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This report, which updates and expands on a report prepared by Law Library staff in March 2015, contains data on 131 countries, indicating whether or not published books are subject to a mandatory deposit requirement at the national level and, if so, how many copies are required, where they must be deposited, and whether the deposit is part of the copyright system.  Citations to the controlling legislation for mandatory deposits are provided.  In all but thirteen of the jurisdictions surveyed, deposits are required.  For some of these thirteen jurisdictions, deposits are voluntary, while in others, no information regarding deposit practices could be found.  Asterisks in the copyright system column indicate that the deposit requirement is contained in the copyright law. 

Full Report (PDF, KB)

Albania[1] Yes Five Albanian National Library No*
Argentina[2] Yes Three National Library; Library of Congress; National Directorate of Copyright Yes*
Armenia[3] Yes Six Ministry of Culture, which distributes copies to the National Book Chamber, National Library, and other organizations No


Yes One (including electronic publications if requested); separate requirements at state/territory level National Library of Australia; state/territory libraries No* (however, part of the definition of “National Library material” is that copyright subsists in the work or edition under the Copyright Act)
Austria[5] Yes Varies, not more than seven for most print media and twelve for periodicals Austrian National Library and university, study, or provincial libraries as determined by regulation; Library of Parliament and Federal Chancellery Library upon their request No
Azerbaijan[6] Yes Fourteen, at least National Library; other government and research libraries; Baku State University Library; Azerbaijan Academy of Sciences No
Bahrain[7] Yes Two Department of Publication and Publishing at the Ministry of Information; Ministry of Justice and Religious Affairs Yes
Bangladesh[8] Yes One National Library of Bangladesh No*
Belarus[9] Yes Six One each to the Ministry of Information of the Republic of Belarus; the National Book Chamber; the National Library of the Republic of Belarus; the Central Scientific Library of the National Academy of Sciences; the Belarusian Institute of System Analysis and Information Support for the Scientific and Technical Sphere; the Republic Scientific Technical Library No
Belgium[10] Yes Two Bibliothèque royale de Belgique (Royal Library of Belgium) No
Benin[11] Yes Four (three for books printed at less than three hundred copies) Bibliothèque nationale du Benin (National Library of Benin) No
Botswana[12] Yes Three National Library Service Board, Library of University of Botswana No
Brazil[13] Yes One National Library of Brazil No
Brunei Darussalam[14] Yes Three Director of Museums No
Bulgaria[15] Yes Between three and twenty, depending on the number of copies issued for circulation National Library No
Burkina Faso[16] Yes Six (four from authors or editors, and two from printers or producers) Bibliothèque nationale du Burkina Faso (National Library of Burkina Faso) No
Cambodia[17] No (deposit system exists, but no legis-lative basis) One National Library and Archives of Cambodia No
Cameroon[18] Yes Six National Library of Cameroon No
Canada[19] Yes Two copies of all print publications when one hundred or more copies produced (all formats of each item published); one copy of each format of all print publications when between four and ninety-nine copies produced; two copies on request when fewer than four copies produced Library and Archives Canada No
Chile[20] Yes Five National Library No
China[21] Yes Three One copy each to National Library of China; Archives Library of Chinese Publications; and State Administration of Press, Publi-cation, Radio, Film, & Television No
Congo, Democratic Republic of the[22] Yes Eight (six to the National Library, and two to the National Legislative Council) Bibliothèque nationale (National Library) and Conseil législatif national (National Legislative Council) No
Cook Islands No      
Croatia[23] Yes Ten National and University Libraries in Zagreb and six major regional libraries No
Cuba[24] Yes


Seven; one for non-print items Cuba’s National Library (three copies), “Elvira Cape” Library (two copies), library where the publishing company is located (two copies) No
Cyprus[25] Yes Three Press and Information Office No
Czech Republic[26] Yes Five National Library of the Czech Republic; Moravian Regional Library; select regional libraries No
Denmark[27] Yes Two Royal Library; State and University Library No
Dominica[28] Yes


Four Two copies sent to the Secretary to the Cabinet and two copies sent to the President for transmission to the Library of the University of the West Indies No
Dominican Republic[29] Yes Three National Library of the Dominican Republic Yes*
Egypt[30] Yes One to ten, with the amount set by government minister Ministry of Culture Yes*
Estonia[31] Yes Up to four, depending on type of material National Library of Estonia and other designated institutions No
Ethiopia[32] Yes Three National Archives and Library Agency No
Faeroe Islands[33] Yes Four Landsbókasavnið No
Fiji[34] Yes Two One copy each to the University of the South Pacific Library and National Archives of Fiji No
Finland[35] Yes Six to eight National Library, University of Eastern Finland Library, Jyväskylä University Library, Oulu University Library, University of Turku Library, and Åbo Akademis University Library; in some cases copies also to University of Helsinki Library and Parliamentary Library No
France[36] Yes Two (one for books printed with less than three hundred copies) Bibliothèque nationale de France (National Library of France) No
Gabon[37] Yes Six (two from the printer and four from the editor) Régie du Dépôt Légal (Legal Deposit Service; this appears to be a joint service of the Gabonese National Library and National Archives) No
Gambia, The[38] Yes Two National Library Service Authority No
Georgia[39] Yes Thirteen printed and one electronic National Parliamentary Library, plus regional and municipal libraries designated by law No
Germany[40] Yes Two of printed works published in Germany; one of foreign printed works, translations of foreign-language works, and foreign-language printed works about Germany German National Library (Deutsche Nationalbibliothek) No
Ghana[41] Yes




One copy each to Ghana Library Board; the Registrar-General; Library of the University of Ghana; Library of the Kwame Nkrumah University of Science and Technology; Library of the University College of Cape Coast; Library of the Ghana Academy of Sciences; and Library of the Kwame Nkrumah Institute of Economics and Political Science No
Greece[42] Yes Four Four copies are deposited to the Technical Chamber of Greece, of which one copy is intended for the Parliamentary Library; the National Library of Greece in its discretion may obtain copies for its collection from these deposit copies No
Greenland[43] Yes Three Nunatta Atuagaaleqarfia No
Grenada[44] Yes Three Governor General Yes*
Hong Kong[45] Yes Five Secretary for Home Affairs No
Hungary[46] Yes Six National Library; regional libraries No
Iceland[47] Yes Four National University Library of Iceland and Municipal Library of Akureyri No
India[48] Yes Four National Library at Calcutta and three other public libraries No
Indonesia[49] Yes Two National Library of Indonesia and the relevant regional library No
Iran[50] Yes “Some copies” of books; two copies of non-book materials State Depositary Libraries (books); National Library (non-book materials) No
Iraq[51] Yes Five Depositary Center located at the National Library of Iraq Yes*
Israel[52] Yes Four at most Two copies to National Library; one to Parliament if needed for Parliament’s work, and one if requested by State Archivist No
Italy[53] Yes Two Biblioteca nazionale centrale di Firenze (National Central Library of Florence) and Biblioteca nazionale centrale di Roma (National Central Library of Rome) No
Jamaica[54] Yes Two copies of a printed document; one copy of an audiovisual document National Library of Jamaica, or any other library designated by the Minister as a legal depository No
Japan[55] Yes One for private publications, three to thirty for   government agencies or public institutions National Diet Library No
Jordan[56] Yes One Depositary center located at the Jordanian National Library Yes*
Kazakhstan[57] Yes At least one to each designated recipient All national libraries and the National Book Chamber No
Kenya[58] Yes Two National Library Service No
Kiribati No      


Yes One National Kuwait Library Yes*
Kyrgyzstan[60] Yes Five to twenty, depending on type of publication State Book Chamber; National Library; local and municipal libraries at the place of publication No
Laos[61] Yes Three National Library of Laos No
Latvia[62] Yes Seven National Library of Latvia No
Lebanon[63] Yes Five Ministry of Culture and Higher Education No* (a separate copyright deposit system is contained in the legislation)
Liberia[64] Yes Four One copy each to the Minister of Foreign Affairs; National Public Library in Monrovia; Ministry of Information, Cultural Affairs and Tourism; and University of Liberia Library Yes*
Liechtenstein[65] Yes Two copies of all types of media published by Liechtenstein citizens, even if published abroad. Electronic media available for paid subscription must be offered for free and continuous use. Liechtenstein National Library (Liechtensteinische


Lithuania[66] Yes Five Martynas Mažvydas National Library of Lithuania, Kaunas County Public Library; Vilnius University Library; Lithuanian Academy of Sciences Library



Luxembourg[67] Yes Four Bibliothèque nationale de Luxembourg (National Library of Luxembourg) No
Malawi[68] Yes One Government Archivist No
Malaysia[69] Yes Five National Library of Malaysia


Mauritius[70] Yes Six National Library of Mauritius No
Mexico[71] Yes Two (one for nonprint items) National Library and the Library of Congress of the Union No
Micronesia, Federated States of[72] Yes Two, but the Attorney General may by regulation exempt or require deposit of only one copy with respect to any category Attorney General’s Office, for use of or disposition by the Library of the Congress of the Federated States of Micronesia Yes*
Moldova[73] Yes Four National Book Chamber; National Library; Scientific Library of the Academy of Sciences of Moldova No
Montenegro[74] Yes Six National Library No
Myanmar[75] Yes One (five under draft National Library Law) National Library of Myanmar No
Namibia[76] Yes Five National Library of Namibia No
Nauru No      
New Zealand[77] Yes Two (one if book exceeds NZ$1000 [about US$730] in price or if fewer than one hundred copies published) National Library of New Zealand No
Netherlands[78] No (National Library obtains deposits through voluntary agreements with publishers)      
Nicaragua[79] Yes One National Library Yes*
Niue[80] Yes Two Archives Office No
Norway[81] Yes Seven National Library of Norway (two copies); University of Oslo Library; University of Bergen Library; Norwegian University of Science and Technology Library; University of Tromsø Library; Sami Library (if work includes Sami language) No
Oman[82] Yes One The Ministry of Industry and Commerce No*
Pakistan[83] Yes One to each public library National Library of Pakistan, Islamabad Public Library, and all other public libraries so designated by the federal government No*
Panama[84] Yes Two Panama’s National Library and public libraries where the publishing company is located No
Papua New Guinea[85] Yes Two National Library of Papua New Guinea No
Philippines[86] No Two for each library National Library and the Supreme Court Library (“only works in the field of law shall be deposited with [the latter]”) No*
Poland[87] Yes Four deposited to national libraries, plus one copy to the main public library of the province in which the publisher is located National Library; Jagiellonska Library (Krakow); National Film Library for video documents No
Portugal[88] Yes Fourteen (for editions with more than one hundred copies) National Library (two copies); Science Academy Library of Lisboa; General Library of the University of Coimbra; Municipal Library of Lisboa; Municipal Public Library of Porto; Public Library of Evora; General Library and Historical Archive of the University of Minho; Popular Library of Lisboa; Municipal Library of Coimbra; Library of Macau; Library of the Royal Reading Portuguese Cabinet of Rio de Janeiro; Autonomous Region of Açores; Autonomous Region of Madeira No
Qatar[89] No (publishers “may” deposit copies when registering for copyright) Two The Office of Protection of Copyright and Related Rights at the Ministry of Justice


Romania[90] Yes Seven National Library of Romania No
Russia[91] Yes Twenty-two Federal Agency for Press and Mass Communications; the government news agency ITAR-TASS; regional and municipal libraries No
Samoa No      
Saudi Arabia[92] Yes Eight National Library (five copies); Arts and Cultural

Association (three copies)

Senegal[93] Yes Four Bibliothèque nationale (National Library) (two copies); Archives nationales (National Archives); Service des échanges (Exchange Services) No
Serbia[94] Yes Six National Library of Serbia; Library of Matica Srpska No
Seychelles[95] Yes Three Seychelles National Library No
Sierra Leone[96] Yes Three Trustees of the British Museum; Council of the University College of Sierra Leone; National Library No
Singapore[97] Yes Two National Library Board No
Slovakia[98] Yes Up to eleven, depending on the type of publication National Library; Bratislava University Library; other libraries as defined by law for individual publications No
Slovenia[99] Yes Four to sixteen National Library and university libraries No
Solomon Islands[100] Yes One University of the South Pacific, Solomon Islands Centre No
South Africa[101] Yes Maximum of five City Library Services (Bloemfontein); Library of Parliament (Cape Town); Natal Society Library (Pietermaritzburg); South African Library (Cape Town); State Library (Pretoria) No
South Korea[102] Yes Three copies for the government and other public agencies, one for certain digital files National Library of Korea No
Spain[103] Yes Two for first editions, one for other works National Library and libraries of the Autonomous Communities No
Sri Lanka[104]


Yes Five National Archives of Sri Lanka and four other institutions No
Sweden[105] Yes Seven National Library of Sweden; Göteborg University Library; Linköpings University Library; Lund University Library; Stockholms University Library; Umeå University Library; Uppsala University Library No
Switzerland[106] No (legal deposit is not a federal obligation, but the Swiss National Library has entered into voluntary agreements with the two main publishing associations to obtain deposits.)      
Taiwan[107] Yes Two One copy each to National Library and Legislative Yuan Parliamentary Library No
Tajikistan[108] Yes Four Ministry of Culture; State Enterprise Tajik House of Books No
Tanzania (Mainland)[109] Yes No information located No information located No
Thailand[110] Yes Two National Library of Thailand No
Togo[111] Yes Eight Bibliothèque nationale (National Library) (four copies), Ministry of the Interior (two copies), and Ministry of Communications (two copies) No
Tokelau No      
Tonga No      
Trinidad and Tobago[112] Yes One copy of every literary or musical work, audiovisual production, and sound recording As designated by Minister responsible for library services, who may, by order, designate any library as a legal depository and specify, in relation to each such legal depository, the categories of literary or musical works, audio-visual productions or sound recording, a copy of which shall be deposited with that depository


Turkey[113] Yes Six (two for nonprint items) National Library; Beyazıt State Library; Grand National Assembly of Turkey Library and Archive Services Department; Istanbul University Library and Documentation Department; Izmir National Library; and a library in Ankara to be determined by the Ministry of Culture and Tourism Yes*
Tuvalu No      
Uganda[114] Yes Two Library of Makerere University; Deposit Library and Documentation Centre No
Ukraine[115] Yes One to each of ten national institutions, plus specialized and regional libraries defined by law National Book Chamber, National Library; State Department for Intellectual Property Protection; specialized libraries No
United Arab Emirates[116] No Ten Ministry of Information and Culture Yes*
United Kingdom[117] Yes One to British Library; one to five other libraries if requested.  Includes material published electronically. British Library; National Library of Scotland; National Library of Wales; Bodleian Libraries, Oxford; University Library, Cambridge; Library of Trinity College, Dublin No
United States[118] Yes Two, except for certain categories of works Copyright Office, for use of or disposition by the Library of Congress No* (mandatory deposit and copyright registration deposit are separate legal requirements, although the former may satisfy the latter)
Uzbekistan[119] Yes Two National Library of Uzbekistan and the regional library and bibliographic center at the place of publication No


Yes One Vanuatu Cultural Center (National Library) No
Vietnam[121] Yes Three before release and five after; if less than three hundred released, only two copies before and two after Ministry of Culture and Communication or Provincial People’s Committee before release; National Library of Vietnam after release No
Yemen[122] Yes Five Ministry of Information; Ministry of Culture; National Library No
Zambia[123] Yes One National Archives of Zambia No
Zimbabwe[124] Yes Three One copy each to the National Archives, National Library and Documentation Service, and Bulawayo Public Library No

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Prepared by the Staff of the Global Legal Research Directorate
December 2017

[1] Law on the Book, No. 9616 of Sept. 27, 2006, art. 42, (in Albanian).

[2] Law No. 11723 on Copyright, Boletín Oficial [B.O.], Sept. 30, 1933, infolegInternet/anexos/40000-44999/42755/texact.htm; Decree No. 41223 on the Regulation of Law No. 11723, B.O., May 7, 1934, (both in Spanish).

[3] Law No. 186 on Mandatory Copy of Documents art. 8, (in Russian).

[4] Copyright Act 1968 (Cth) pt X div 3, (relevant provisions amended by the Civil Law and Justice Legislation Amendment Act 2015 (Cth), see Kelly Buchanan, Australia: National Library to Implement Digital Legal Deposit from January 2016, Global Legal Monitor (July 13, 2015), // State/territory information available at Legal Deposit Requirements Australia Wide, National Library of Australia, (last visited Nov. 21, 2017).

[5] Federal Act of June 12, 1981, on the Press and Other Publication Media (Media Act – MedienG), BGBl. No. 314/1981, last amended by BGBl. I No. 101/2014,; Regulation of the Chancellor on the Offering and Legal Deposit of Printed Works, Other Audiovisual Works and Periodic Electronic Media According to the Media Law (Legal Deposit Regulation) [Pflichtablieferungsverordnung – PflAV], BGBl. II No. 271/2009, last amended by BGBl. II No. 95/2010, (in German). 

[6] Law on Library Activities of Dec. 29, 1998, art. 15, (in Azerbaijani).

[7] Law No. 47 of 2002 Regulating Journalism, Printing, and Publishing, art. 18, 2554 Official Gazette 30 (Oct. 2002), (in Arabic).

[8] Copyright Act, 2000 (Act No. 28 of 2000), § 62, available at

[9] Decision of the Council of Ministers of the Republic of Belarus on Approval of the Regulations of Compulsory, Free-of-Charge Copy of Documents of Sept. 3, 2008, available at (in Russian).

[10] Loi du 8 avril 1965 instituant le dépôt légal à la Bibliothèque royale de Belgique [Law of Apr. 8, 1965, Establishing Legal Deposit to the Royal Library of Belgium],; Loi du 19 décembre 2006 modifiant les articles 1er et 2 de la loi du 8 avril 1965 instituant le dépôt légal à la Bibliothèque royale de Belgique [Law of Dec. 19, 2006, Modifying Articles 1 and 2 of Law of Apr. 8, 1965, Establishing Legal Deposit to the Royal Library of Belgium],

[11] Ordonnance no. 75-79 du 28 novembre 1975 fixant les modalités du dépôt légal à la Bibliothèque nationale du Dahomey [Ordinance No. 75-79 of Nov. 28, 1975, Instituting the Means of Legal Deposit at the National Library of Dahomey], (Dahomey was the name of Benin until 1975).

[12] National Library Service Act 29 of 1967, XII Laws of Botswana, Cap. 58:02 (rev. ed. 2013).

[13] Law on Mandatory Deposits, Law No. 10,994 of Dec. 14, 2004,

[15] Government Decree No. 1367/1978 for Compulsory Submission of Printed and Other Materials arts. 1 & 5.

[16] Loi No. 042-96/ADP du 6 novembre 1996 portant institution du dépôt légal au Burkina Faso [Law No. 042-96/ADP of Nov. 6, 1996, Establishing Legal Deposit in Burkina Faso], cited in Bibliothèque et Archives nationales Quebec, Les Bibliothèque Nationales de la Francophonie 20 (3d ed.), (last visited Dec. 13, 2017).

[17] CDNLAO Questionnaire Survey on Web Archiving (Q2–Q7), 18th CDNLAO Annual Meeting, National Diet Library (Apr. 13, 2010), Japan1_doc2.pdf.

[18] Décret no. 2001/957/PM du 1er Novembre 2001 fixant les modalités d’application de la loi no. 2000/05 du 17 avril 2000 relative au dépôt légal [Decree No. 2001/957/PM of Nov. 1, 2001, Instituting the Means of Application of Law No. 2000/05 of Apr. 17, 2000, Regarding Legal Deposit],

[19] Library and Archives of Canada Act, S.C. 2004, c. 11, § 10,; Legal Deposit of Publications Regulations SOR/2006-337, §§ 3 & 4,; see also Deposit of Physical or Analogue Publications, Library and Archives Canada, (last updated Nov. 9, 2017).

[20] Law 19733 on Freedom of Opinion and Information and the Exercise of Journalism, as last amended Dec. 23, 2013, Diario Oficial, June 4, 2001, (in Spanish).

[21] Chuban Guanli Tiaoli [Regulations on Publication Administration] (Feb. 6, 2016),

[22] Loi 74-003 du 2 janvier 1974 relative au dépôt obligatoire des publications [Law 74-003 of Jan. 2, 1974, Regarding Mandatory Deposit of Publications],

[23] Law on Libraries arts. 37–44, Official Gazette of the Republic of Croatia, Nos. 105/97, 5/98, 104/2000, 69/2009, 76/2015, 25/2017, (in Croatian).

[24] Decree 265 on Cuban Legal Deposit, May 20, 1999, (in Spanish). 

[25] Press Law (Amendment) 84/1 of 2002, cited in Data for Registration in the Book Archive, Press and Information Office,‌8F2345FBFFFF8C24C2257C680044C4AF/$file/DATA%20FOR%20REGISTRATION%20IN%20BOOK%20ARCHIVE.docx (last visited Dec. 15, 2017); see also Archives—Services—Guidelines for Book Publications, Press and Information Office,‌pio58_en?OpenDocument (last visited Dec. 15, 2017).

[26] Act No. 37/1995 on Nonperiodical Publications § 3,; Act No. 46/2000 on Rights and Duties Relating to the Publication of Periodicals and Amendments to Other Acts (Press Act) § 5, cs/2000-46 (both in Czech).

[27] Act No. 1439 of Dec. 22, 2004, on Mandatory Deposits of Published Material [Lov om pligtaflevering af offentliggjort materiale (Lov nr. 1439 af 22. december 2004)], http://; Regulation No. 636 of June 13, 2005 on Mandatory Deposits [Bekendtgørelse om pligtaflevering af offentliggjort materiale (Bekendtgørelse nr. 636 af 13. juni 2005)],

[28] Publications Act(ch. 20:03), Act 26 of 1956, amended by Act 13 of 1958,Laws of Dominica,

[29] Dominican Republic Copyright Law arts. 156–161, (in Spanish).

[30] Law No. 82 of 2002 on the Protection of Intellectual Property Rights art. 184, al-Jarīdah al-Rasmīyah, vol. 22, June 2002, available at

[31] Legal Deposit Copy Act of June 15, 2016, § 8, (official publication).

[33] Act No. 148 of December 20 2005 on Libraries (the Libraries Act) [Løgtingslóg um bókasøvn, sum broytt við løgtingslóg nr. 148 frá 20. desember 2005], (in Faeroese).

[34] Libraries (Deposit of Books) Act 1978 (Cap. 109, Laws of Fiji, rev. ed. 1985), available at

[35] Act 1433 of Dec. 28, 2007, on Deposit and Storage of Cultural Material [Laki kulttuuriaineistojen tallettamisesta ja säilyttämisestä 28.12.2007/1433],; see also Act 717 of Aug. 4, 2000, on Parliamentary Library [Laki Eduskunnan kirjastosta, 4.8.2000/717],; Regulation 774 of Dec. 12, 1980, on Mandatory Deposits [Vapaakappaleasetus, 5.12.1980/774],

[37] Décret No. 48 du 18 février 1971 Instituant le Régime du Dépôt Légal [Decree No. 48 of Feb. 18, 1971, Establishing the Legal Deposit Scheme],

[38] Gambia National Library Service Authority Act 7 of 2009, 7 Laws of the Gambia, Cap. 48:04 (rev. ed. 2009).

[39] Law No. 2645 of Aug. 1, 2014 on Legal Deposit art. 5,

[40] Gesetz über die Deutsche Nationalbibliothek vom 22. Juni 2006 [Law on the German National Library of June 22, 2006], BGBl. I at 1338, as amended,, unofficial English translation available at; Regulation on the Legal Deposit of Media Works in the German National Library [Verordnung über die Pflichtablieferung von Medienwerken an die Deutsche Nationalbibliothek], BGBl. I at 2013, Oct. 17, 2008, as amended,; see also Legal Deposit Submission, Deutsche National Bibliothek, (last updated Feb. 9, 2015).

[41] Book and Newspaper Registration, 1961 (Act 73),

[42] Law No. 4452/2017 on Regulation of Subjects of the State Language Certificate, the National Library of Greece and Other Provisions art. 4, para. 5,

[43] Act. No. 8 of June 8, 2014, on Libraries (Libraries Act) [Inatsisartutlov nr. 8 af 8. juni 2014 om biblioteksvæsenet],{96E50EC6-06D2-4641-8E28-4ACAD24DF308} (in Danish).

[44] Copyright (Delivery of Books) Act (Cap. 68), available at

[45] Books Registration Ordinance, Cap. 142,[email protected]:00:00.

[46] Government Decree No. 60/1998 on Legal Deposit of Printed Products § 5, koteles_rendelet (official publication, in Hungarian).

[47] Act No. 20 of Mar. 20, 2002, on Mandatory Deposits [Lög um skylduskil til safna 2002 nr. 20 20 mars], (in Icelandic).

[48] Delivery of Books and Newspapers (Public Libraries) Act, 1954 (Act No. 27 of 1954 as amended by Act No. 99 of 1956), §§ 2 & 3,

[49] Law No. 4 of 1990 on Deposit of Printed and Recorded Works,; Government Regulation No. 70 of 1991 on Deposit of Printed and Recorded Works, (both in Indonesian).

[50] Iranian Legal Deposit Law (1989), cited in Farzaneh Shadanpour et al., Building an Iran Web Archive in the National Library and Archives of Iran: A Feasibility Study, Libr. Phil. & Prac. (e-journal), Paper No. 726 (Apr. 1, 2012),

[51] Law 37 of 1970 on Deposit of Intellectual Property art. 3, 1847 Official Gazette (Mar. 4. 1970), (in Arabic).

[52] Books (Duty of Deposit and Indication of Details) Law, 5761-2000, Sefer HaHukim [Book of Laws] (official gazette) 5761 No. 1767 p. 80, as amended.

[53] Law No. 106 of Apr. 15, 2004, Related to the Legal Deposit of Documents of Cultural Interest for Public Use, Gazzetta Ufficiale Della Repubblica Italiana [G.U.] [Official Gazette], Apr. 27, 2004,;106!vig; Regulations of Law No. 106, Presidential Decree No. 252 of May 3, 2006, G.U., Aug. 18, 2006,;252!vig; Copyright Law No. 633 of Apr. 22, 1941, G.U., July 16, 1941, available at (all in Italian).

[55] 国立国会図書館法 [National Diet Library Act], Act No. 5 of 1948, last amended by Act No. 59 of 2015, arts. 24 through 25-2, S23/S23HO005.html; Q&A―国の機関、独立行政法人 [Q & A - National Government Agencies, Independent Administrative Organizations], National Diet Library,

[56] Law No. 22 of 1992 on Copyright Protection art. 38, 2821 Official Gazette (Apr. 16, 1992), available at (in Arabic) and (unofficial English translation).

[57] Law No. 60 of May 5, 2017, on Amending the Law of Kazakhstan on Culture art. 24-2, Document/?doc_id=30081960#pos=659;-92 (in Russian).

[58] Books and Newspapers Act No. 27 of 1960 (Cap. 111),

[59] Ministerial Resolution 30 of 2003 for the Depositary System for Publications, according to Law 64 of 1999 on Intellectual Property Rights art. 3, 624 Official Gazette (July 13, 2003), (in Arabic). 

[60] Law No. 29 of Feb. 23, 2013, on Documents’ Mandatory Copy art. 7, available at (in Russian).

[61] Lao Library Law art. 17 (2012), cited in Annual Report, National Library of Laos 2015 for Conference of Directors of National Libraries in Asia and Oceania Annual Meeting of 2016,

[62] Legal Deposit Law (adopted in 2006) art. 5, (official publication, in Latvian).

[63] Law No. 75 of 1999 on the Protection of Literary and Artistic Property art. 99, (in English).

[64] Patent, Copyright and Trademark Law of 1974, Title 24, Liberian Code of Laws Revised, available at

[65] Gesetz über die Liechtensteinische Landesbibliothek (LLBiG) [Act on the Liechtenstein National Library] art. 5, Nov. 20, 2009, Liechtensteinisches Landesgesetzblatt Nummer [Liechtenstein LGBl.-Nr.] [Liechtenstein Official Law Gazette No.] 2009.368, as amended,

[66] Resolution of the Government of the Republic of Lithuania Regarding the Number of Legal Deposit Documents and Their Transmission to the Libraries, O.G. 1996 (in Lithuanian).

[67] Loi du 25 juin 2004 portant réorganisation des instituts culturels de l’Etat [Law of June 25, 2004, Reorganizing the Cultural Institutions of the State] art. 10, publications/loi_25_juin_2004.pdf; Règlement grand-ducal du 6 novembre 2009 relatif au dépôt legal [Grand-Ducal Regulation of November 6, 2009, Regarding Legal Deposit] arts. 1–9,

[68] Printed Publications Act of 1948 (Cap. 19:01),

[71] Decreto por el que dispone la obligación de los editores y productores de materiales bibliográficos y documentales, de entregar Ejemplares de sus obras a la Biblioteca Nacional y a la Biblioteca del Congreso de la Unión [Decree Providing for the Duty of Publishers and Producers of Print Media to Deliver Issues of Their Works to the National Library and the Library of Congress of the Union], Diario Oficial de la Federación, July 23, 1991, 4733347&fecha=23/07/1991&print=true.

[73] Law on Publishing Activity of Apr. 20, 2000, art. 18, (official publication, in Moldovan).

[74] Law on Publishing Activity, Sluzbeny List, No. 30/12, art. 29, (in Montenegrin).

[75] Printers and Publishers Registration Act (1962), referenced in Myanmar Country Report to CDNL-AO 2011, 19th Conference of Directors of National Libraries in Asia and Oceania (2011),; Khaing Thanda Lwin, National Library Law Aims to Ensure Permanent Preservation of Country’s Literary Heritage, Ministry of Information (Aug. 23, 2015),

[77] National Library of New Zealand (Te Puna Mātauranga o Aotearoa) Act 2003, pt 4, act/public/2003/0019/latest/DLM191962.html; National Library Requirement (Books and Periodicals) Notice 2004,

[78] Deposit Library for Dutch Publications, Koninklijke Bibliotheek, (last visited Dec. 14, 2017) (describing voluntary deposit scheme).

[79] Law No. 312 of July 6, 1999, art. 130, La Gaceta (Aug. 31 & Sept. 1, 1999), 312 Ley de Derechos de Autor y Derechos Conexos..pdf (in Spanish).

[80] Archives Act 1992, s 16A,, inserted by Tāoga Niue Act 2012, sch 3,

[81] Act No. 32 of June, 9, 1989, on Mandatory Deposits for Published Material [Lov om avleveringsplikt for allment tilgjengelege dokument (pliktavleveringslova) 1989-06-09-32], NL/lov/1989-06-09-32; Instruction No. 4696 of May 25, 1990, for Institutions that Maintain Documents Received in Accordance with the Act on Mandatory Deposits [FOR-1990-05-25-4696 Instruks for institusjonar som forvaltar dokument innkomne etter lov om avleveringsplikt for allment tilgjengelege document],

[82] Decree No. 65/2008, which promulgates the Law on Protection of Intellectual Property Rights, art. 34, 863 Official Gazette (May 17, 2008), available at (in Arabic).

[83] Copyright Ordinance, No. 34 of 1962, ch. 10, available at

[84] Law 47 of 1946, on Education art. 151, available on the website of Panama’s National Library, atósito-legal (in Spanish).

[85] National Library and Archives Act 1993 (Act No. 31 of 1993), pt V, available at

[86] Intellectual Property Code, July 22, 1996, as amended, art. 191,

[87] Law of Oct. 7, 1996 on Mandatory Library Deposits, Dziennik Ustaw (official gazette) 1996, No. 152, Item 772.

[88] Law on Mandatory Deposits, Decree-Law No. 74 of March 3, 1982, images/stories/servicos/documentos/dl7482.pdf.

[89] Law 7 of 2002 on Protection of Copyright and Related Rights art. 45, 7 Official Gazette (Aug. 3, 2002), (in Arabic).

[90] Law No. 111/1995 Regarding the Legal Deposit of Documents art. 7, (in Romanian).

[91] Federal Law of Dec. 29, 1994, No. 77-FZ on the Mandatory Deposit Copy art. 7, available at (in Russian).

[92] Royal Decree No. 11 of 1989 (Dec. 18, 1989), as amended by Royal Decree No. 41 of 2003, on Protection of Intellectual Property Rights art. 26(3), available at (in Arabic).

[93] Loi no. 76-30 du 9 avril 1976 instituant le dépôt légal [Law No. 76-30 of Apr. 9, 1976, Establishing Legal Deposit], cited in Bibliothèque et Archives nationales Quebec, Les Bibliothèque Nationales de la Francophonie 106 (3d ed.) (last visited Dec. 13, 2015).

[94] Law on Mandatory Copy of Publications, Official Gazette of the Republic of Serbia, No. 52/2011, art. 7, (in Serbian).

[95] National Library Services Act 7 of 2010,

[96] Publications Act No. 18 of 1962, in Legislation of Sierra Leone (1962).

[97] National Library Board Act, ch. 197, searchable at Singapore Statutes Online,

[98] Law 289/2013 on Compulsory Deposit of Periodic, Non-Periodic and Audiovisual Materials, attachments 1 & 2, available at id=416664 (in Slovak).

[99] Obligatory Copy of a Publication Act art. 5, Official Gazette of the Republic of Slovenia, Nos. 69/2006 & 86/2009, (in Slovenian).

[100] Libraries (Deposit of Books) Act (Act 4 of 1972) (Cap. 70, Laws of Solomon Islands, 1996 ed.), available at

[101] Legal Deposit Act No. 54 of 1997, Nov. 14, 1997,

[102] Library Act (Act No. 8029, Oct. 6, 2006, amended by Act No. 13960 Feb. 3, 2016) art. 20; Enforcement Decree of Library Act, Presidential Decree No. 19963, Mar. 27, 2007, amended by Presidential Decree No. 28211, July 26, 2017, art. 13. 

[103] Law 23/2011 on Legal Deposit, Boletin Oficial del Estado, July 30, 2011, 07/30/pdfs/BOE-A-2011-13114.pdf.

[104] Printers and Publishers Ordinance, No. 01 of 1885, available at

[105] Lagen om pliktexemplar [Act on Legal Deposit] (Svensk författningssamling 1993:1392), ssamling/Lag-19931392-om-pliktexempl_sfs-1993-1392/?bet=1993:1392.

[106] Swiss Publications, Swiss National Library, (last modified June 27, 2016) (describing voluntary deposit scheme).

[108] List of Recipients of Mandatory Free Deposit Copies, approved by Government Regulation No. 453 of Aug. 31, 2012 at

[109] Publications (Compulsory Deposit) Act of 1963, VIII Laws of Tanzania, Cap. 294 (rev. ed. 2010).

[111] Loi No. 98-004 du 11 février 1998 portant code de la presse et de la communication en République Togolaise [Law No. 98-004 of Feb. 11, 1998, Establishing a Press and Communications Code in the Togolese Republic],

[112] Publications (Legal Deposit) Act, Laws of Trinidad and Tobago, Chap. 82:74,

[113] Law on Deposit of Replicated Intellectual and Artistic Works [Çoğaltılmış Fikir ve Sanat Eserlerini Derleme Kanun], No. 6729, 28219 Resmȋ Gazete [Official Gazette], Feb. 29, 2012,; Regulations on Deposit of Replicated Intellectual and Artistic Works [Çoğaltılmış Fikir ve Sanat Eserlerini Derleme Yönetmeliği], 28388 Resmî Gazete, Aug. 18, 2012,

[114] Makerere University (Deposit Library) Act of 1958, available at; Deposit Library and Documentation Centre Act 38 of 1969, available at d-act/125.

[115] Law No. 595-XIV of Apr. 9, 1999 on Mandatory Deposit of Documents art. 8,; Resolution of the Cabinet of Ministers No. 608 of May 10, 2002, (both in Ukrainian).

[116] Federal Law 40 of Law 1992 (Sept. 28, 1992) art. 34, available at

[117] Legal Deposit Libraries Act, 2003, c. 28,

[118] 17 U.S.C. § 407 (2012) (mandatory deposit),; 17 U.S.C. § 408(b) (2012) (deposit for copyright registration, which may be satisfied by mandatory deposit), =prelim; see also Mandatory Deposit of Copies or Phonorecords for the Library of Congress, US Copyright Office, (last updated Sept. 2017).

[119] Law No. 280 of April 13, 2011, on Information and Library Activities arts. 10 & 11, (in Russian).

[120] Deposit of Books Act (Cap. 88, Laws of Vanuatu, 2006 ed.),; Deposit of Books (Designation of Place and Person) Order (Order 18 of 1992),

[122] Law No. 25 of 1990 on Regulating Publication and the Press (Dec. 23, 1990) art. 97, available at (in Arabic); unofficial English translation available at

[123] Printed Publications Act of 1947 (Cap. 161), available at

[124] Printed Publications Act 12 of 1975 (Title 25, Cap. 25:14),

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Last Updated: 02/23/2021