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Sudan: Interim Constitutional Declaration Signed

(Oct. 9, 2019) On August 4, 2019, Sudanese media announced that the Transitional Military Council and an opposition movement known as the Coalition of Forces for Freedom and Change (FFC) would officially sign an interim constitutional declaration. The 2019 Interim Constitutional Declaration, consisting of 15 chapters and 70 provisions, provides that a governing council will […]

United States: The Constitution, Annotated: The Constitution Explained in Plain English

(Sept. 17, 2019) To celebrate this year’s Constitution Day, the Library of Congress is launching the Constitution Annotated, a website that provides online access to a massive Senate document that has served for more than a century as the official record of the US Constitution. Previously, the Constitution Annotated—full name, “Constitution of the United States […]

Brazil: Provisional Measure Creates Financial Intelligence Unit

(Sept. 5, 2019) On August 19, 2019, Brazilian president Jair Bolsonaro enacted Provisional Measure No. 893 (Medida Provisória No. 893, de 19 de Agosto de 2019), which transforms the Financial Activities Control Board (Conselho de Controle de Atividades Financeiras, COAF) into the Financial Intelligence Unit (Unidade de Inteligência Financeira). The Provisional Measure makes the Financial […]

Italy: Mandatory Confiscation in Security Violation Ruled Unconstitutional

(Aug. 16, 2019) On March 6, 2019, the Italian Constitutional Court declared unconstitutional article 187-sexies of Legislative Decree No. 58 of 1998, which provides for the mandatory confiscation of the proceeds of an insider trading offense and the instruments used to commit it. (Decision No. 112 of March 6, 2019 (the Decision) (in Italian).) Background […]

Turkey: Constitutional Court Rules Refusal to Allow Election of a New Patriarch a Violation of the Right to Freedom of Religion

(Aug. 8, 2019) On May 5, 2019, the Constitutional Court of Turkey issued its decision in Levon Berç Kuzukoglu ve Ohannes Garbis Balmumciyan, holding that the government’s failure to enable the election of a new Armenian patriarch in a manner conforming with Turkish-Armenian tradition and religious requirements constituted a violation of religious freedom. (Levon Berç […]

Ecuador: Constitutional Court Upholds Same-Sex Marriage

(July 25, 2019) On June 12, 2019, Ecuador’s Constitutional Court (CC) upheld the right to same-sex marriage in the country, ruling in favor of two gay couples who had sued after their request to be married was denied by the country’s civil registry. (Corte Constitucional Aprueba Matrimonio Civil Igualitario en Ecuador, EL COMERCIO (June 12, […]

Malaysia: Bill Reducing Voting Age to 18 Passed

(July 18, 2019) On July 16, 2019, the Dewan Rakyat, the lower house of the Parliament of Malaysia, passed the Constitution (Amendment) Bill 2019, which reduces the voting age in national and state elections from the current 21 years to 18 years. The Bill received 211 votes—the number of members present for the vote—surpassing the two-thirds […]

Russia: President Signs Law Allowing Adoption of Children by People with Particular Diseases

(June 26, 2019) On May 29, 2019, Russian President Vladimir Putin signed into law a bill that allows courts to use discretion in approving adoption orders concerning children who already live with their prospective adoptive parents if one of the parents is suffering from certain diseases. (Federal Law No. 115 of May 29, 2019, on […]

Egypt: National Referendum on Constitutional Amendments Takes Place

(June 5, 2019) On April 22, 2019, Egyptians completed casting their votes on constitutional amendments to the 2014 Egyptian Constitution. The polling was carried out over a three-day period throughout the country. (Egypt Polls Close After 3-Day Vote to Extend El-Sissi’s Rule, ASSOCIATED PRESS (Apr. 22, 2019).) The amendments passed with over 88% of voters […]

Italy: Revocation of Driver’s License in Cases of Vehicular Homicide Ruled Unconstitutional

(May 28, 2019) On April 17, 2019, the Italian Constitutional Court declared unconstitutional a provision of Legislative Decree No. 285 of April 30, 1992 (New Traffic Code) because it did not provide for an alternative administrative penalty of suspending the driver’s license of persons convicted of vehicular homicide (omicidio stradale) and causing serious traffic injuries […]