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Norway: Data Protection Authority Orders International Baccalaureate to Explain Its Automated Use of Personal Data in Awarding Final Grades during Pandemic

(July 24, 2020) On July 20, 2020, the Norwegian Data Protection Authority (NDPA, Datatilsynet) issued a letter to the International Baccalaureate Organization (IBO) ordering it to explain its use of personal data, atomization, and historic prediction data in awarding final grades to Norwegian International Baccalaureate Diploma students during the current COVID-19 pandemic. The NDPA is […]

Italy: Decree Laws on Conclusion of School Year and Elections amid COVID-19 Pandemic Issued

(May 20, 2020) In April 2020, two decree laws entered into effect in Italy to regulate educational and electoral affairs that had been disrupted by the COVID-19 pandemic. Decree Law No. 22 of April 8, 2020 (D.L. No. 22) on the conclusion of the 2019/2020 school year and state examinations in Italy entered into effect […]

Germany: Court Allows Student to Wear Niqab at School

(Feb. 25, 2020) On January 29, 2020, the Higher Administrative Court of Hamburg (OVG Hamburg) held that a 16-year old girl is allowed to attend school dressed in a niqab face veil that leaves only the area around the eyes open. The Court stated that there is no legal basis in Hamburg law for the […]

Italy: New Provisions on Recruitment of School Staff and Research Entities and the Qualification of Teachers Take Effect

(Dec. 6, 2019) On October 31, 2019, Decree Law No. 126 of October 29, 2019 (Decreto-Legge 29 ottobre 2019, n. 126) (D.L. No. 126), containing extraordinary measures on the recruitment of staff at school and research entities and on the qualification of teachers, entered into force in Italy. The new measures are aimed at tackling […]

Germany: Court Rules Day Care Assignments More than 30 Minutes from Home Unreasonable

(Nov. 20, 2019) In a decision published on August 2, 2019, the Higher Administrative Court of Rhineland-Palatinate held that the city of Mainz, Germany, cannot fulfill its legal obligation to provide children three years and older with day care that is a reasonable distance from their home by assigning them a place in a center […]

France: Constitutional Court Extends Principle of Affordable Public Education to Higher Education

(Oct. 30, 2019) On October 11, 2019, the Conseil constitutionnel (Constitutional Council, France’s constitutional court) ruled that public higher education should remain affordable for all, including students from outside the European Union (EU). This ruling stems from a decision by the French government to increase fees paid by students from outside the EU. Under the […]

Italy: New Legislation Guaranteeing Inclusive Education to Students with Disabilities Takes Effect

(Oct. 8, 2019) On September 12, 2019, Legislative Decree No. 96 of August 7, 2019, Provisions Integrating and Correcting Legislative Decree No. 66 of April 13, 2017 on the Promotion of School Inclusion for Students with Disabilities (L.D. No. 96), entered into effect in Italy. The amendments under the new Decree add the United Nations […]

Germany: First Agreement to Implement “Good Day Care Act” Concluded

(Apr. 30, 2019) On April 25, 2019, the German federal government and the state of Bremen signed an agreement to implement what has been called the “Good Day Care Act.” The agreement is the first of sixteen agreements that the federal government will conclude with the German states over the course of the next several […]

Brazil: Brazilian President Signs Acts Addressing Bureaucracy, Corruption, and Drug Policy

(Apr. 23, 2019) On April 11, 2019, Brazilian President Jair Bolsonaro signed 18 acts, including measures relating to corruption, modernization, bureaucracy, drug policy, and literacy policy. (Assinados 18 Atos para Modernizar e Desburocratizar o País, NOTÍCIAS, GOVERNO DO BRASIL (Apr. 12, 2019).) Five of the most significant of the acts signed by Bolsonaro are as […]

Italy: Measures for Simplification of Companies and Public Administration Take Effect

(Feb. 5, 2019) On December 12, 2018, new measures to simplify public administration and promote the economy entered into force in Italy. (Decree-Law No. 135 of December 14, 2018, Urgent Provisions on Supporting and Simplifying Companies and Public Administration) (D.L. No. 135), GAZZETTA UFFICIALE (G.U.), Dec. 14, 2018, G.U. website (in Italian).) Support for Small […]