The Republic of Indonesia encompasses an area of almost 2 million sq. km. (736,000 sq. mi.), about three times the size of the state of Texas. Its capital city, Jakarta (on the island of Java), has an estimated population of about 8.8 million; other major cities are: Surabaya, Medan, and Bandung. The estimated population of Indonesia, as of July 2007, is 234.6 million. The major religions in Indonesia are: Muslim 88 %, Protestant 5%, Catholic 3%, Hindu 2%, and Buddhist and other 1%.
During the 7th-14th centuries, the Buddhist kingdom of Srivijaya flourished on Sumatra. At its peak, the Srivijaya Empire reached as far as West Java and the Malay Peninsula. By the 14th century, the Hindu Kingdom of Majapahit had risen in eastern Java. Gadjah Mada, the empire's chief minister from 1331 to 1364, succeeded in gaining allegiance from most of what is now modern Indonesia and much of the Malay archipelago as well. Beginning in 1602, the Dutch slowly established themselves as rulers of present-day Indonesia, exploiting the weakness of the small kingdoms that had replaced that of Majapahit. The only exception was East Timor, which remained under Portugal's control until 1975. During 300 years of rule, the Dutch developed the Netherlands East Indies into one of the world's richest colonial possessions.
During the first decade of the 20th century, an Indonesian independence movement began and expanded rapidly. The Japanese occupied Indonesia for three years during World War II (1942-1945). On August 17, 1945, three days after the Japanese surrender to the Allies, a small group of Indonesians, led by Sukarno (also spelled Soekarno) and Mohammad Hatta, proclaimed independence and established the Republic of Indonesia. Shortly after hostilities with the Dutch ended in 1949, Indonesia adopted a new constitution, providing for a parliamentary system of government in which the executive was chosen by and accountable to parliament.
The president, elected for a five-year term, is the top government and political figure. In 2005, Indonesia reached a historic peace agreement with armed separatists in Aceh, which led to democratic elections in December 2006. Indonesia continues to face a low intensity separatist guerilla movement in Papua.
Significant progress has been made in rebuilding Aceh after the devastating December 2004 tsunami, and the province now shows more economic activity than before the disaster. Unfortunately, Indonesia suffered new disasters in 2006 and early 2007 including: a major earthquake near Yogyakarta, an industrial accident in Sidoarjo, East Java that created a "mud volcano," a tsunami in South Java, and major flooding in Jakarta, all of which caused additional damages in the billions of dollars.
Former President Suharto (also spelled Soeharto) died, at the age of 86, on 27 January 2008.
CIA World Factbook; U.S. State Department Background Notes, 01/2008; 08/2007
This map has also been used:
- Indonesia, December 2007