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Turkey: Constitutional Court Censures Lower Court for Not Enforcing Constitutional Court Judgment

(Apr. 9, 2021) On January 21, 2020, the Grand Chamber of the Constitutional Court of Turkey issued its decision in the Kadri Enis Berberoglu (3) case, censuring the Istanbul 14. Criminal Court for refusing to comply with the Constitutional Court’s prior decision in Kadri Enis Berberoglu (2). The cases arose from complaints made by Kadri […]

United Kingdom: New Law Provides Framework for Covert Human Intelligence

(Mar. 31, 2021) The United Kingdom enacted the Covert Human Intelligence Sources Act (the CHIS Act) on March 1, 2021. The CHIS Act provides a framework to provide a criminal conduct authorization (CCA) that enables covert human intelligence sources (CHIS) to participate in actions during the course of their work that would otherwise constitute a […]

Norway: Supreme Court Rules on Scope of Climate Provision in Constitution, Finds Government May Issue Exploratory Arctic Drilling Permits

(Mar. 31, 2021) On December 22, 2020, the Norwegian Supreme Court ruled that the Norwegian Constitution does not prevent the country’s government from issuing permits to explore drilling in the Arctic. (Supreme Court Decision HR-2020-2472-P (sak nr. 20-051052SIV-HRET), Dec. 22, 2020.) In doing so, the Supreme Court also established the boundaries and meaning of the […]

International: WTO Considers Waiving Certain Intellectual Property Protections for the Prevention, Containment, and Treatment of COVID-19

(Mar. 24, 2021) At a meeting on March 10-11, 2021, the Trade-Related Aspects of Intellectual Property Rights Council (TRIPS Council) of the World Trade Organization (WTO) continued its consideration of a waiver from the implementation, application, and enforcement of several sections of the TRIPS Agreement in relation to the prevention, containment, and treatment of COVID-19. […]

Germany: Amendments to Adoption Law Enacted

(Mar. 16, 2021) On February 18, 2021, the Act to Improve Support to Families That Are Adopting (Adoption Support Act) was published in the German Federal Law Gazette. The Adoption Support Act aims to modernize adoption law and improve adoption placement procedures to safeguard the best interests of the child. In particular, questions of open […]

Bahrain: Crown Prince Issues Decree to Suppress Financing of Terrorism

(Mar. 5, 2021) On February 19, 2020, the crown prince and prime minister of Bahrain, Prince Salman bin Hamad Al Khalifa, issued Decree No. 12 of 2021 on the National Terrorism Lists. The decree is aimed at combating the financing of terrorism by establishing the National Terrorism List and the Sanction List, which will be […]

International: Former Child Workers Sue Chocolate Companies Alleging Forced Labor in Cocoa Supply Chains

(Mar. 4, 2021) On February 12, 2021, the Washington, D.C.-based nongovernmental organization International Rights Advocates (IRAdvocates) filed a federal class action lawsuit on behalf of eight former child workers who allege they were trafficked from Mali and forced to harvest cocoa in Côte d’Ivoire beginning in 2011. The lawsuit accuses several multinational chocolate producers of […]

Brazil: Federal Senate Approves Inter-American Convention Against Racism, Racial Discrimination, and Related Forms of Intolerance

(Feb. 26, 2021) On February 10, 2021, the Brazilian Federal Senate unanimously approved Legislative Decree No. 562/2020 (PDL No. 562, de 2020), which confirms Brazil’s accession to the Inter-American Convention Against Racism, Racial Discrimination, and Related Forms of Intolerance. According to article 1 of the convention, acts of racial discrimination may be based on race, […]

International: International Tribunal for the Law of the Sea Confirms Sovereignty of Mauritius over Chagos Archipelago

(Feb. 23, 2021) On January 28, 2021, in its Judgment on Preliminary Objections in the Dispute Concerning Delimitation of the Maritime Boundary between Mauritius and the Maldives in the Indian Ocean, the International Tribunal for the Law of the Sea (ITLOS) rejected the Maldives’ challenges to the Tribunal’s jurisdiction. The judgment was rendered by the […]

Italy: Supreme Court Rules on Relevance of Public Policy in Arbitration

(Feb. 19, 2021) On January 18, 2021, the Italian Supreme Court issued Decision No. 1788 concerning the grounds for invalidating a domestic arbitral award based on public policy considerations. Background of the Case A petitioner requested the Italian Supreme Court to overturn a decision by the Appellate Court of Ancona, which had rejected his petition […]