Law Library Stacks

Back to Index of Digital Legal Deposit

Israeli law imposes a duty of deposit on all works published in electronic format, including internet sites, with the National Library of Israel (NLI). This duty is implemented in accordance with regulations that specify methods of compliance depending on the format of the publication. The NLI implements information security measures to protect electronic publications it receives under the deposit requirements.

I. General Deposit Requirements

The Books (Duty of Deposit and Specification of Details) Law, 5761-2000 imposes a mandatory duty to deposit two copies of books and newspapers published in Israel with the National Library of Israel (NLI).[1] The Law “set the National Library of Israel as the primary deposit organization in Israel, minimizing [previously existing] deposit requirements for the State Archive and Knesset Library.”[2]

The Law further requires that information regarding the year of publication and printing, as well as the name and address of a work’s printer and publisher, must be visibly noted in the work or on its packaging, as appropriate.[3] 

In accordance with amendments to the Law’s implementing regulations, adopted in December 2015, the duty of deposit and specification of identifying details extends to any book or newspaper published in a digital edition, including internet editions and internet sites.[4]

Back to Top

II. Internet Editions of Books and Newspapers

For “electronic editions of books and newspapers the use of which requires internet connection” (electronic edition) that are distributed in formats that do not enable preservation, publishers must deliver an additional copy to the NLI in one of the following preservation formats:

  • AVI
  • TIFF
  • EPUB
  • PDF
  • WAVE
  • MPEG-4
  • JPEG
  • MP3[5]

When delivery of a copy in accordance with the above requirements is not possible, “delivery shall be exercised by grant of access without technical protective measures and in a way that enables creation of a copy and its preservation, in all its parts, by the National Library.”[6]

Back to Top

III.  Non-Internet Electronic Format Editions

As a rule, a book or a newspaper in an electronic format that is not an internet edition should be delivered to the NLI in the electronic format in which it is distributed.[7] Copies delivered must be full text and accessible. Thus, any limitations or restrictions on use, including a password requirement, must be removed, and any necessary software or technical or other information, including use instructions, must be provided.

When the book or newspaper is distributed in formats that do not enable preservation, an additional copy in any one of the above-listed preservation formats must be provided.[8]

Directions for the delivery of copies are available on the NLI website ([9]

Back to Top

IV. Internet Sites

The mandatory deposit duty generally also extends to internet sites or to works available on internet sites, excluding works for a limited audience, such as family members, participants at private events, or employees or students at an educational institution, unless their deposit was requested by the NLI.[10] Accordingly the operator or a person under whose name the site operates should provide the NLI access to the work or site within thirty days of the request for access and remove any technical protections to enable the NLI to create and preserve a copy of the site.[11]

The NLI operates an archival project, the Archinet, for the archiving and preservation of works published in electronic formats.[12]  The project began in 2013 and focuses on websites with the top-level domain name “.il” and “some additional websites that are under Israeli geolocation or relevant to the Israeli public.”[13]

Back to Top

V. Security and Access 

The NLI implements information security measures to protect electronic publications it receives under the deposit requirements. According to its website,

• The electronic publications are saved in the secure Library servers.

• The ability to view and access the electronic publications are possible only with the National Library building. Access is limited to two users at any given time.

• Readers are forewarned that under the copyright law terms of use of 2007 it is prohibited to use the collections of the library whether for commercial or non-commercial use. The reader is obliged not to copy, photocopy, photograph, publish, distribute, hand over to a third party, or make any use of the publications as described under the law, except for "Fair Use" of the publication for study, research, or critique as defined under the terms of use of the copyright law and/or they received permission from the copyright holders.

• The National Library does not enable digital copying of its publications: It is prohibited to save them on a flash drive, send then via email or any other method.

• Catalog information regarding the publications is available to all users via the digital catalog of the library, as any other item in the Library.

Further to the stated above are per the general terms of use on the National Library website.[14]

Back to Top

Prepared by Ruth Levush
Senior Foreign Law Specialist
July 2018

[1] Books (Duty of Deposit and Specification of Details) Law, 5761-2000, § 2, Sefer Hahukim [SH] [Book of Laws, official gazette] 5761 No. 1767 p. 80, as amended.

[2] See History of The Books Law, the National Library of Israel (last visited 6/25/18), archived at

[3] Books (Duty of Deposit and Specification of Details) Law, 5761-2000, § 3.

[4] Books (Duty of Deposit and Specification of Details) Regulations, Kovetz Hatakanot [KT] [Subsidiary Legislation] 5764 No. 6337 p. 958, as amended by the Books (Duty of Deposit and Specification of Details) (Amendment) 5776-2015, KT 5776 p. 351 (Dec. 24, 2015). The text of the Amendment is available on the website of the National Library of Israel, at, archived at

[5] Id. § 2A(b)(1) & (c)(2)(c).

[6] Id. § 2A(b)(2).

[7] Id. § 2A(c)(1).

[8] Id. § 2A(c)(2).

[9] Id. § 2A(c)(3).

[10] Id. §§ 1 & 4A(a).

[11] Id. § 4A(b)–(c).

[12] Electronic Publications, The National Library of Israel, library/depositing/Pages/Electronic_publications.aspx (last visited June 15, 2018), archived at

[13] ARCHINET: Israeli Internet Archive, The National Library of Israel, NLI/English/collections/israel-collection/internet_archive/Pages/default.aspx (last visited June 15, 2018), archived at

[14] Electronic Publications, supra note 12. See also FAQ, The National Library of Israel,, archived at

Back to Top

Last Updated: 12/30/2020