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This report surveys laws related to asylum granting procedures in 147 countries that are States Parties to the 1951 U.N. Convention Relating to the Status of Refugees and/or its 1967 Protocol.  It identifies fees charged to applicants in connection with an application for asylum.  According to the research findings, the vast majority of countries do not charge a fee for applying for asylum.  Some countries require the payment of fees for obtaining the relevant temporary or permanent protection visa (Australia, Canada, Fiji, New Zealand), although waivers or exemptions may apply. Other countries may charge more indirect fees, such as reimbursement of costs for food and accommodation in detention facilities (Czech Republic, Hungary), issuance of identification documents (Iran), translation of documents (Liechtenstein), a mandatory health examination (Russia), or reexamination of the petition (Switzerland).  For some countries, No definite answer could be provided because No legislation or other relevant information was located; for such countries the chart indicates “No information located” in the second column.  In some instances, implementing legislation was located but No information regarding fees was found; for these countries the chart indicates “No fee located” in the second column.  Countries that are States Parties to the 1967 Protocol only are identified by an asterisk. 

Full Report (PDF, 338KB)

Country Application Fee Amount
(national currency/US$ equivalent)
Exceptions or Waivers
(Yes/No; short description if yes)
Availability of Government Loan
(Yes/No)

Fee Amount for a Detained Applicant
(if different from fees for nondetained applicants)
Citation
Afghanistan No information located       No applicable legal instrument located
Albania None       [1]
Algeria No fee located (the Office for Refugees and Stateless Persons is entitled to collect “chancery fees,” the amount of which is to be fixed in a table, which was not located) Yes; partial/total exemption from fees may be granted to indigent persons. No   [2]
Angola None       [3]
Antigua and Barbuda No information located       No applicable legal instrument located
Argentina None       [4]
Armenia None       [5]
Australia AU$35/US$27
(if applicant entered the country on a valid visa, or if arrived illegally and applied for a protection visa before October 1, 2017. Illegal entrants who arrive or apply after that date cannot be granted a visa and must leave Australia).
A bridging visa may be granted to an applicant awaiting a decision on a protection visa. There is No application fee for this visa.
No No $0

(there is No fee “for an applicant who is in immigration detention and has not been immigration cleared”).

[6]

[7]

[8]

Austria None     [9]
Azerbaijan None       [10]
Bahamas No information located       No applicable legal instrument located

 

Belarus None       [11]
Belgium None       [12]
Belize No fee located       [13]
Benin No information located       No applicable legal instrument located
Bolivia None       [14]
Bosnia and Herzegovina None       [15]
Botswana No fee located       [16]
Brazil None       [17]
Bulgaria None       [18]
Burkina Faso None       [19]
Burundi None       [20]
Cabo Verde* No information located       No applicable legal instrument located
Cambodia No fee located (authorization for preliminary stay while claim determined is issued free of charge)       [21]
Cameroon None       [22]
Canada No fee for refugee protection application from within Canada.
Application processing fees for permanent residence for protected persons and Convention refugees:
Principal applicant’s processing fee, Can$550/US$427.58
Spouse or partner, Can$550/US$427.58
Dependent child, Can$150/US$116.61 (per child under age 22)
No exemption for permanent residency application, but exempt from paying “right of permanent residence” fee.
Person in Canada who has made refugee claim that has not yet been determined, or person on whom refugee protection has been conferred who has applied for a work permit/ temporary residence permit, not required to pay application fees.
No   [23]
[24]
Central African Republic No information located       No applicable legal instrument located
Chad No information located       No applicable legal instrument located
Chile None       [25]
China No fee located       [26]
[27]
Colombia None       [28]
Congro, Democratic Republic of None       [29]
Congo, Republic of None       [30]
Costa Rica None       [31]
Cote d’Ivoire None       [32]
Croatia None       [33]
Cyprus None       [34]
Czech Republic None, but applicants for international protection placed in asylum facilities during application review must contribute to costs of food and accommodation No No No [35]
Denmark None       [36]
Djibouti None       [37]
Dominica No information located       No applicable legal instrument located
Dominican Republic No fee located       [38]
Ecuador None       [39]
Egypt No information located       No applicable legal instrument located
El Salvador None       [40]
Equatorial Guinea No information located       No applicable legal instrument located
Estonia None       [41]
Ethiopia No fee located       [42]
Fiji FJ$465/US$225
(for application or renewal of provisional protection permit or protection permit)
Yes—both the Immigration Act and associated regulations allow the Permanent Secretary (head of immigration department) to waive the fee. No   [43]
Finland None       [44]
France None       [45]
Gabon None       [46]
Gambia No fee located       [47]
Georgia None       [48]
Germany None       [49]
Ghana No fee located       [50]
Greece None       [51]
Guatemala None       [52]
Guinea None       [53]
Guinea-Bissau None       [54]
Haiti No information located       No applicable legal instrument located
Honduras None       [55]
Hungary None, but law requires police to detain all asylum-seekers in designated facilities and makes them pay detention costs No No No [56]
Iceland None       [57]
Iran Average cost for family of five for initial Amayesh (registered refugee) cards and their renewal (latest information available): IRR12,321,000/US$413 Yes.
Certain vulnerable categories of refugees reportedly exempted, including families with more than 8 members, elderly and disabled persons, single women with children younger than 15, orphans, children of Iranian widows, and single women and girls older than 18.
No   [58]
Ireland None       [59]
Israel None       [60]
Italy None       [61]
Jamaica No information located       No applicable legal instrument located
[62]
Japan None       [63]
Kazakhstan None       [64]
Kenya No fee located. Applicable law requires that asylum-seeker ID be issued free of charge.       [65]
Kyrgyzstan None       [66]
Latvia None       [67]
Lesotho No fee located       [68]
Liberia No fee located       [69]
Liechtenstein None, but fee may be charged for translation of foreign documents needed for application if translation is done by the Liechtenstein Office of Alien and Passport Affairs itself and the applicant has sufficient financial means. No No   [70]
Lithuania None       [71]
Luxembourg None       [72]
Madagascar No information located       No applicable legal instrument located
Malawi No fee located       [73]
Mali None       [74]
Malta None       [75]
Mauritania No fee located       [76]
Mexico None       [77]
Monaco None       [78]
Montenegro None       [79]
Morocco No information located       No applicable legal instrument located
Mozambique None       [80]
Namibia No fee located       [81]
Nauru None       [82]
Netherlands None       [83]
New Zealand No fee for making a claim for refugee or protection status.
Claimants normally granted a 6-month visitor visa (Refugee Claimant Visitor Visa) while claim is processed, with application fees of NZ$165/US$114 (online) or NZ$184/US$127 (paper).
Claimants may be granted a special temporary work visa while they await a decision on their status.
There is no application fee for a Child of a Refugee Claimant Student Visa.
Yes; an immigration officer may waive visitor visa or special work visa application fees.
Claimants, refugees, and protected persons are exempt from paying the immigration levy.
No   [84]
[85]
[86]
[87]
[88]
Nicaragua None       [89]
Niger None       [90]
Nigeria No fee located       [91]
Norway None       [92]
Panama None       [93]
Papua New Guinea None       [94]
Paraguay None       [95]
Peru None       [96]
Philippines No fee located       [97]
Poland None       [98]

 

Portugal None       [99]
Macedonia, former Yugoslav Republic of None       [100]
Moldova None       [101]
Romania None       [102]
Russian Federation No fee charged for temporary asylum or refugee applications for applicant and family members, but all petitioners required to undergo mandatory medical examination the exact price of which is established by regional authorities--typically about US$60. No No No [103]
Rwanda None       [104]
Samoa No information located       No applicable legal instrument located
Sao Tome and Principe No information located       No applicable legal instrument located
Senegal None       [105]
Serbia None       [106]
Seychelles No information located       No applicable legal instrument located
Sierra Leone No fee located       [107]
Slovakia None       [108]
Slovenia None       [109]
Solomon Islands None       [110]
Somalia No information located       No applicable legal instrument located
South Africa None       [111]
South Korea None       [112]
Spain None       [113]
St. Kitts and Nevis No information located       No applicable legal instrument located
[114]
St. Vincent and the Grenadines No information located       No applicable legal instrument located
Sudan No fee located       [115]
Suriname No information located       No applicable legal instrument located
Swaziland No information located       No applicable legal instrument located
Sweden None       [116]
Switzerland No fee for first application. Fee of CHF600 (US$610) for re-examination and multiple applications. Fee may be increased by up to 50% if case is particularly difficult or complex. Yes. Waiver if applicant is indigent and the application does not appear prima facie without merit (cumulative grounds) No   [117]
Tajikistan None       [118]
Tanzania, United Republic of No fee located       [119]
Timor-Leste No information located       No applicable legal instrument located
Togo None       [120]
Trinidad and Tobago No information located       [121]
Tunisia No information located       No applicable legal instrument located
Turkey None       [122]
Turkmenistan None       [123]
Tuvalu No information located       No applicable legal instrument located
Uganda No fee located       [124]
Ukraine None       [125]
United Kingdom None       [126]
Uruguay No fee located       [127]
Vatican City/ Holy See No information located       No applicable legal instrument located
Venezuela* None       [128]
Yemen No information located       No applicable legal instrument located
Zambia No fee located       [129]
Zimbabwe No fee located       [130]

* Signatory to 1967 Protocol only.

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Prepared by the Staff of the Global Legal Research Directorate
December 2017

[1] Ligji Per Azilin Ne Republiken E Shqiperise [Law on Asylum in the Republic of Albania], No. 121/2014, Fletorja Zyrtare [Official Gazette] 158/2014, http://www.qbz.gov.al/botime/fletore_zyrtare/2014/PDF-2014/158-2014.pdf (in Albanian), archived at https://perma.cc/QA4L-8E9Z.

[2] Decree No. 1963-274 of 1963 Fixing the Terms of Application of the Geneva Convention of 28 July 1951 Relating to the Status of Refugees art. 6, available at http://www.refworld.org/docid/3ae6b52518.html (in French), archived at https://perma.cc/JKZ5-VV69.

[4] Ley 26165 General de Reconocimiento y Protección al Refugiado art. 54, Boletín Oficial, Dec. 1, 2006, http://servicios.infoleg.gob.ar/infolegInternet/anexos/120000-124999/122609/norma.htm, archived at https://perma.cc/5LWF-EJMJ.

[5] Pakhstakanneri ev Apastani Masin Orenq [Law on Refugees and Asylum], No. 211-N, Pashtonakan Teghekagir (official gazette) No. 2 (668) of Jan. 14, 2009, http://www.arlis.am/DocumentView.aspx?DocID=109246 (in Armenian), archived at https://perma.cc/9U7Y-9Y82.

[6] Migration Regulations 1994 (Cth) regs 1401–1404, https://www.legislation.gov.au/Details/F2017C00582, archived at https://perma.cc/HV9T-BDR8

[7] Press Release, Department of Immigration and Border Protection (DIBP), Deadline for IMAs to Lodge has Passed (Oct. 3, 2017), https://www.border.gov.au/News/Pages/deadline-for-imas.aspx, archived at https://perma.cc/NLA9-2XRY

[8] Bridging Visa E – BVE (Subclass 050-051), DIBP, https://www.border.gov.au/Trav/Visa-1/051- (last visited Nov. 27, 2017), archived at https://perma.cc/R2CC-UUZC

[9] Bundesgesetz über die Gewährung von Asyl (Asylgesetz 2005 – AsylG 2005) [Federal Act Concerning the Granting of Asylum (Asylum Act 2005 – AsylG 2005)], Bundesgesetzblatt [BGBl.] [Federal Law Gazette] I No. 100/2005, as amended, § 70, https://www.ris.bka.gv.at/GeltendeFassung.wxe?Abfrage=Bundesnormen&Gesetzesnummer=20004240, archived at http://perma.cc/3WYR-SFNT, English translation updated through Mar. 1, 2010, available at https://www.ris.bka.gv.at/Dokumente/Erv/ERV_2005_1_100/ERV_2005_1_100.pdf, archived at http://perma.cc/D9BE-B27K.

[10] Qaçqınların və Məcburi Köçkünlərin (Olkə Daxilində Köçürülmüş Səxslərin) Statusu Haqqında Azərbaycan Respublikasının Qanunu [Law of the Azerbaijani Republic On Internally Displaced Person and Refugee Status] No. 668-IQ, Azərbaycan Respublikasının Qanunvericilik Toplusu (official gazette) No. 7/1999, item 392, http://www.e-qanun.az/framework/4757 (in Azerbaijani), archived at https://perma.cc/R63A-U68V.

[11] Zakon o Predostavlenii Inostrannym Grazhdanam I Litsam Bez Grazdanstva Statusa Bezhentsa, Dopolnitelnoi I Vremennoi Zaschity v Respublike Belarus [Law on Granting Refugee Status, Supplemental and Temporary Protection to Foreign Citizens and Stateless Persons in the Republic of Belarus], No. 354-Z, Natisonalnyi Reestr Pravovykh Aktov [National Registry of Legal Acts] No. 158 of July 2, 2008, Item 2/1451 (official publication), http://gpk.gov.by/zakonodatelstvo/laws/20224/ (in Russian), archived at https://perma.cc/P42T-7A4G.

[12] Loi du 15 décembre 1980 sur l’accès au territoire, le séjour, l’établissement et l’éloignement des étrangers [Law of 15 December 1980 on the Entry, Stay, Settlement, and Removal of Foreigners], http://www.ejustice.just.fgov.be/cgi_loi/change_lg.pl?language=fr&la=F&cn=1980121530&table_name=loi, archived athttps://perma.cc/VKH2-DV3V.

[14] Ley 251 de Protección a Personas Refugiadas art. 11, Diario Oficial, https://www.migracion.gob.bo/upload/l251.pdf, archived at https://perma.cc/T5XS-L6NY.

[15] Zakon o Azilu [Law on Asylum], Sluzbeni Glasnik BiH (official gazette) No. 11/2016 of Feb. 19, 2016, http://sps.gov.ba/dokumenti/zakoni/Zakon o azilu.pdf (in Bosnian), archived at https://perma.cc/PJC6-5G2F.

[16] Refugees (Recognition and Control) Act, 1968, IV Laws of Botswana, Cap. 25:01 (rev. ed. 2013).

[17] Lei No. 9.474, de 22 de Julho de 1997 [Law No. 9,474 of July 22, 1997], https://www.planalto.gov.br/ccivil_03/leis/l9474.htm, archived at https://perma.ccj/FDS5-XNNB.

[18] Zakon za Ubezhishteto i Bezhantsite [Law on Asylum and Refugees], Derzhaven Vestnik [State Bulletin] (official gazette) No. 54 of May 31, 2002, available at https://lex.bg/laws/ldoc/2135453184 (in Bulgarian), archived at https://perma.cc/K5TN-D4K3.

[19] Décret No. 2011-119/PRES/PM/MAECR du 10 mars 2011 relatif aux modalités d’application de la loi portant statut des réfugiés au Burkina Faso [Decree No. 2011-119/PRES/PM/MAECR of 10 March 2011 Regarding the Conditions of Application of the Law on the Status of Refugees in Burkina Faso], http://www.legiburkina.bf/m/Sommaires_JO/D%C3%A9cret_2011_00119.htm, archived at https://perma.cc/NTV8-FP6J.

[20] Loi No. 1/32 du 13 novembre 2008 sur l’asile et la protection des réfugiés au Burundi [Law No. 1/32 of 13 November 2008 on Asylum and the Protection of Refugees in Burundi], https://www.assemblee.bi/IMG/pdf/loi_n1-32_du_13_novembre_2008.pdf, archived at https://perma.cc/7XJ7-U5AG.

[21] Sub-Decree No. 224 of 2009, on Procedure for Recognition as a Refugee or Providing Asylum Rights to Foreigners in the Kingdom of Cambodia, art. 8, available at http://www.refworld.org/docid/4d81f0172.html, archived at https://perma.cc/9DXT-ES55.  

[22] Loi n°2005/006 du 27 juillet 2005 Portant statut des réfugiés au Cameroun [Law No. 2005/006 of 27 July 2005 Establishing the Status of Refugees in Cameroon], https://www.ecoi.net/file_upload/1504_1217346395_loi-No -2005-006-du-27-juillet-2005-portant-statut-des-refugies-au-cameroun.pdf, archived at https://perma.cc/WCU3-TGAE.

[23] Immigration and Refugee Protection Regulations (SOR/2002-227), § 301(1)(b),  http://laws-lois.justice.gc.ca/eng/regulations/sor-2002-227/FullText.html, archived at https://perma.cc/DCQ7-AARX.

[24] Pay Your Protected Person Fee, Immigration and Citizenship Canada, http://www.cic.gc.ca/english/information/fees/result.asp?lob=pp&cat=perm (last modified Oct. 24, 2017), archived at https://perma.cc/CV5W-2UASApplying for Permanent Residence from within Canada: Protected Persons and Convention Refugees (IMM 5205), Immigration and Citizenship Canada, http://www.cic.gc.ca/english/information/applications/guides/5205ETOC.asp (last visited Nov. 29, 2017), archived at https://perma.cc/3JJZ-JASR.

[25] Ley 20430 Establece Disposiciones sobre Protección de Refugiados art. 48, Diario Oficial, Apr. 15, 2010, http://www.acnur.org/fileadmin/scripts/doc.php?file=fileadmin/Documentos/BDL/2010/7733, archived at https://perma.cc/L57V-U7LE.

[26] Exit and Entry Law [Chujing Rujing Guanli Fa] (promulgated by the Standing Committee of the National People’s Congress on June 30, 2012, effective July 1, 2013) art. 46, http://cs.mfa.gov.cn/wgrlh/lhqz/lhqzjjs/t1120988.shtml, archived at https://perma.cc/5XS7-BPTE.

[27] In practice, refugee status determinations are conducted by the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees (UNHCR) free of charge. The People’s Republic of China Fact Sheet, UNHCR (Aug. 2015), http://www.unhcr.org/5000187d9.pdf, archived at https://perma.cc/E366-DQPK.

[28] Decreto 1067 Por medio del cual se Expide el Decreto Único Reglamentario del Sector Administrativo de Relaciones Exteriores art. 2.2.3.1.4.1, Diario Oficial, May 26, 2015, http://www.alcaldiabogota.gov.co/sisjur/normas/Norma1.jsp?i=62501, archived at https://perma.cc/AS29-WWLF.

[29] Décret n° 03/014 du 05 août 2003 portant organisation et fonctionnement de la Commission Nationale pour les réfugiés et de la commission des recours [Decree No. 03-014 of 5 August 2003 Establishing the Organization and Operations of the National Commission for Refugees and the Appeals Commission], http://www.droitcongolais.info/files/1.18.34.-Decret-du-5-aout-2003.pdf, archived at https://perma.cc/PXZ7-86JD.

[30] Loi No. 23-96 du 6 juin 1996 fixant les conditions d’entrée, de séjour et de sortie des étrangers [Law No. 23-96 of 6 June 1996 Setting the Conditions of Entry, Stay, and Exit of Foreigners], available at http://www.refworld.org/country,LEGAL,,,COG,,44aa884a4,0.html, archived at https://perma.cc/Q8Z9-3C9G.

[31] Ley 8764, Ley General de Migración y Extranjería, No. 8764, La Gaceta, Sept. 1, 2009, http://www.tse.go.cr/pdf/normativa/leygeneraldemigracion.pdf, archived at https://perma.cc/QHR3-NZ69.

[32] Procédure de détermination du statut de réfugié [Procedure for Determining Refugee Status], Service d’Aide et d’Assistance aux Réfugiés et Apatrides [Service for Help and Assistance to Refugees and Stateless Persons], Ministère des Affaires Etrangères [Ministry of Foreign Affairs], http://www.saara.gouv.ci/home/procedure_de_determination_du_statut_de_refugie (last visited Dec. 15, 2017), archived at https://perma.cc/BR5J-LBSC.

[33] Zakon o Azilu [Act on Asylum], Narodne Novine [People’s News] (official gazette) No. 79/2007, Item 2474, https://narodne-novine.nn.hr/clanci/sluzbeni/2007_07_79_2474.html (in Croatian), archived at https://perma.cc/6R4N-DTB5; Zakon o Međunarodnoj I Privremenoj Zaštiti [Act on International and Temporary Protection], Narodne Novine [People’s News] (official gazette) No. 70/2015, Item 1328, https://narodne-novine.nn.hr/clanci/sluzbeni/2015_06_70_1328.html (in Croatian), archived at https://perma.cc/JN7E-VSDG.

[34] Guide for Applicants of International Protections, Republic of Cyprus Asylum Service, http://www.moi.gov.cy/moi/asylum/asylumservice.nsf/asylumservice10_en/asylumservice10_en?OpenDocument (last visited Nov. 29, 2017), archived at https://perma.cc/PHV8-CERJ.

[35] Act No. 325/1999 on Asylum of 11 November 1999, art. 42(3), https://www.zakonyprolidi.cz/cs/1999-325 (in Czech), archived at https://perma.cc/3UHC-SXVV, English translation available at http://www.refworld.org/country,LEGAL,NATLEGBOD,,CZE,,4a7a97bfc33,0.html, archived at https://perma.cc/4ARX-SYQE.

[36] Fees, NewtoDenmark (June 16, 2017), https://www.nyidanmark.dk/en-us/coming_to_dk/fee/fee.htm, archived at https://perma.cc/L45S-KAFM; § 9h Udlændingeloven [Aliens Act] (LBK nr 1117 af 02/10/2017), https://www.retsinformation.dk/Forms/R0710.aspx?id=194003, archived at https://perma.cc/FG4W-G8BA.

[37] Loi N° 159/AN/16/7ème L portant statut des réfugiés en République de Djibouti [Law No. 159/AN/16/7th L Establishing the Status of Refugees in the Republic of Djibouti] (Jan. 5, 2017), http://www.presidence.dj/texte.php?ID=159&ID2=2017-01-05&ID3=Loi&ID4=1&ID5=2017-01-15&ID6=n, archived at https://perma.cc/6CLY-JPDC.

[38] Reglamento de la Comisión Nacional para los Refugiados [Regulation of the National Commission for Refugees], No. 2330, Sept. 10, 1984, http://transparencia.mirex.gov.do/media/base-legal/leyes-decretos-resoluciones-normativas/DE LA COMISION NACIONAL PARA LOS REFUGIADOS.pdf, archived at https://perma.cc/UN79-V92B.

[39] Decreto 1182 Reglamento para la Aplicación en Ecuador del Derecho de Refugio art. 37, Diario Oficial, June 19, 2012, http://cancilleria.gob.ec/wp-content/uploads/2013/06/decreto-1182.pdf archived at https://perma.cc/W456-HEYP.

[40] Ley para la Determinación de la Condición de las Personas Refugiadas y Garantizar el Derecho de Toda Persona Extranjera o Nacional, Decree No. 918, Diario Oficial, Aug. 14, 2002, https://www.asamblea.gob.sv/eparlamento/indice-legislativo/buscador-de-documentos-legislativos/ley-para-la-determinacion-de-la-condicion-de-personas-refugiadas, archived at https://perma.cc/4S86-JS3X.

[41] Välismaalasele Rahvusvahelise Kaitse Andmise Seadus [Act on Granting International Protection of Aliens], Riigi Teataja (official gazette) RT I, 14 of Jan. 3, 2017, https://www.riigiteataja.ee/akt/VRKS (in Estonian), archived at https://perma.cc/NA3G-BVAS; Pagulaste Seadus [Refugee Act], Riigi Teataja (official gazette) RT I, 1997, 19, 306, https://www.riigiteataja.ee/akt/254492 (in Estonian), archived at https://perma.cc/K9UQ-BLSD.

[42] Refugee Proclamation No. 409/2004, Federal Negarit Gazeta (July 19, 2004), available at https://chilot.files.wordpress.com/2012/10/proc-No -409-2004-refugee.pdf, archived at https://perma.cc/ZE84-9KTH.

[43] Immigration Act 2003, § 39, available at http://www.paclii.org/fj/legis/num_act/ia2003138/, archived at https://perma.cc/FAE6-42M7; Immigration Regulations 2007, regs. 20, 27–32 & schedule, available at http://www.pidcsec.org/files/PolicyAndResearch/Immigration%20Regulations%202007.doc, archived at https://perma.cc/5F76-EQZX.

[44] 10a § Utlänningslag [Aliens Act] 30.4.2004/301, http://www.finlex.fi/sv/laki/ajantasa/2004/20040301 (in Swedish), archived at https://perma.cc/2LX8-EG9H; but see Processing Fees,Finnish Immigration Service, http://www.migri.fi/our_services/processing_fees (last visited Nov. 29, 2017), archived at https://perma.cc/8QLS-C4CD.

[45] Code de l’entrée et du séjour des étrangers et du droit d’asile [CESEDA] [Code of Entry and Residence of Foreigners and of the Right of Asylum], https://www.legifrance.gouv.fr/affichCode.do?cidTexte=LEGITEXT000006070158&dateTexte=20171129, archived at https://perma.cc/A6JK-WH9K.

[46] Loi nº 5/98 du 5 mars 1996 Portant statut des réfugiés en République gabonaise [Law No. 5/98 of 5 March 1996 Establishing the Status of Refugees in the Republic of Gabon], available at https://www.ecoi.net/file_upload/1504_1217424358_loi-No -5-98-du-5-mars-1996-portant-statut-des-refugies-en-republique-gabonaise.pdf, archived at https://perma.cc/DH57-SCYC.

[47] Refugee Act No. 15 of 2008 (Nov. 17, 2008), available at http://www.ilo.org/dyn/natlex/docs/ELECTRONIC/87117/98981/F1830015998/GMB87117.pdf, archived at https://perma.cc/ULE6-BY39.   

[48] Sakartvelos Kanoni Ltolvilisa da Humanitaruli Statusebis Shesakheb [Law on Refugee and Humanitarian Status], No. 5370 of Dec. 6, 2011, published online on Dec. 20, 2011, https://matsne.gov.ge/ka/document/view/1531916 (in Georgian; official publication), archived at https://perma.cc/FV8E-C9C9; Sakartvelos Kanoni Saertashoriso Datsvis Shesakheb [Law on International Protection], No. 42 of Dec. 1, 2016, published online on Dec. 15, 2016, https://matsne.gov.ge/ka/document/view/3452780 (in Georgian; official publication), archived at https://perma.cc/3YWJ-EHXU.

[49] Aufenthaltsverordnung (AufenthV) [Residence Regulation], Nov. 25, 2004, Bundesgesetzblatt [BGBl.] [Federal Law Gazette] I at 2945, as amended, § 52, para. 3, http://www.gesetze-im-internet.de/aufenthv/AufenthV.pdf, archived at http://perma.cc/7TGJ-F9YC.

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[52] Decreto No. 95-98, Ley de Migración, Diario de Centro América, Dec. 23, 1998, http://old.congreso.gob.gt/archivos/decretos/1998/gtdcx95-1998.pdf, archived at https://perma.cc/UJ7S-9C79; Acuerdo Gubernativo, No. 529-99, Reglamento de la Ley de Migración, Diario de Centro América, July 29, 1999, https://www.congreso.gob.gt/wp-content/plugins/acuerdos/includes/uploads/docs/1999/gtagx5291999.pdf, archived at, https://perma.cc/9RCH-ZZHB.

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[54] Lei No. 6/2008, de 27 de Maio [Law No. 6 of May 27, 2008], available at http://www.refworld.org/docid/49fff8e72.html, archived at https://perma.cc/QQ62-W3TD.

[55] Ley de Migración y Extranjería, La Gaceta, Mar. 3, 2004, http://www.tsc.gob.hn/leyes/Ley de Migración y Extranjeria.pdf, archived at https://perma.cc/U8VN-JT2G; Reglamento de la Ley de Migración y Extranjería, La Gaceta, May 3, 2004, http://www.tsc.gob.hn/leyes/Reglamento de la Ley Migración (07).pdf, archived at https://perma.cc/QAQ6-PV73.

[56] Act II of 2007 on the Admission and Residence of Third-Country Nationals § 62(4), available at https://net.jogtar.hu/jr/gen/hjegy_doc.cgi?docid=A0700002.TV (in Hungarian), archived at https://perma.cc/QXU6-V7TR, English translation available at http://www.refworld.org/country,LEGAL,NATLEGBOD,,HUN,,3ed4ba334,0.html, archived at https://perma.cc/PVT4-DMPR.

[57] 88, 89 §§ e contrario, Regulation on Foreigners (No. 53 of Jan. 23, 2003), https://eng.innanrikisraduneyti.is/laws-and-regulations/english/foreigners/nr/860, archived at https://perma.cc/3MTF-ZZLP.

[58] Human Rights Watch, Unwelcome Guests: Iran’s Violation of Afghan Refugee and Migrant Rights 36, 36 nn.83 & 86 (Nov. 2013), https://www.hrw.org/sites/default/files/reports/iran1113_forUpload_0.pdf, archived at https://perma.cc/V6XM-MKV8; Norwegian Refugee Council, Country Programme in Iran: Factsheet April 2017, at 2, 43, https://www.nrc.No /globalassets/pdf/fact-sheets/2017/iran/t1-2017---fact-sheet-iran---compressed.pdf, archived at https://perma.cc/23FZ-TEA8; Lifos – Center för landinformation och landanalys inom migrationsområdet, Temarapport: Afghaner i Iran [Report: Afghans in Iran] app. 2 (Mar. 17, 2016), https://lifos.migrationsverket.se/dokument?documentSummaryId=36932 (click on PDF link; in Swedish with English appendix), archived at https://perma.cc/3NGT-JQ2L.

[59] International Protection Act 2015, No. 66 of 2015, http://www.irishstatutebook.ie/eli/2015/act/66/enacted/en/pdf, archived at https://perma.cc/SND2-JG7H

[60] Procedure for Handling Political Asylum Seekers in Israel, Population and Immigration Authority (PIA), Procedure No. 5.2.0012 (5th ed., updated Feb. 26, 2017), https://www.gov.il/BlobFolder/policy/handling_political_asylum_seekers_in_israel/he/5.2.0012_eng.pdf, archived at https://perma.cc/63UE-RLFN; Refugee Status Determination Application Form (rev. June 30, 2015), https://www.gov.il/BlobFolder/service/apply_for_asylum_in_israel/he/RSD%20application%20form_300615.pdf, archived at https://perma.cc/M54A-FB2P.

[61] Decreto del Presidente della Repubblica 12 gennaio 2015, n. 21 Regolamento relativo alle Procedure per il Riconoscimento e la Revoca della Protezione Internazionale a Norma dell’articolo 38, comma 1, del Decreto Legislativo 28 gennaio 2008, n. 250 [Decree of the President of the Republic No. 21 of January 12, 2015, Regulations on the Procedure for the Recognition and the Revocation of International Protection according to Article 38, paragraph 1, of Legislative Decree No. 25 of January 28, 2008, Gazetta Ufficiale [G.U.] No. 53 (Mar. 5, 2015), http://www.gazzettaufficiale.it/eli/id/2015/03/05/15G00029/sg (regulations governing applications for refugee status), archived at https://perma.cc/B742-UPGT; Ministry of the Interior, Vademecum per Richiedenti Protezione Internazionale] [Handbook for Requestors of International Protection], http://www1.interNo .gov.it/mininterNo /export/sites/default/it/assets/files/16/0728_vademecum_richiedenti_asilo.pdf (form for applications), archived at https://perma.cc/PH8J-7P9L.

[62] Submission by the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees for the Office of the High Commissioner for Human Rights’ Compilation Report - Universal Periodic Review: Jamaica (Apr. 2010), http://lib.ohchr.org/HRBodies/UPR/Documents/Session9/JM/UNHCR_UnitedNationsHighCommissionerforRefugees.pdf (discussing lack of domestic implementing legislation for 1951 Refugee Convention, but domestic policy in place and asylum actually granted to some), archived at https://perma.cc/QR7V-MT8U.

[63] Immigration Bureau, Application for Recognition of Refugee Status, http://www.immi-moj.go.jp/english/tetuduki/kanri/shyorui/07.html (last visited Nov. 29, 2017), archived at https://perma.cc/84NN-D258

[64] Zakon o Bezhentsakh [Law on Refugees], No. 216-IV of Dec. 4, 2009, art. 19, Kazakhstanskaya Pravda [Kazakhstan Truth] (official publication) No. 293 (26037) of Dec. 12, 2009, available at http://online.zakon.kz/Document/?doc_id=30525705 (in Russian), archived at https://perma.cc/V4JA-T3YZ.

[65] Refugee Act No. 13 of 2006 (commencement May. 15, 2007), available at http://www.kenyalaw.org/lex//actview.xql?actid=No .%2013%20of%202006, archived at https://perma.cc/G2BQ-XZV3; Refugee (Reception, Registration and Adjudication) Regulations, 2009, § 32, available at http://www.kenyalaw.org/lex//sublegview.xql?subleg=No .%2013%20of%202006, archived at https://perma.cc/Z44R-8T7K.

[66] Zakon o Bezhentsakh [Law on Refugees], No. 44 of Mar. 25, 2002, art. 4, Erkin Too [State Bulletin] (official gazette) No. 24, Mar. 29, 2002, available at http://cbd.minjust.gov.kg/act/view/ru-ru/999?cl=ru-ru (in Russian), archived at https://perma.cc/963F-724W.

[67] Patvēruma Likums [Asylum Law] of Dec. 17, 2015, Latvijas Vēstnesis [Latvian Herald] (official gazette), No. 2 (5574) of Jan. 5, 2016, https://m.likumi.lv/doc.php?id=278986&version_date=24.05.2017 (in Latvian), archived at https://perma.cc/2U2B-ZWWD.

[69] Executive Law of 1972, 3 Laws of Liberian Codes Revised, tit. 12 (rev. ed. 1998), available at https://www.wto.org/english/thewto_e/acc_e/lbr_e/WTA CCLBR15_LEG_35.pdf, archived at https://perma.cc/MP8R-9KWB.

[70] Asylgesetz (AsylG) [Asylum Act], Dec. 14, 2011, Lichtensteinisches Landesgesetzblatt [LGBl.] [Liechtenstein State Law Gazette] No. 2012.029, as amended, art. 6, para. 2, art. 60, https://www.gesetze.li/konso/pdf/2012029000?version=3, archived at http://perma.cc/C2JQ-2GS5.

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[72] Loi du 18 décembre 2015 relative à la protection internationale et à la protection temporaire [Law of 18 December 2015 Regarding International Protection and Temporary Protection], http://legilux.public.lu/eli/etat/leg/loi/2015/12/18/n15/jo, archived athttps://perma.cc/58VS-NT5U.

[73] Refugee Act No. 3 of 1989, 3 Laws of Malawi, Cap. 15:04 (rev. ed. 2015), available at http://www.ilo.org/dyn/natlex/docs/ELECTRONIC/86510/9772 1/F1504548531/MWI86510.pdf, archived at https://perma.cc/P6TK-2Z7W.

[74] Loi No. 98-040 portant statut des réfugiés [Law No. 98-040 Establishing the Status of Refugees], http://www.ilo.org/dyn/natlex/docs/ELECTRONIC/51758/80082/F949856337/MLI-51758.pdf, archived at https://perma.cc/G3HV-68DV.

[76] Council of Ministers Decree of July 21, 2004, art. 3, http://www.cndh.mr/images/dossierfichierpdf/Decret2005022.pdf (in French), archived at https://perma.cc/NTJ3-UZTR.

[77] Ley sobre Refugiados, Protección Complementaria y Asilo Político [Law on Refugees, Complementary Protection and Political Asylum] art. 50, Diario Oficial de la Federación [D.O.F], Jan. 27, 2011, available as amended through Oct. 2014 at http://www.diputados.gob.mx/LeyesBiblio/pdf/LRPCAP_301014.pdf, archived at https://perma.cc/7KXQ-8Z2K.

[78] Ordonnance n. 2.831 du 15/07/2010 rendant exécutoire le Protocole de New York du 31 janvier 1967 relatif au statut des réfugiés [Ordinance No. 2.831 of 15 July 2010 Promulgating the Protocol of New York of 31 January 1967 Regarding the Status of Refugees], http://www.legimonaco.mc/305/legismclois.nsf/ViewTNC/88EA44CC38FD2129C12577820031DE88!OpenDocument, archived at https://perma.cc/ZAR9-RFNL; Ordonnance n. 996 du 02/08/1954 rendant exécutoire une Convention relative au statut des réfugiés signée à Genève le 28 juillet 1951 [Ordinance No. 996 of 2 August 1954 Promulgating a Convention Regarding the Status of Refugees Signed in Geneva on 28 July 1951], http://www.legimonaco.mc/305/legismclois.nsf/ViewTNC/BC3FB9C658D6BE93C125773F00380AF8!OpenDocument, archived at https://perma.cc/V3H9-GQX9.

[79] Zakon o Medunarodnoj i Privremenoj Zastiti Stranaca [Law on International and Temporary Protection of Foreigners] No. 01-1308/2 of Dec. 30, 2016, art. 42, Sluzbeni List (official gazette) No. 2/2017 of Jan. 10, 2017, http://www.sluzbenilist.me/PravniAktDetalji.aspx?tag=%7B4313B8EC-5E77-470D-830B-0E7350271B75%7D (in Montenegrin), archived at https://perma.cc/4HWB-BWLP.

[82] Refugees Convention Act 2012 (Act No. 12 of 2012), § 5(3), http://ronlaw.gov.nr/nauru_lpms/files/acts/04525ec728fc03ddb6d3329cf191dc02.pdf, archived at https://perma.cc/2YT8-MBMY, amended by Refugees Convention (Derivative Status & Other Measures) (Amendment) Act 2016 (Act No. 56 of 2016), http://ronlaw.gov.nr/nauru_lpms/files/acts/58b073a3cfb8bde28e9e0fd5aad7a8b6.pdf, archived at https://perma.cc/L49Q-EY28.  

[83] Aliens Act 2000, available at http://www.legislationline.org/documents/id/4680, archived at https://perma.cc/W82C-3Z7A; Vreemdelingenwet 2000 (Nov. 23, 2000, as last amended effective Oct. 10, 2017), http://wetten.overheid.nl/BWBR0011823/2013-01-01, archived at https://perma.cc/QA56-LRYF; Costs, Immigration and Naturalisation Service, Ministry of Justice, https://ind.nl/en/Pages/Costs.aspx (last visited Nov. 29, 2017), archived at https://perma.cc/9DF8-5VDC.

[84] Immigration Act 2009 s 393(3) (stating that “fees may not be imposed on claimants for any matter related to refugee status or protection status”), http://www.legislation.govt.nz/act/public/2009/0051/latest/whole.html, archived at https://perma.cc/FFW2-39JR

[85] Immigration (Visa, Entry Permission, and Related Matters) Regulations 2010 reg 4C(d) (exemption from paying immigration levy), http://www.legislation.govt.nz/regulation/public/2010/0241/latest/whole.html, archived at https://perma.cc/V7Y4-FNGB

[86] Visa Factsheet: Refugee Claimant Visitor Visa, Immigration New Zealand (INZ), https://www.immigration.govt.nz/new-zealand-visas/apply-for-a-visa/visa-factsheet/refugees-and-protection-status-claimants-visitor-visa (last visited Nov. 27, 2017), archived at https://perma.cc/BTQ4-QQ47; INZ Operations Manual E8.10 (Temporary visas for refugee or protection status claimants), https://www.immigration.govt.nz/opsmanual/34364.htm (effective Aug. 28, 2017), archived at https://perma.cc/97FY-JZ9C, and V3.90 (Visitor visas for refugee or protection status claimants), https://www.immigration.govt.nz/opsmanual/34310.htm (effective Mar. 30, 2015), archived at https://perma.cc/UBN3-RNPL.  

[87] INZ Operations Manual, W16.1 (Who is eligible for a special work visa), https://www.immigration.govt.nz/opsmanual/43678.htm, archived at https://perma.cc/N5V4-TJSD, and W16.10 (Making an application), https://www.immigration.govt.nz/opsmanual/34850.htm, archived at https://perma.cc/4YMS-2N5P (both effective Mar. 30, 2015).

[89] Ley de Protección a Refugiados, Ley No. 655, La Gaceta, July 9, 2008, http://legislacion.asamblea.gob.ni/Normaweb.nsf/($All)/926CAAEB4ED7E15D062574BE007E2ADC?OpenDocument, archived at https://perma.cc/4NGW-XD22.

[90] Loi No. 97-016 du 20 juin 1997 portant statuts des réfugiés [Law No. 97-016 of 20 June 1997 Establishing the Status of Refugees], http://www.refworld.org/pdfid/4a1ff81a2.pdf, archived at https://perma.cc/2MLA-SQQX.

[91] National Commission for Refugees, ETC., Act No. 52 of 1989, 9 Laws of the Federation of Nigeria, Cap. N21 (rev. ed. 2011), available at http://lawsofni geria.placng.org/view2.php?sn=285, archived at https://perma.cc/AW4Y-FY46.

[92] § 89 Lov om utlendingers adgang til riket og deres opphold her (utlendingsloven) [Aliens Act], LOV-2008-05-15-35, https://lovdata.No /dokument/NL/lov/2008-05-15-35/, archived at https://perma.cc/V4N4-LPH6.

[93] Solicitud del Estatuto de Refugiado [Request for Refugee Status], Oficina Nacional para la Atención de los Refugiados, Ministerio de Gobierno (July 10, 2017), https://www.panamatramita.gob.pa/tramite/solicitud-del-estatuto-de-refugiado, archived at https://perma.cc/9YNU-8GS6.

[94] Migration (Fees) (Amendment) Regulation 2014, item 61, http://www.paclii.org/pg/legis/sub_leg/mr2014320/, archived at https://perma.cc/4RG7-XERJ; Citizenship (Amendment) Regulation 2014, http://www.paclii.org/pg/legis/sub_leg/cr2014319/, archived at https://perma.cc/R4R2-QUP5 (also no fee for citizenship application by approved refugee). 

[95] Ley 1938 Ley General sobre Refugiados art. 3, Boletin Oficial, July 9, 2002, http://www.bacn.gov.py/leyes-paraguayas/3818/general-sobre-refugiados, archived at https://perma.cc/RN6E-4AYD.

[96] Ley 27891 del Refugiado art. 28, El Peruano , Dec. 20, 2002, https://www.migraciones.gob.pe/documentos/normalegal_8.pdf, archived at https://perma.cc/4UYM-EAKF.

[97] Department Circular No. 058 – Establishing the Refugees and Stateless Status Determination Procedure, http://www.refworld.org/docid/5086932e2.html, archived at https://perma.cc/L94C-QCMF.

[98] Ustawa o Udzielaniu Cudzoziemcom Ochrony na Terytorium Rzeczypospolitej Polskiej [Act on Granting Protection to Aliens Within the Territory of the Republic of Poland] of June 13, 2003, Dziennik Ustaw [Diary of Laws] (official gazette) No. 128/2003, item 1176, http://prawo.sejm.gov.pl/isap.nsf/download.xsp/WDU20031281176/T/D20031176L.pdf (in Polish), archived at https://perma.cc/EN7X-83BW.

[99] Lei No. 15/98, de 26 de Março [Law No. 15 of March 26, 1998], http://www.sef.pt/portal/v10/pt/aspx/legislacao/legislacao_detalhe.aspx?id_linha=4219, archived at  https://perma.cc/24P7-5MB4.

[100] Zakon za Azil i Prevremena Zashtita [Law on Asylum and Temporary Protection], July 25, 2003, Sluzhben Vesnik [Official Gazette] 49/2003, http://mtsp.gov.mk/WBStorage/Files/azil.pdf (in Macedonian), archived at https://perma.cc/C9YF-DP8P.

[101] Lege Privind Azilul [Law on Asylum], No. 270 of Dec. 18, 2008, art. 28(j), Monitorul Oficial [Official Gazette] No. 53-54 of Mar. 13, 2009, Item 145, http://lex.justice.md/md/330978/ (in Romanian), archived at https://perma.cc/S4MS-D3K7.

[102] Legea Privind Azilul [Law on Asylum] No. 122 of May 4, 2006, Monitorul Oficial [Official Gazette] No. 428 of May 18, 2006, http://www.monitoruljuridic.ro/act/lege-nr-122-din-4-mai-2006-privind-azilul-in-romania-emitent-parlamentul-publicat-n-monitorul-oficial-71808.html (in Romanian), archived at https://perma.cc/X8RX-FGXL.  

[103] Resolution of the Federal Migration Service of the Russian Federation No. 352 of August 19, 2013, on Approval of the Administrative Protocol on Reviewing Asylum Applications and Providing Temporary Refuge on the Russian Territory §§ 41, 42, Rossiiskaia Gazeta (official publication), Mar. 3, 2014, https://rg.ru/2014/03/03/xodataystvo-site-dok.html (in Russian), archived at https://perma.cc/MQD5-WZJ7; Order of the Russian Federation Health Care and Social Development Ministry No. 139 of Feb. 17, 2012, on Approving the Price Calculating Methods and Defining the Maximum Charge Amount for Mandatory Medical Examination of Foreign Nationals, Rossiiskaia Gazeta, Apr. 6, 2014, https://rg.ru/2012/04/06/minzdrav-dok.html (in Russian), archived at https://perma.cc/LHE4-MYLF.

[105] Loi n° 68-27 du 24 juillet 1968 portant statut des réfugiés, modifiée par la loi No. 75-109 du 20 décembre 1975 [Law No. 68-27 of 24 July 1968 Establishing the Status of Refugees, Amended by Law No. 75-109 of 20 December 1975], http://www.refworld.org/docid/3ae6b5038.html, archived at https://perma.cc/X65G-ZP32.

[106] Zákon o Azyle [Act on Asylum], No. 480/2002, of June 20, 2002, Zbierka Zakonov [Collection of Laws] (official gazette) No. 184/2002, http://www.zakonypreludi.sk/zz/2002-480 (in Slovak), archived at https://perma.cc/Z87C-B464.

[107] Refugee Protection Act No. 6 of 2007, 138(42) Supplement to the Sierra Leone Gazette (Aug. 30, 2007), available at http://www.sierra-leone.org/Laws/2007-6p.pdf, archived at https://perma.cc/5LR3-XMPD.

[108] Zákon o Azyle [Act on Asylum], No. 480/2002, of June 20, 2002, Zbierka Zakonov [Collection of Laws] (official gazette) No. 184/2002, http://www.zakonypreludi.sk/zz/2002-480 (in Slovak), archived at https://perma.cc/Z87C-B464.

[109] Zakon o Mednarodni Zaščiti [International Protection Act], Apr. 3, 2016, Uradni List [Government Bulletin] (official gazette) No. 16/17, http://www.pisrs.si/Pis.web/pregledPredpisa?id=ZAKO7103 (in Slovenian), archived at https://perma.cc/BYB7-X5NU.

[110] Immigration (Fees) Regulations 2013, http://www.paclii.org/sb/legis/sub_leg/ir2013278/, archived at https://perma.cc/U6EV-EYT7

[111] Refugee Status and Asylum, Department of Home Affairs of the Republic of South Africa, http://www.dha.gov.za/index.php/refugee-status-asylum (last visited Nov. 28, 2017), archived at https://perma.cc/SYH8-GZLJ.

[112] General Information, Hi Korea (Jan. 7, 2013), http://www.hikorea.go.kr/pt/InfoDetailR_en.pt?categoryId=2&parentId=408&catSeq=&showMenuId=380, archived at https://perma.cc/29M4-BQK3; G1 Visa: Apply Now for Free, Information for Filipinos in South Korea (Apr. 2, 2017), http://skpinoy.com/2017/04/02/g1-visa-application-is-free/, archived at https://perma.cc/HW9L-PYU4.

[113] Ley 12/2009 Reguladora del Derecho de Asilo y de la Protección Subsidiaria art. 16.2, Boletín Oficial del Estado, Oct. 31, 2009, http://www.boe.es/boe/dias/2009/10/31/pdfs/BOE-A-2009-17242.pdf, archived at https://perma.cc/3Y5A-PUN9.

[114] US Department of State, 2010 Country Reports on Human Rights Practices: Saint Kitts and Nevis (Apr. 8, 2011), https://www.state.gov/j/drl/rls/hrrpt/2010/wha/154517.htm (noting country has not signed 1967 Protocol to 1951 Refugee Convention or established a system for refugee protection), archived at https://perma.cc/5WH4-AZQV.

[115] Law No. 3 of 2014 on regulating Asylum in Sudan, 3 March 2014, available at http://www.refworld.org/cgi-bin/texis/vtx/rwmain/opendocpdf.pdf?reldoc=y&docid=542badd04 (in Arabic), archived at https://perma.cc/2JFE-VC6N.

[116] 23 kap. 2a § Utlänningslagen [Aliens Act] (SFS 2005:716), http://www.notisum.se/rnp/sls/lag/20050716.htm, archived at https://perma.cc/P7QK-LGFS.

[117] Asylgesetz (AsylG) [Asylum Act (AsylA)], June 26, 1998, Systematische Rechtssammlung [SR] [Systematic Collection of Laws] 142.31, arts. 17a, 111d, https://www.admin.ch/opc/de/classified-compilation/19995092/201610010000/142.31.pdf, archived at http://perma.cc/RB5K-SB7H, unofficial English translation available at https://www.admin.ch/opc/en/classified-compilation/19995092/201610010000/142.31.pdf, archived at http://perma.cc/5WP4-SUHG; Asylverordnung 1 über Verfahrensfragen (Asylverordnung 1, AsylV 1) [Asylum Regulation 1 on Procedural Questions (Asylum Regulation 1)], Aug. 11, 1999, SR  142.311, arts. 7b, 7c, https://www.admin.ch/opc/de/classified-compilation/19994776/201703010000/142.311.pdf, archived at http://perma.cc/5KRN-W45R.

[118] Konuni Lomnurii Tolikiston Dar Borai Gurezaho [Law of the Republic of Tajikistan on Refugees], No. 50 of May 10, 2002, art. 16, Akhbori Majlisi Olii [Bulletin of the Legislature] (official gazette) No. 4/2002, part 1, Item 305, available at http://www.refworld.org/country,LEGAL,NATLEGBOD,,TJK,,3eda26b84,0.html, archived at https://perma.cc/WY8J-CRNU.

[119] Refugees Act No. 9 of 1998, 2 Laws of Tanzania, Cap. 37 (R. E., 2010), available at http://www.ilo.org/dyn/natlex/docs/ELECTRONIC/53877/97749/F2035208161/TZA53877.pdf, archived at https://perma.cc/HPK9-NRCD.

[120] Loi No. 2016-021 du 24 aout 2016, portant statut des réfugiés au Togo [Law No. 2016-021 of 24 August 2016 Establishing the Status of Refugees in Togo], http://jo.gouv.tg/sites/default/files/publications/JOS_01_09_ 2016-61e ANNEE N°27.pdf, archived at https://perma.cc/V5WB-TWKM.

[121] Trinidad and Tobago Factsheet, UNHCR (Mar. 2017), http://reporting.unhcr.org/sites/default/files/UNHCR Trinidad & Tobago Factsheet - March 2017.pdf (noting 2014 adoption of refugee policy, but No indication of fee), archived at https://perma.cc/22KP-W5CZ; see also Statement by the Republic of Trinidad and Tobago to the 67th Session of the Executive Committee of the UNHCR (Oct. 2016), http://www.unhcr.org/57fcf3567.pdf, archived at https://perma.cc/29Q9-D2B6; Immigration Act ch. 18:01, Laws of Trinidad and Tobago, http://rgd.legalaffairs.gov.tt/Laws2/Alphabetical_List/lawspdfs/18.01.pdf, archived at https://perma.cc/K45W-9FMT.

[122] Law on Foreigners and International Protection, Official Gazette, Apr. 11, 2013, http://www.goc.gov.tr/files/files/eng_minikanun_5_son.pdf, archived at https://perma.cc/9VPV-GWYZ (unofficial English translation, published May 2014); Yabancilar ve Uluslararasi Koruma Kanunu (Apr. 4, 2013, most provisions in force on Apr. 11, 2014, as last amended Aug. 25, 2015 by Decree-Law No. 694), Law No. 6458, Resmî Gazete [Official Gazette], No. 28615 (Apr. 11, 2013), http://www.mevzuat.gov.tr/MevzuatMetin/1.5.6458.pdf, archived at https://perma.cc/7U3M-BGAM; Temporary Protection Regulation, http://www.goc.gov.tr/files/_dokuman28.pdf, archived at https://perma.cc/P7KH-KFRG; Geçici Koruma Yönetmeliği [Temporary Protection Regulation] (Oct. 22, 2014), http://www.goc.gov.tr/files/files/20141022-15-1.pdf, archived at https://perma.cc/46L2-KDUS (applies, e.g., to Syrian refugees; article 6(1) states “[i]ndividual international protection applications filed by foreigners under this regulation shall not be processed in order to ensure the effective implementation of temporary protection measures.”).

[123] Zakon o Bezhentsakh [Law on Refugees] No. 570-V of June 3, 2017, art. 19, Neitralnyi Turkmenistan [Neutral Turkmenistan] (official publication) No. 162, June 16, 2017, available at http://www.parahat.info/law/parahat-info-law-01ze (in Russian), archived at https://perma.cc/HC92-XTGA.

[124] Refugees Act No. 21 of 2006 (Aug. 4, 2006), available on the Uganda Judiciary website, at http://www.judiciary.go.ug/files/downloads/Act No . 21of 2006 Refugees Act2006.pdf, archived at https://perma.cc/K9YP-MQJU; Refugee Regulations (May 29, 2009).

[125] Zakon pro Bizhentsiv ta Osib, iaki Potrebuyut Dodatkovogo abo Timchasovogo Zakhistu [Law on Refugees and Persons in Need of Supplemental or Temporary Protection], No. 3671-VI, arts. 7, 20, Vidomosti Verkhovnoi Radi Ukraini [Bulletin of the Supreme Rada of Ukraine] (official gazette) No. 16/2012, Item 146, http://zakon0.rada.gov.ua/laws/show/3671-17 (in Ukrainian), archived at https://perma.cc/XD74-CPK7.

[126] Immigration and Nationality (Fees) Regulations 2017, 2017/515, Sched. 2, Table 9.1, http://www.legislation.gov.uk/uksi/2017/515/made, archived at https://perma.cc/6TJY-C6CB.

[127] Ley 18076, Derecho al Refugio y a los Refugiados, Diario Oficial Jan. 5, 2007, https://legislativo.parlamento.gub.uy/‌temporales/‌leytemp3226559‌.htm, archived at https://perma.cc/K4FR-N3R5.

[128] Ley Orgánica de 2001 sobre Refugiados or Refugiadas y Asilados o Asiladas art. 3, Gaceta Oficial, Sept. 13, 2001, http://www.sipi.siteal.iipe.unesco.org/sites/default/files/sipi_normativa/venezuela_ley_organica_sobre_refugiados
_o_refugiadas_y_asilados_o_asiladas_2001.pdf
, archived at https://perma.cc/C3DG-PFSL.

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Last Updated: 12/29/2017