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Malaysia: Bill Reducing Voting Age to 18 Passed

(July 18, 2019) On July 16, 2019, the Dewan Rakyat, the lower house of the Parliament of Malaysia, passed the Constitution (Amendment) Bill 2019, which reduces the voting age in national and state elections from the current 21 years to 18 years. The Bill received 211 votes—the number of members present for the vote—surpassing the two-thirds […]

Sweden: Supreme Court Defines Negligent Rape

(July 17, 2019) On July 11, 2019, Sweden’s Supreme Court issued its first judgment in relation to the country’s amended rape legislation, finding that a defendant had been negligent in having intercourse with a woman for not being sure that she was participating freely. (Högsta Domstolen [Supreme Court], Case No. B 1200-19 (July 11, 2019).) […]

Russia: President Signs Law Allowing Adoption of Children by People with Particular Diseases

(June 26, 2019) On May 29, 2019, Russian President Vladimir Putin signed into law a bill that allows courts to use discretion in approving adoption orders concerning children who already live with their prospective adoptive parents if one of the parents is suffering from certain diseases. (Federal Law No. 115 of May 29, 2019, on […]

Italy: Law to Establish Compliance with European Union Obligations Enacted

(June 17, 2019) On May 25, 2019, new legislation establishing measures for Italy to comply with obligations arising from its European Union (EU) membership was enacted in Italy. (Law No. 37 of May 3, 2019, Provisions for Compliance with the Obligations Deriving from Italy’s Membership in the European Union – European Law 2018) (Law No. […]

Italy: Law on Legitimate Defense in Criminal Cases Enters into Force

(June 10, 2019) On May 18, 2019, a new law amending Criminal Code provisions on legitimate defense in criminal cases entered into force in Italy. (Law No. 36 of April 26, 2019, Amending the Criminal Code and Other Provisions on Legitimate Defense) (Law No. 36), GAZZETTA UFFICIALE [G.U., OFFICIAL GAZETTE], May 3, 2019, G.U. website […]

United States: Federal Appellate Court Restores Lawsuit Against French Bank by Victims of Sudanese Regime’s Atrocities

(June 6, 2019) The US Court of Appeals for the Second Circuit recently revived a tort lawsuit brought by victims of the Sudanese regime’s atrocities against BNP Paribas (BNPP), a French bank convicted in 2015 of evading US sanctions on Sudan.  (Kashef v. BNP Paribas SA, No. 18-1301 (2d Cir. 2019) (Kashef), US Court of […]

Egypt: National Referendum on Constitutional Amendments Takes Place

(June 5, 2019) On April 22, 2019, Egyptians completed casting their votes on constitutional amendments to the 2014 Egyptian Constitution. The polling was carried out over a three-day period throughout the country. (Egypt Polls Close After 3-Day Vote to Extend El-Sissi’s Rule, ASSOCIATED PRESS (Apr. 22, 2019).) The amendments passed with over 88% of voters […]

Czech Republic: Government Adopts National Artificial Intelligence Strategy

(June 5, 2019) On May 6, 2019, the Czech government adopted its National Artificial Intelligence [AI] Strategy. (Press Release, Ministry of Industry and Trade of the Czech Republic, The Czech Republic Is Among the Elite in Presenting a Strategy for the Development of Artificial Intelligence (May 6, 2019).) According to the Ministry of Industry and […]

Italy: Legislation on Class Actions Enacted

(June 4, 2019) On April 18, 2019, a new law expanding the scope of class actions was published in Italy’s official gazette. The law had been approved by Parliament on April 12, 2019, and according to article 7, paragraph 1 of the law, it enters into effect 12 months after publication. (The gazette also specifies […]

Italy: Revocation of Driver’s License in Cases of Vehicular Homicide Ruled Unconstitutional

(May 28, 2019) On April 17, 2019, the Italian Constitutional Court declared unconstitutional a provision of Legislative Decree No. 285 of April 30, 1992 (New Traffic Code) because it did not provide for an alternative administrative penalty of suspending the driver’s license of persons convicted of vehicular homicide (omicidio stradale) and causing serious traffic injuries […]