Ecosystems, https://perma.cc/EC67-BBFB; Government Regulation No. 7 of 1999 concerning Preserving Flora and Fauna Species, https://perma.cc/VT3A-DZBC, amended by Peraturan Menteri Lingkungan Hidup dan Kehutanan Nomor P.20/MENLHK/SETJEN/KUM.1/6/2018 tentang Jenis Tumbuhan dan Satwa Yang Dilindungi, https://perma.cc/SK6L-ZUAC.
 Regulation of the Minister of Forestry No. 447/KPTS-II/2003 concerning Administration Directive of Harvest or Capture and Distribution of the Specimens of Wild Plant and Animal Species, https://perma.cc/2LHX-DJHJ.
 Sheherazade & Tsang, supra note 2, at 328.
 Indonesia Works to Ban Trade of Meat from Pets, Exotic Animals, Reuters (Aug. 7, 2018),https://www.reuters.com/article/us-indonesia-animals-meat/indonesia-works-to-ban-trade-of-meat-from-pets-exotic-animals-idUSKBN1KS14Q.
 Paddock & Sijabat, supra note 1.
 Hari et al., supra note 14.
 Id. art. 13(2).
 Id. art. 2.
 Id. art. 12(1)(a).
 Id. art. 15(1).
 Id. art. 15(2).
 Regulation of the Minister of Trade Number 70/M-DAG/PER/12/2013 concerning Guidelines for Structuring and Guidance of the Traditional Market, Shopping Center and Modern Shop, https://perma.cc/E56N-252Q, amended by Regulation of the Minister of Trade Number 56/M-DAG/PER/9/2014 concerning Amendment to Regulation of the Minister of Trade Number 70/M-DAG/PER/12/2013 concerning Guidelines for Structuring and Guidance of the Traditional Market, Shopping Center and Modern Shop, https://perma.cc/3GM7-27DY (in Indonesian). See Guideline of Arrangement and Development of Traditional Market, Shopping Centre, and Modern Market, Leks & Co (Nov. 11, 2014), https://perma.cc/XBH5-WX2E; Widayan & Partners, Exemptions Issued for New Regulation 70 Regime in Indonesia’s Retail Sector (Nov. 2014), https://perma.cc/MV3J-MXMA.
 Regulation of the Minister of Trade Number 70/M-DAG/PER/12/2013 art. 18(1).
 Id. art. 18(2).
 Id. art. 18(3).
 Id. art. 19.
 See, e.g., Peraturan Daerah [Local Regulation] Kabupaten Bengkayang [Bengkayang Regency] Nomor 5 Tahun 2010 tentang Pengelolaan Pasar [Market Management], https://perma.cc/8Z9L-JP83; Peraturan Daerah Kota Surabaya Nomor 1 Tahun 2015 tentang Pengelolaan dan Pemberdayaan Pasar Rakyat [Management and Empowerment of People’s Markets], https://perma.cc/K483-7QVV; Peraturan Daerah Provinsi Jawa Timur Nomor 3 Tahun 2008 tentang Perlindungan, Pemberdayaan Pasar Tradisional Modern di Provinsi Jawa Timur [Protection, Empowerment of Modern Traditional Markets in East Java Province], https://perma.cc/22CL-9865; Peraturan Daerah Kota Batu Nomor 2 Tahun 2019 tentang Pelindungan, Pembinaan, dan Penataan Pasar Rakyat Pusat Perbelanjaan, dan Toko, https://perma.cc/FFX2-6D2G; Peraturan Daerah Kota Bekasi Nomor 2 Tahun 2018 tentang Pengelolaan Pasar Rakyat, https://perma.cc/U2N2-ZM9F.
 Peraturan Daerah (PERDA) Kota Tomohon No. 12 Tahun 2006 tentang Pembentukan Perusahaan Daerah. See Jovan Wirahana Nelwan et al., The Existence of Traditional Market Toward Modern Market in Tomohon City, 5(3) Jurnal EMBA 3348,3353 (Sept. 2017), https://perma.cc/WG3S-4WN4; Cinthya Lingkan Simbala et al., Professionalism of Employees Regional Market Company of Tomohon City 14 (undated), https://perma.cc/48WU-E3R9.
 See Press Release, Pemerintah Kota Tomohon, Pengambilan Sumpah/Janji Dan Pelantikan Badan Pengawas Dan Anggota Badan Pengawas Perusahaan Daerah Pasar Kota Tomohon [Taking an Oath/Promise and Inauguration of the Supervisory Board and Members of the Supervisory Board of the Tomohon City Market] (undated), https://perma.cc/JS68-LFC3.
 Keputusan Menteri Kesehatan Nomor 519/MENKES/SK/VI/2008 tentang Pedoman Penyelenggaraan Pasar Sehat [Minister of Health Decree No. 519 of 2008 concerning Guidelines for Implementing a Healthy Market], available at https://www.calameo.com/read/00067923926cfcc942fe3.
 Minister of Health Decree No. 519 of 2008 concerning Guidelines for Implementing a Healthy Market § I.A.
 Id. § II.B.1.
 Id. § I.B.2.
 Id. § I.B.3.
 Id. § V.
 Minister of Health Decree No. 519 of 2008 concerning Guidelines for Implementing a Healthy Market § IV.B.
 Id. § IV.B. Langkah [Step] 6.
 Law No. 18 of 2012 concerning Food art. 71, https://perma.cc/PV46-J9ZZ; Peraturan Pemerintah Nomor 86 Tahun 2019 tentang Keamanan Pangan [Government Regulation No. 86 of 2019 concerning Food Safety] art. 4(1) https://perma.cc/PE46-ULWK.
 Keputusan Menteri Kesetahan Nomor 942 /MENKES/SK/VII/2003 tentang Pedoman Persyaratan Hygiene Sanitasi Makanan Jajanan [Food Hygiene Guidelines]; Keputusan Menteri Kesetahan Nomor 1098/MENKES/SK/VII/2003 tentang Persyaratan Hygiene Sanitasi Rumah Makan dan Restoran [Restaurants]; Keputusan Menteri Kesetahan Nomor 715/Menkes/SK/V/2003 tentang Persyaratan Hygiene Sanitasi Jasaboga [Catering].
 See, e.g., Inspeksi Mendadak Pasar di Kabupaten Tangerang, Badan POM (June 6, 2017), https://perma.cc/9ECM-Z548; Bersama Perindagkop dan Dinas Kesehatan, Balai POM Palu Inspeksi Pasar Tradisional Moderen Bungku dan Pasar Tradisional Wosu, Badan POM (Mar. 14, 2018), https://perma.cc/K84A-U4MM; Antara, BPOM Intensifkan Pemeriksaan Bahan Pangan Sepanjang Ramadan, Tempo.co (May 17, 2020), https://perma.cc/NDV5-BQHH; Insfeksi Kesetahan Lingkungan (IKL), Dines Kesehatan Provinsi NTB (July 10, 2019), https://perma.cc/VU8E-JH6P.
 See, e.g., Ervin Wahyuning Maulidah et al., Condition of Sanitation Facilities at Mojosari Traditional Market, Mojokerto, XI(2) GEMA Linkungan Kesehatan 95 (Aug. 2013), https://perma.cc/9YVW-GMNZ; Meidyas Dwi Anggraeni, Gambaran Sanitasi Lingkungan di Pasar Blambangan, Banyuwangi Tahun 2017, 3(4) J. Ilmiah Mahasiswa Kesehatan Masyaraka (2018), https://perma.cc/ANX7-BDNA; Imam Muhsin Mubarak et al., Penerapan Keputusan Menteri Kesehatan Republik Indonesia Nomor 519/MENKES/SK/VI/2008 Tentang Pedoman Penyelenggaraan Pasar Sehat di Pasar-Pasar Tradisional di Kabupaten Kebumen Hasil Renovasi Tahun 2011-2013, 8(2) Sanitasi: J. Kesehatan Lingkungan (2016), https://perma.cc/8GE5-JPDV; Rusman Efendi & Jihan Nada Alya Syifa, Health Status of Market Aspects of Sanitation and a Clean Healthy Living Behaviours (PHBS) in Ciputat Market and Market Modern BSD South Tangerang City, 9(3) J. Kesehatan Indonesia (2019), https://perma.cc/5U5C-S34D; Muhammad Zakaria Umar et al., Penerapan Keputusan Menteri Kesehatan Republik Indonesia Nomor: 519/MENKES/SK/VI/2008 Tentang Pedoman Penyelenggaraan Pasar Sehat Terhadap Desain Pangkalan Pendaratan Ikan di Kota Kendari, 2(1) J. Malige Arsitektur 11 (June 2020), https://perma.cc/TG94-UAQG.
 Gabriella Veronika Wawoh et al., Gambaran Pengetuhuan dan Praktik Pedagang Penjual Makanan Tentang Hygiene dan Sanitasi Makanan Jajanan di Pasar Kuliner Kota Tomohon Tahun 2017, https://perma.cc/5JC6-W77T.
Last Updated: 12/31/2020