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Jurisdictions Surveyed: Brazil | Finland | Morocco | Tunisia
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Morocco

Morocco’s Constitution and domestic legislation guarantee and protect a range of rights and freedoms related to civic space, but also create a number of exceptions to those rights and freedoms. In addition, the country is bound by international conventions protecting civic space rights and freedoms, such as the 1966International Covenanton Civiland PoliticalRights.

Law No. 31.13 of 2018 establishes the scope of the right of access to information held by government agencies and elected institutions while Law No. 13.88 of 2016 regulates the press. However, both laws restrict these rights under a number of listed circumstances.

Law No. 76 of 2002 guarantees freedom of assembly and stipulates that public meetings may be held without prior permission. At the same time the Law imposes requirements that organizers of a public meeting must adhere to in order to hold the meeting.

Law No. 07.09 of 2009 regulates the right to establish nongovernmental associations subject to notice requirements and with some noted exceptions. For example, such associations cannot be formed for illegal purposes that damage Islam or national unity, insult the monarchy, or incite discrimination or public armed protest against the government.

Law No. 09.08 of 2008 on the Protection of Personal Data protects the release of personal data with the consent of the person owning such data. However, it creates a number of conditions under which release is permissible without the consent of the data owner.

Law No. 121.12 of 2019 regulates the means of telecommunications in the country. It ensures a solid infrastructure that allows internet services to reach all users in the country.

Law No. 70.03 of 2004 and Law No. 62-06 of 2007 regulate the principle of equality between Moroccan men and women in the field of family law and the acquisition of citizenship. These statutory rights are subject to Islamic law, however.

I. Introduction

Morocco is bound by international conventions protecting rights and freedoms related to civic space, such as the 1966International Covenanton Civiland PoliticalRights.[1] While Morocco’s Constitution and domestic legislation create some exceptions to rights and freedoms related to civic space, they still guarantee and protect those rights and freedoms.  

II. Legally Protected Freedoms

A. Access to Government Information

1. Constitution

The Constitution of Morocco of 2011 protects the right to access government information. It provides that Moroccan citizens have the right of access to information held by the public administration, elected institutions, and government bodies.[2] At the same time, the Constitution limits that right under an array of circumstances when the requested information is related to national defense, the internal and external security of the state, or the private life of persons. The Constitution also prohibits the exercise of the right to access information if access would infringe other fundamental freedoms and rights.[3]

2. Domestic Legislation

Law No. 31.13 of 2018 on Access to Information establishes the scope of the right of access to information held by government agencies and elected institutions, identifying the conditions under which this right may be exercised.[4] It defines the term “government information” as data and statistics expressed in the form of numbers, letters, drawings, images, and audiovisual records used by government bodies. Such information may be in either paper or electronic format.[5] Likewise, the Law defines the term “government bodies” as the House of Representatives, the Consultative Council, government departments and agencies, courts, local municipalities, any legal entity governed by public law, and any institution that has a public service mission.[6]

The Law asserts the right of Moroccan citizens to access government information[7] and grants resident foreigners the right to access such information based on relevant international conventions that Morocco has ratified.[8] The person requesting the information may need to pay for the cost of reproducing or processing the information, as well as for shipping cost.[9]

Government bodies are required to publish on their websites or in paper reports the following relevant information:

  • Relevant international conventions that were signed or ratified by Morocco
  • Relevant legislative and regulatory texts
  • Relevant draft laws
  • The official budget and financial statements related to the wages of their managers
  • Contact information
  • Mission, structure, and objectives
  • Services offered to the public
  • Requirements to issue a specific permit or license
  • Results of local and parliamentary elections
  • Public projects, the entity that works on them, their budgets, and progress made in those projects
  • Public tenders and their results
  • Job announcements
  • Economic statistics
  • Social studies
  • Regulations guaranteeing free, fair, and legal competition[10]

A person who requests to access government information must complete a form that includes the applicant’s first and last name, mailing address, and national identity card number (or residency card number for foreign residents). The requestor must include a description of the requested information.[11] The government body then has 20 working days from the date of receiving the request to respond.[12]

Law No. 31.13 of 2018 restricts the exercise of the right to access government information if the release of such information may cause damage to

  • bilateral relationships with foreign countries;
  • monetary, economic, or financial policies of the state;
  • industrial property rights, copyright, or related rights of other persons; or
  • the rights and interests of victims, witnesses, experts, and whistleblowers, concerning cases of bribery, corruption, embezzlement of public funds, and the abuse of a public position.[13]

The Law also bans government bodies from releasing specific information related to

  • confidential deliberations within the Cabinet and governmental councils;
  • ongoing investigations;
  • ongoing court proceedings; or
  • violations of the principles of free, equal, and fair competition.[14] 

Furthermore, the Law provides that the government body may reject a request for government information if the requested information is not available, was already published and made available to the public, was previously provided to the requestor during the same calendar year, or is not complete or clear, or if the request was already filed with the Institution of the National Archives of Morocco.[15]

B. Freedom of Expression and the Press

1. Constitution

The Constitution of Morocco guarantees both freedom of the press and freedom of expression. It provides that the press may not be censored and that Moroccan citizens have the rights to express their ideas and opinions freely.[16]

2. Domestic Legislation

Law No. 13.88 of 2016 on the Press defines the term “journalism” as the gathering of news or information and investigating issues in a professional way with the intention of writing or completing media material.[17] The Law provides that the state must ensure freedom of the press, democracy, and pluralism.[18] It protects the secrecy of the sources of information used by journalists, stating that those sources may only be disclosed by virtue of a judicial decision.[19]

Any person or entity holding more than 30% of the capital and/or voting rights within the administrative or management bodies of a press establishment must notify the National Press Council.[20]

Press establishments are prohibited from receiving funding from a foreign government or party for their own benefit, whether directly or indirectly. Violators are punishable with a fine of 60,000 to 400,000 dirhams (about US$6,497 to $43,318).[21]

The director of a press establishment must verify the credibility of the sources of information prior to the publication of news, articles, and photographs, and must also verify the identity of the authors of any articles published by the press establishment.[22]

The Law requires any newspaper to publish in each issue the names of the persons who own the newspaper. If the newspaper is owned by a legal person, the name of that entity and its address must be provided. The Law also requires each newspaper to publish the name of its director and editorial director as well as the number of copies printed for each issue.[23] Violators are punishable with a fine of 2,000 to 4,000 dirhams (about US$214 to $433).[24]

While Law No. 13.88 protects and guarantees freedom of the press, it also restricts the publication of classified information related to the national defense of the country[25] and sanctions any press establishment that publishes news considered an insult to the dignity of heads of state, heads of government, or ministers of foreign affairs of other countries. Violators are punishable with a fine of 100,000 to 300,000 dirhams (about US$10,828 to $32,485).[26]

The Law prohibits both print and electronic newspapers from publishing articles or news deemed an insult to the Islamic religion or the monarchy, incitements against the unity of the Kingdom, or disrespectful of the person of the King. It also proscribes any publications from inciting the public to commit felonies or misdemeanors, adopt any form of discrimination, or spread hatred within Morocco.[27] Likewise, the Law bans any foreign publications that insult the Islamic religion or the monarchical regime, incite actions against the territorial integrity of the Kingdom, or infringe on the personal privacy of the King, Crown Prince, or members of the royal family.[28] Any persons selling or distributing such foreign publications are punishable with a fine of 100,000 to 500,000 dirhams (about US$54,141 to $10,828).[29]

Likewise, the Law bans any publication of news articles or reports about court cases involving defamation, insult of private individuals, or family disputes, in particular those addressing paternity and divorce.[30] The court has the right to issue a gag order to prohibit publication in some cases.[31] Violators are punishable with a fine of 50,000 to 500,000 dirhams (about US$54,141 to $5,414).[32]

Finally, under the law, any person, who publishes false news that leads to a disturbance of public order or causes panic, is punishable with a fine of 20,000 to 200,000 dirhams (about US$2,165 to $21, 656). If the published news had a negative impact on the morale of military personal, the person who published it is punishable with a fine of 100,000 to 500,000 dirhams. The same penalty applies if the published news

  • is considered as direct incitement to commit the crimes of murder, terrorism, robbery, or sabotage;
  • endorses war crimes, crimes against humanity, crimes of genocide, or crimes of terrorism; or
  • is considered as direct incitement to hatred and discrimination against certain individuals or groups. [33]

C. Freedom of Assembly

1. Constitution

The Constitution of Morocco protects freedom of assembly and peaceful demonstration. It also defers to relevant laws establishing the conditions for exercising this freedom.[34]

2. Domestic Legislation

a. Public Meetings

Law 76 of 2002 guarantees freedom of assembly.[35] However, it imposes certain requirements that the organizers of public meetings must adhere to in order to hold such meetings.

First, the law states that any public meeting must be preceded by a notice to authorities indicating the date, subject, and exact time and place of the meeting. The notice must be signed by three meeting organizers residing in the province where the meeting will occur. In addition, it must include the names, professions, and addresses of the organizers, as well as a certified copy of their national identity cards. The notice must be submitted to the government of the province where the meeting will take place in exchange for a stamped receipt of acknowledgment.[36]

The Law also imposes requirements concerning the location and time of public meetings, stating that such meetings may not be held on public roads or go beyond midnight or the time set in the advance announcement of the meeting.[37]

In addition, the organizers must ensure that the meeting is not held in violation of any laws, public order, or public morals, and that it does not incite the commission of a crime. Any discussions outside the subject of the meeting as described in the advance notice to the authorities are prohibited.[38]

The administrative provincial authority that receives the notice of the meeting may appoint one of its employees to attend the meeting to monitor discussions. This person has the right to dissolve the meeting if it results in clashes among the participants.[39]

Law No. 76 of 2002 provides that violators of its provisions are punishable by a fine of 2,000 to 5,000 Moroccan dirhams. Repeat offenders are punishable with a term of imprisonment of one to two months, a fine of 2,000 to 10,000 dirhams, or both.[40]

b. Street Demonstrations

The right to organize a street demonstration is limited to political parties, trade unions, professional groups, and registered associations only. Organizers of street demonstrations must submit to the provincial administrative authorities an advance notice of the demonstration.[41] Individuals who stage a street demonstration without providing advance notice and those who deliberately include incorrect information in such notice are punishable with a term of imprisonment of one to six months, a fine of 1,200 to 5,000 dirhams (about US$129 and $541), or both.[42]

If the provincial administrative authority determines that the demonstration is likely to disturb public security, it has the power to ban it but must inform the organizers of the demonstration of its decision in writing.[43]

Finally, the Law bans any type of gatherings in public. It stipulates that any person who joins a gathering and not abandon such gathering after receiving a warning from the authorities must be punished with a term of imprisonment of one to three months, a fine of 1,200 dirhams, or both.[44]

D. Freedom of Association

1. Constitution

The Constitution of Morocco protects freedom of association, stipulating that civil society organizations may not be dissolved without a court decision. Moreover, the Constitution encourages civil society organizations to participate in the decision-making process of the elected institutions.[45] 

2. Domestic Legislation

Law No. 07.09 of 2009, amending Royal Decree no. 1.58.376 of 1958, regulates and protects the right to establish nongovernmental associations.[46]

Every nongovernmental association must submit a notice to the provincial administrative authority of its activities. The administrative authority will forward such notice to the public prosecution at the First Instance Court that has geographical jurisdiction over the location of the nongovernment association’s headquarters.[47] Directors of a nongovernmental association who pursue a different purpose from the one mentioned in the notice submitted to the authorities are punishable with a fine of 1,200 to 5,000 Moroccan dirhams.[48]

The notice submitted to the provincial administrative authority must include the following information:

  • The name and purpose of the nongovernmental association
  • The names, nationalities, ages, dates, places of birth, professions, and residential addresses of all founders of the association
  • The mailing address of the association’s headquarters
  • A list of the managers of the association
  • Copies of the national identification cards of the managers[49]

Any nongovernmental association has the right to receive private and government funding as well as collect private donations and membership fees.[50] Any persons who accept donations or funding without submitting notice of the association’s activities to the provincial administrative authority are punishable with a fine of 1,200 to 5,000 Moroccan dirhams. Repeat offenders are subject to a term of imprisonment of one to six months and a fine of 20,000 to 100,000 Moroccan dirhams (about US$2,165 and $10,828).[51] A nongovernmental association that was established for political purposes has no right to receive donations directly or indirectly from the government.[52] Nongovernmental associations that receive foreign funding must submit to the General Secretariat of the Cabinet a notice stating that the association receives foreign funding, specifying the amounts of such funding and its source. The Law grants the authorities the right to dissolve a nongovernmental association if it fails to submit the required notice to the Cabinet.[53]

Military personnel, judges, civil servants, police officers, prisons guards, and customs officials are prohibited from joining any nongovernmental association that is established for political purposes.[54] Violators are punishable with a fine of 1,200 to 10,000 Moroccan dirhams (about US$129 to $1,082).[55]  

Foreign nongovernmental associations cannot be established or pursue their activities without submitting a notice to the provincial administrative authority that has a jurisdiction over the geographical location of the association’s headquarters.[56]

The director of a nongovernmental association who incites other members to commit a felony or misdemeanor during one of the association’s meetings is punishable with a term of imprisonment of three months to two years, a fine of 1,200 to 50,000 Moroccan dirhams, or both.[57]

The Law’s authorization to create nongovernmental associations is not without limits; such associations may not be established for illegal purposes that damage public morals, the Islamic religion, or the unity of the national territory, or that insult the monarchy or incite discrimination.[58] Moreover, the Law bans any nongovernmental association from inciting public armed protests against the government.[59] Violators of such prohibitions are punishable with a term of imprisonment of one to five years and a fine of 20,000 to 100,000 Moroccan dirhams.[60]  

E. Right to Privacy and Data Protection

1. Constitution

The Moroccan Constitution protects the confidentiality of private communications and the right to privacy as well as the privacy of one’s place of residence.[61]  

2. Domestic Legislation

a. Law No. 121.12 of 2019 amending Law No. 24-96 on Telecommunications

Law No. 121.12 of 2019 amends Law No. 24-96 to stipulate that telecommunications companies and their employees are required to protect the confidentiality of private correspondence and the privacy of their clients’ personal data.[62]

b. Law No. 09.08 on Protection of Personal Data

Law No. 09.08 defines the term “personal data” as any information of any nature that may assist in identifying a person. Such information may reveal the person’s physical, physiological, genetic, psychological, economic, cultural, or social identity.[63] Moreover, it defines the term “the processing of personal data” as the collection, recording, organization, storage, adaptation, modification, extraction, use, transmission, dissemination, or deletion of personal data.[64]

Personal data must be

  • processed fairly and legally;
  • collected for explicit and legitimate, defined purposes;
  • processed accurately in a way that prevents any future errors; and
  • maintained for an adequate period of time to assist in identifying the person who owns the data.[65]

Entities that process personal data must notify the data owner before processing[66] and data owners must grant their prior permission for processing to occur[67] unless the processing of personal data

  • is legally required or a law allows processing without consent;
  • is due to a contract signed by the data owner;
  • is needed to protect the best interest of the person owning the data if he or she is unable to grant consent;
  • achieves a mission that supports the public interest or falls within the competence of a public authority;
  • is for the purpose of protecting national defense or the internal and external security of the state;
  • is for the purpose of crime prevention and investigation; or
  • is being carried out exclusively for journalistic, artistic, or literary purposes.[68]

Processing entities must adopt all adequate measures and technology to prevent the accidental destruction, loss, alteration, dissemination, and transmission of the data being processed.[69]

The Law also creates what is known as the National Commission to Monitor the Protection of Personal Data. The Commission drafts laws regulating the protection and recording of personal data[70] and has the authority to grant personal data processing entities permission to carry out their operations. Additionally, the Commission has the power to receive complaints from individuals whose personal data was wrongly processed.[71] 

While the Law gives the Commission the right to cooperate with other foreign bodies in charge of protecting personal data in other countries,[72] it prohibits the transfer of personal data to foreign countries unless such countries guarantee the protection of the data.[73] The entity in charge of processing personal data may transfer the data if the data owner explicitly approves of such transfer or for the purpose of protecting the data owner’s life.[74]

Finally, articles 54 through 63 of the Law subject violators to a term of imprisonment of three months to one year, a fine of 10,000 to 300,000 Moroccan dirham (about US$1,084 to $32,544), or both. 

The Law does not apply to the processing of personal data for personal use, national defense involving the internal and external security of the state, or crime prevention. 

c. Law No. 22.01 of 2019 on the Code of Criminal Procedures

Law No. 22.01 of 219 on the Code of Criminal Procedures guarantees the privacy of a person’s home. It prohibits law enforcement officers from conducting home searches before six o’clock in the morning and after nine o’clock at night,[75] unless the matter relates to a crime of terrorism or evidence will be lost in which case the search may be conducted at any time.[76]

F. Open Internet

1. Background

The National Agency for Telecommunications is the main government agency regulating internet and telecommunication guidelines.[77]The Agency ensures fair competition among telecommunication companies.[78]The three main telecommunication companies in Morocco are Maroc Telecom, Orange Morocco, and Inwin Maroc.[79] Furthermore, the Agency for Telecommunications requires internet service providers to provide their clients with a high quality of service[80] and offer competitive pricing.[81]

According to Freedom House, internet access in Morocco has slowly increased in recent years. The internet penetration rate grew from 52% in 2010 to nearly 65% in 2018. Individuals in urban areas have greater internet access than those who live in rural areas.[82]

Finally, the Moroccan government has not blocked or filtered any political, social, or religious websites. Social media and communication services, including YouTube, Facebook, and Twitter, are available in the country.[83]

2. Domestic Legislation

Law No. 121.12 of 2019 amending Law No. 24-96 regulates the means of telecommunications and ensures a solid infrastructure that allows internet services to reach all users in the country.[84] 

The telecommunications network is in the public domain. The Ministry of Communication must grant permission to telecommunications companies to use the network to offer their services. In addition, telecommunications companies must adhere to relevant international conventions signed and ratified by Morocco, national defense and public security requirements, and the orders of the judicial authority.[85]

According to Freedom House, the King appoints the director and administrative board of the Moroccan National Agency for Telecommunications via royal decree, leaving the agency open to charges of politicization. However, international organizations such as the World Bank have not criticized the agency’s neutrality.[86]

G. Anti-Discrimination and Gender Equality

1. Constitutional Provisions

The 2011 Moroccan Constitution guarantees the principle of equality, stipulating that men and women enjoy equal civil, political, economic, social, cultural, and environmental rights and freedoms.[87] The Constitution also requires the state to facilitate the equal access of Moroccan citizens to healthcare, education, decent housing, public services such as water and electricity, and employment opportunities.[88] 

2. Domestic Legislation

a. Law on Inheritance

While the Constitution promises equality, Arab countries such as Morocco apply Islamic law, which provides in Quranic verse no. 11 of Surat An-Nisaa that a woman’s share of an inheritance is half that of a man.

b. Law No. 70.03 of 2004 on Family Law

Law No. 70.03 on Family Law, which is known as the “Al-Moudawana,” follows the regulations of Islamic law, making polygyny legal.[89] Quranic verse 4:4 of Surat al-Nsa allows Muslim males to marry up to four wives simultaneously.[90]

Husbands entering polygynous unions must guarantee before a judge that they will treat all of their wives and children equally. A woman also has the right to stipulate a condition in the marriage contract barring her husband from taking another wife. [91]

If the husband decides to have a second wife while he is married to the first wife, the family court summons the first wife to obtain her consent to the second marriage.[92] The court must also inform the second wife that the man she is about to marry is already married to another woman.[93]

c. Law No. 62-06 of 2007 on Citizenship

Law No. 92-06 of 2007 on Citizenship provides Moroccan mothers with equal treatment regarding their children’s acquisition of Moroccan citizenship. Under the Law, similar to a child born to a Moroccan father of a foreign wife, a child born to a Moroccan mother of a foreign husband is considered a Moroccan citizen as well.[94]

d. Law on Age of Marriage

Law No. 70.03 of 2004 on Family Law treats males and females equally by providing the same minimum age of marriage for both genders. Both males and females must be 18 years of age to marry.[95]

The religious courts have the power to authorize the marriage of a person under 18 years of age (of either sex) if a court finds marriage is in “the best interest of the couple.” Giving such authorization is also conditional upon the “physical ability to marry.”[96]

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Prepared by George Sadek
Foreign Law Specialist
October 2020


[1] U.N. General Assembly, International Covenant on Civil and Political Right, Dec. 16, 1966, 999 U.N.T.S. 171. 

[2] Morocco Const. of 2011, art. 27, para. 1, https://perma.cc/RCL3-JHWE (in Arabic).

[3] Id. para. 2.

[4] Law No. 31.13 of 2018, art. 1, Al-Jaridah Al-Rasmiyah, vol. 6655, 12 Mar. 2018, https://perma.cc/9EGT-YHHS (in Arabic).

[5] Id. art. 2.

[6] Id. art. 2, para. 2.

[7] Id. art. 3.

[8] Id. art. 4.

[9] Id. art. 5.

[10] Id. art. 10.

[11] Id. art. 14.

[12] Id. art. 16.

[13] Law No. 31.13 of 2018, art. 7, para. 1.

[14] Id. art. 7, para. 2.

[15] Id. art. 18.

[16] Morocco Const. of 2011, art. 28.

[17] Law No. 13.88 of 2016, art. 2, Al-Jaridah Al-Rasmiyah, vol. 6491, 15 Aug. 2016, https://perma.cc/4VML-BTNT (in Arabic).

[18] Id. art. 7.

[19] Id. art. 5.

[20] Id. art. 11.

[21] Id. art. 13.

[22] Id. art. 17.

[23] Id. art. 25.

[24] Id. art. 27.

[25] Id. art. 6.

[26] Id. art. 81.

[27] Id. art. 71.

[28] Id. art. 31, para. 1.

[29] Id. art. 31, para. 4.

[30] Id. art. 75, para. 2.

[31] Id. art. 76.

[32] Id. art. 78.

[33] Id. art. 72.

[34] Morocco Const. of 2011, art. 29.

[35] Law No. 76 of 2002 amending Law 1.73.284 of 1973 regulating Public Assemblages, Al-Jaridah Al-Rasmiyah, vol. 5046, 10 Oct. 2002, https://perma.cc/4XJZ-DGQC (in Arabic).

[36] Id. art. 3.

[37] Id. art. 4.

[38] Id. art. 6.

[39] Id. art. 7.

[40] Id. art. 9.

[41] Id. art. 11.

[42] Id. art. 14.

[43] Id. art. 13.

[44] Id. art. 21.

[45] Morocco Const. of 2011, art. 12.

[46] Royal Decree No. 1.58.376 of 1958, art. 2, as amended, Al-Jaridah Al-Rasmiyah, vol. 2404, 27 Nov. 1958, https://perma.cc/2PSA-YYMV (in Arabic).   

[47] Id. art. 5, para. 1.

[48] Id. art. 36.

[49] Id. art. 5, para. 2.

[50] Id. art. 6.

[51] Id. art. 8.

[52] Id. art. 18.

[53] Id. art. 32(bis).

[54] Id. art. 17(4).

[55] Id. art. 20.

[56] Id. art. 23.

[57] Id. art. 35.

[58] Id. art. 3.

[59] Id. art. 29(1).

[60] Id. art. 30.

[61] Morocco Const. of 2011, art. 24.

[62] Law No. 121.12 of 2019 amending Law No. 24-96, art. 26, Al-Jaridah Al-Rasmiyah, vol. 6753, 18 Feb. 2019, https://perma.cc/V2YP-25EJ (in Arabic).

[63] Law No. 09.08 of 2009, art. 1(1), Al-Jaridah Al-Rasmiyah, vol. 5711, 23 Feb. 2009, https://perma.cc/YN3B-6J87 (in Arabic).

[64] Id. art. 1(2).

[65] Id. art. 3.

[66] Id. art. 5.

[67] Id. art. 4, para. 1.

[68] Id. art 4, para. 3.

[69] Id. art. 23.

[70] Id. art. 27.

[71] Id. art. 28.

[72] Id. art. 28(4).

[73] Id. art. 43, para. 1.

[74] Id. art. 44, para. 1.

[75] Law No. 22.01 of 2019 on Code of Criminal Procedures, art. 62, Al-Jaridah Al-Rasmiyah, vol. 6796, 18 July 2019, https://perma.cc/YK4M-UGDZ (in Arabic).

[76] Id. art. 62, para. 3. 

[77] Mission, National Agency to Regulate Telecommunications (ANRT), https://perma.cc/P23T-RV5M (in Arabic).

[78] Law No. 121.12 of 2019, art. 8, Al-Jaridah Al-Rasmiyah, vol. 6753, 18 Feb. 2019, https://perma.cc/CX8R-U6L8 (in Arabic).

[79] Freedom on the Net 2019: Morocco, Freedom House, pt. A3, https://perma.cc/3HR9-DJA7.

[80] Prime Minister, Memoranda for General Instructions on the Development of the Telecommunications Sector in the Year 2018, § 4.1.2. (Apr. 10, 2015), https://perma.cc/K259-24ZM (in Arabic).

[81] Id. § 5.1.2.

[82] Freedom on the Net 2019: Morocco, supra note 79, pt. A2. 

[83] Freedom on the Net 2019: Morocco, supra note 79, pt. B1, para. 1.

[84] Law No. 121.12 of 2019 amending Law No. 24-96, art. 1(27), Al-Jaridah Al-Rasmiyah, vol. 6753, 18 Feb. 2019, https://perma.cc/CX8R-U6L8 (in Arabic).

[85] Id. art. 10.

[86] Freedom on the Net 2019: Morocco, supra note 79, pt. A5, para. 2.

[87] Morocco Const. of 2011, art. 19.

[88] Id. art. 31.

[89] Law No. 70.03 of 2004, Al-Jaridah Al-Rasmiyah, vol. 5184, 5 Feb. 2004, https://perma.cc/A546-3ZVH (in Arabic).

[90]  Quranic verse 4:4, https://perma.cc/GE7B-LZ8U.

[91] Law No. 70.03 of 2004, art. 40.

[92] Id. art. 43, para. 1.

[93] Id. art. 46.

[94] Law 62-06 of 2007, art. 6, Al-Jaridah Al-Rasmiyah , vol. 5513, 2 Apr. 2007, https://perma.cc/GP53-CAKA (in Arabic).

[95] Law No. 70.03 of 2004, art. 19.

[96] Id. art. 20.

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Last Updated: 12/30/2020