New Zealand, about the size of Colorado, is located in the Pacific Ocean, southeast of Australia. It is an island nation which includes the Antipodes Islands, Auckland Islands, Bounty Islands, Campbell Island, Chatham Islands, and Kermadec Islands. Dependent areas are the Cook Islands, Niue, and Tokelau. The capital city of New Zealand is Wellington; other cities are Auckland, Christchurch, and Hamilton. New Zealand is 17 hours ahead of Washington, D.C. during Standard Time.
The climate is temperate to subtropical, with sharp regional contrasts. The terrain is highly varied and consists of snowcapped mountains to lowland plains; Aoraki-Mount Cook (3,754 m) is the highest point of elevation and the Pacific Ocean (0 m), at sea level, is the lowest point.
Natural resources include natural gas, iron ore, sand, coal, timber, hydropower, gold, and limestone. Natural hazards such as volcanic activity and earthquakes are common, though usually not severe. Current environmental issues include deforestation, soil erosion, and native flora and fauna hard-hit by invasive species.
Most of the 4 million New Zealanders are of British origin. About 15% claim descent from the indigenous Maori population, which is of Polynesian origin. Nearly 76% of the people, including a large majority of Maori, live on the North Island. In addition, 265,974 Pacific peoples live in New Zealand. During the late 1870s, natural increase permanently replaced immigration as the chief contributor to population growth and accounted for more than 75% of population growth in the 20th century. Nearly 85% of New Zealand's population lives in urban areas (with almost one-third in Auckland alone), where the service and manufacturing industries are growing rapidly. New Zealanders colloquially refer to themselves as "Kiwis," after the country's native bird. Official languages are English, Maori, and New Zealand Sign Language.
In 1840, the Polynesian Maori entered into an agreement with Britain, the Treaty of Waitangi, which recognized the British monarch as sovereign. In that same year, the British began the first organized colonial settlement. A series of land wars between 1843 and 1872 ended with the defeat of the native peoples. The British colony of New Zealand became an independent dominion in 1907 and supported the United Kingdom militarily in both World Wars. In recent years, the government has sought to address longstanding Maori grievances. Since 1907, New Zealand's government has been a constitutional monarchy with a parliamentary democracy; Queen Elizabeth II has been chief of state since 1952.
The country’s Geographic Board, which assigns, approves, or discontinues place names for geographic features, undersea features, and Crown-protected areas has announced discussions on alternative English and Maori names in the future. This follows the discovery that New Zealand’s two main island names, North Island and South Island, were not legally registered as official names. The Board is a statutory body of government operating under the New Zealand Geographic Board (Ngā Pou Taunaha o Aotearoa) Act 2008.
CIA World Factbook, U.S. State Department Background Notes, National Geospatial-Intelligence Agency, 4/2009;2/2009; 8/2008