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Germany/France: Countries Sign Friendship Treaty on Cooperation and Integration

(Feb. 1, 2019) On January 22, 2019, Germany and France signed the “Aachen Treaty,” a bilateral friendship treaty on cooperation and integration. The treaty comes fifty-six years after the signing of the Élysée Treaty, which focused on reconciliation after the end of the Second World War. The Aachen Treaty complements the Élysée Treaty, renews the […]

Italy: EU Regulation on the Abuse of Markets Implemented

(Jan. 15, 2019) On September 29, 2018, new legislation implementing an EU regulation concerning the abuse of markets entered into force in Italy. (Legislative Decree No. 107 of August 10, 2018, Provisions Adapting Domestic Legislation to the Provisions of EU Regulation No. 596/2014 on the Abuse of Markets and Repealing Directives 2003/6/CE, 2003/124/UE, 2003/125/CE and […]

Mexico: Convention on the Application of the Principles of the Right to Organize and Bargain Collectively Ratified

(Jan. 11, 2019) On November 23, 2018, Mexico ratified an International Labor Organization (ILO) convention known as the Convention Concerning the Application of the Principles of the Right to Organize and to Bargain Collectively (commonly referred to as Convention 98). (Mexico Ratifies the Right to Organize and Collective Bargaining Convention, 1949 (No. 98), ILO (Nov. […]

Sweden: Animal Protection Ordinance Takes Effect, Prohibiting Circus Animals

(Jan. 9, 2019) On January 1, 2019, a new Animal Welfare Protection Ordinance took effect in Sweden. (Djurskyddsförordning Svensk författningssamling [SFS] 1988:539, as amended by SFS 2018:1204, Riksdagen (Parliament) website.) Under the new rules circuses may no longer include elephants or sea lions in their performances. (35 § 2 st Djurskyddsförordning.) Other animals that were […]

Malawi: Parliament Passes Law Allowing Dual Citizenship

(Dec. 27, 2018) On December 12, 2018, Malawi’s 193-member unicameral National Assembly reportedly passed the Malawi Citizenship Amendment Bill to amend the 1966 Citizenship Act (hereinafter “the Principal Act”). If enacted, the new law would permit Malawians who have acquired the citizenship of other countries to retain their Malawi citizenship. (Malawi Parliament Passes Bill Allowing […]

Sweden: Migration High Court Rules That Applying High School Act Does Not Violate Schengen

(Dec. 13, 2018) On September 25, 2018, the Swedish Migration Court of Appeals found that the newly enacted “High School Act,” which allows undocumented minors whose asylum application has been rejected to stay in the country to pursue a high school education, does not violate the Schengen rules requiring proof of identity. (Migrationsöverdomstolen [Migration Appeals […]

United States: Federal Appellate Court Orders That Siblings Wrongfully Removed to United States Be Returned to Panama

(Nov. 28, 2018) On November 20, 2018, the US Court of Appeals for the Eleventh Circuit ordered that two ten-year old siblings who were wrongfully removed by their mother to the United States four years ago be returned to Panama. (Fernandez v. Bailey, No. 16-16387 (11th Cir. 2018) (Fernandez 2018), US Court of Appeals for […]

Austria: Constitutional Court Holds That Civil Code Provision May Not Be Interpreted to Restrict Same-Sex Couples’ Power to Adopt After Separation

(Nov. 27, 2018) On October 3, 2018, the Austrian Constitutional Court (Verfassungsgerichtshof Österreich, VfGH) held that after a same-sex couple separates, one former partner must remain able to adopt the other’s biological child. The Court stated that section 197, paragraph 3 of the Civil Code must be interpreted in conformity with the Constitution so that […]

Australia: Legislation to Implement Comprehensive and Progressive Agreement for Trans-Pacific Partnership Enacted; Agreement Ratified

(Nov. 15, 2018) On October 17 and 18, 2018, the Australian Parliament passed three bills that were required to implement and begin the ratification of the Comprehensive and Progressive Agreement for Trans-Pacific Partnership (CP-TPP or TPP-11). (Press Release, Scott Morrison & Simon Birmingham, TPP-11 to Open New Doors for Aussie Farmers and Businesses (Oct. 17, 2018), […]

Germany: Federal Court of Justice Rules Same-Sex Marriage Does Not Make Wife of Child’s Mother Co-parent by Law

(Nov. 9, 2018) On October 10, 2018, the German Federal Court of Justice (Bundesgerichtshof, BGH), Germany’s supreme court for civil and criminal cases, held that being in a same-sex marriage does not automatically make the wife of the mother of a child co-parent by law. The Court stated that there is no legal presumption for […]