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France: Amended Financial Law

(Oct. 3, 2011) Law 2011-1117 of September 19, 2011, on Amending the 2011 Financial Bill, was published in France's official gazette on September 20, 2011 (Loi no. 2011-1117 du 19 septembre 2011 de finances rectificative pour 2011, LEGIFRANCE). The original draft law mainly contained provisions concerning financial aid to Greece. The government decided, however, to […]

France: Energy from Renewable Sources and Bio-Fuels

(Oct. 3, 2011) France adopted an ordinance on September 14, 2011, that transposes EU Directives 2009/28 and 2009/30 into national law (Ordonnance no. 2011-1105 du 14 septembre 2011 portant transposition des directives 2009/28/CE et 2009/30/CE du Parlement européen et du Conseil du 23 avril 2009 dans le domaine des énergies renouvelables et des biocarburants, LEGIFRANCE). […]

Italy: Unions of Municipalities

(Sept. 29, 2011) On September 14, 2011, the decree that the Italian government had issued in August on an “anti-crisis” package was converted into law by the Parliament. The law is designed to correct Italy's fiscal deficit of €45.5 billion (about US$64.8 billion) by imposing spending cuts and tax hikes. (Ulteriori disposizioni urgenti perla stabilizzazione […]

Italy: Earthquake Trial

(Sept. 29, 2011) On September 20, 2011, the trial of six Italian scientists and a former government official on charges of manslaughter for the 2009 earthquake in L'Aquila began. The 6.3 magnitude quake killed 309 people on April 6 two years ago and devastated the city and several other villages in the region of Abruzzo. […]

French Polynesia: New Law on the Functioning of Governing Institutions

(Aug. 16, 2011) Law 2011-814 of August 1, 2011, adopted by the French Parliament, on the functioning of the institutions of French Polynesia, aims in general to improve the functioning of those institutions and, in particular, to permit the emergence of a stable majority in the French Polynesian Assembly. (Loi organique n° 2011-918 du 1er […]

France: New Bioethics Law

(July 18, 2011) Law 2011-814 of July 7, 2011, on bioethics was finally adopted by the French Parliament after months of debate and published in the JOURNAL OFFICIEL, France's official gazette, of July 8, 2011. (Loi n° 2011-814 du 7 juillet 2011 relative à la bioéthique, LEGIFRANCE (last visited July 14, 2011)). The new Law […]

France: Law on Import and Export of War Material

(July 6, 2011) France's Law 2011-702 of June 22, 2011, on Controlling Import and Export of War Materials and Similar Equipment, Simplifying Transfers of Defense-Related Products Within the European Union, and Defense and Security Markets, was published in the French official gazette of June 23, 2011 (Loi n° 2011-702 du 22 juin 2011 relative au […]

France: Law on Immigration, Integration and Nationality

(July 1, 2011) France's Constitutional Council found Law 2011-672 of June 16, 2011, on Immigration, Integration and Nationality constitutional (with the exception of some minor provisions), whereupon the Law was published in the country's official gazette on June 17, 2011 (Loi n° 2011-672 du 16 juin 2011 relative à l'immigration, à l'intégration et à la […]

France: Digital Book Pricing Law

(July 1, 2011) The French Parliament recently adopted Law 2011-590 of May 26, 2011, on the price of digital books (Loi n° 2011-590 du 26 mai 2011 relative au prix du livre numérique, LEGIFRANCE (last visited July 1, 2011).) The Law provides that “any person established in France who publishes an e-book for distribution in […]

France: Creation of the “Defender of Rights”

(May 24, 2011) Two laws relating to the creation of a “Defender of Rights” were published in France's official gazette on March 30, 2011 (Loi organique no. 2011-333 du 29 mars 2011 relative au défenseur des droits [Law 2011-333], LEGIFRANCE, & Loi no. 2011-334 du 29 mars 2011 relative au défenseur des droits [Law 2011-334], […]