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In 1999, Botswana introduced what is known as the Performance Management System (PMS), one of whose objectives was the inculcation of a culture of performance and accountability within government agencies, with the aim of improving the efficiency of the delivery of public services.[1]  While the PMS was said to have brought about some improvements, it largely proved ineffective as indicated by a 2005 customer service satisfaction survey, which found that the customer satisfaction level was only at 25%.[2]  Therefore, Botswana sought to make further improvements through an initiative launched in 2006, the Business Process Reengineering.[3]  As part of this program, the Directorate of Public Service Management (DPSM) developed service standards for government agencies.[4] 

Developed as part of this program are what are known as monitoring standards.  The standards are “benchmarked and monitored in three categories: reliability, quality of delivery and customer service.”[5]  The monitoring of services is done through a mix of internal and external audits and periodic customer service satisfaction surveys.[6]  The system for collecting customer service satisfaction feedback appears to mandate two different ways of engaging the public: through customer satisfaction surveys undertaken every two years, and through a system for the collection of immediate feedback from citizens that every government agency is mandated to develop and operate.[7] A source consulted for this report indicated that, following the development and implementation of the standards, customer satisfaction surveys showed dramatic improvements in public satisfaction with the services provided by public institutions—for instance, in a 2012 public service customer satisfaction survey, “83% of the public expressed satisfaction with service delivery by civil servants.”[8]

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Prepared by Hanibal Goitom
Foreign Law Specialist
October 2017

[1] Botswana Public Service , Customer Service Standards 5 (undated), available on the United Nations Public Administration Network (UNPAN) website, at 031203.pdf (last visited Oct. 19, 2017), archived at

[2] Id. at 5–6.

[3] Id.

[4] Id.

[6] Id.

[7] Id.

[8] E.K. Botlhale, Monitoring and Evaluating Government Performance in Botswana, 3(1) Afr. Pub. Service Delivery & Performance Rev. 5, 13 (2015),, archived at