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Egypt: New Crimes Added to Penal Code

(Jan. 11, 2021) On December 16, 2020, the Egyptian cabinet approved a proposed addition to the penal code concerning the criminalization of video and audio recordings of criminal trial hearings. Additionally, the Egyptian Parliament in September 2020 passed two laws introducing the new crimes of (1) bullying and (2) conducting foreign currency exchanges outside credited […]

Germany: Upskirting Criminalized

(Oct. 23, 2020) On October 14, 2020, an amendment to the German Criminal Code that makes upskirting a crime was published in the German Federal Law Gazette. Upskirting refers to the act of taking photos or videos under women’s clothing without permission. The amendment will enter into force on January 1, 2021.  Content of the […]

Japan: Law to Prevent “Powa-Hara” (Power Harassment) Takes Effect

(June 22, 2020) On June 1, 2020, the 2019 amendment to the Labor Policy Comprehensive Promotion Act (Act No. 132 of 1966, amended by Act No. 24 of 2019 (Reiwa)) took effect. The amendment act, nicknamed the “Powa-Hara (Power Harassment) Prevention Act,” had been promulgated on June 5, 2019. A 2016 survey on power harassment […]

Turkey: New Law Imposes Harsher Penalties for Violence Against Health Care Workers

(Apr. 28, 2020) On April 15, 2020, Turkey’s Parliament passed Law No. 7243 introducing harsher penalties for certain crimes committed against health care workers and their assistants. (Law No. 7243, art. 28.) Versions of the so-called “violence in health care” law had long been proposed by medical professional organizations and others in reaction to the high […]

Saudi Arabia: Legislation Enacted on Regulating Public Decency

(Nov. 4, 2019) On April 9, 2019, Saudi Arabia’s Council of Ministers issued Resolution No. 444 of 4 Shaban 1440 (corresponding to April 9, 2019), regulating public behavior and public decency. The Resolution, which consists of 10 articles, regulates the behavior of Saudi citizens and expats in public places in accordance with prevalent Saudi customs, […]

International Labor Organization: Convention to Combat Workplace Violence and Harassment Adopted

(June 28, 2019) On June 21, 2019, the International Labor Organization announced that it had adopted a new convention aimed at combating violence and harassment in the workplace. (New International Labour Standard to Combat Violence, Harassment, at Work Agreed, INTERNATIONAL LABOR ORGANIZATION (ILO) (June 21, 2019).) The groundbreaking treaty was the product of two years of […]

Egypt: Female Tourist Convicted of Spreading False Rumors That Damage Country’s Reputation

(Sept. 12, 2018) In July 2018, the Cairo Misdemeanor Court found a Lebanese female tourist, Mona el-Mazbouh, guilty of deliberately spreading false rumors against Egypt that damage the country’s reputation. The court had initially sentenced the defendant to 11 years in prison before reducing the sentence later on the same day to eight years of […]