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Chicago

Entire Web Site

The Web site of the Library of Congress connects users to content areas created by the Library’s many experts. In some cases, content can be posted without a clear indication of author, title, publisher or copyright date. Look for available clues and give as much information as possible, including the URL and date accessed.

Chicago Citation Format
(Chicago Manual of Style, 15th ed., sections 17.270, 17.237)

Structure:

  1. Author last name, first name, middle initial, if given. If no author, use the site owner.
  2. Title of Site (italicized); a subsection of a larger work is in quotes.
  3. Editor of site, if given.
  4. Publication information, including latest update if available.
  5. Name of sponsoring institution or organization.
  6. Electronic address or URL.
  7. Date of access, in parenthesis.

Last name, First name Middle initial. Title of Site. City: Publishing Company, copyright date. Sponsoring source. http://...(accessed date).

Example:
Library of Congress. http://www.loc.gov (accessed January 5, 2006).

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Cartoons

Cartoons and illustrations included in newspapers, magazines or other periodicals often represent the historical perspectives and opinions of the time of publication. This illustration, Join or Die from the May 9, 1754 Pennsylvania Gazette, was published by Benjamin Franklin and expresses his views about the need for the colonies to join forces to confront their mutual concerns with England. This is often referred to as the first political cartoon.

Chicago Citation Format
(Chicago Manual of Style, 15th ed., sections 17.270, 8.207)

Structure:

  1. Author’s or creator’s last name, first name, middle initial (if given).
  2. Title of document (in italics); a subsection of a larger work is in quotes and primary document in italics).
  3. Format (cartoon or illustration).
  4. Publisher city: publishing company, copyright date.
  5. Source (From Library of Congress in normal font), Collection name with dates (in italics).
  6. Medium (software requirement needed to access source, ).
  7. URL (use bibliographic record URL or shorter digital id if available at bottom of bib record).
  8. Accessed date (in parenthesis).

Last name, First name Middle initial. Title of Work. Format. City: Publishing Company, copyright date. Source, Collection. Medium, http://...(accessed date).

Example:
Franklin, Benjamin. “Join or Die.” Illustration. The Pennsylvania Gazette, May 9, 1754. From Library of Congress Prints and Photographs Online Catalog. http://loc.gov/pictures/item/2002695523/ (accessed January 10, 2006).

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Films

Black-and-white actuality film collections from the turn of the century are included in the Library of Congress online collections.

Chicago Citation Format
(Chicago Manual of Style, 15th ed., sections 17.270, 17.272)

Structure:

  1. Creator’s last name, first name, middle initial (or filmographer’s name if no director is specified, but indicate role).
  2. Title of film (in italics).
  3. Format (film, filmstrip, 35mm film).
  4. Publisher city: publishing company, copyright date.
  5. Source (From Library of Congress in normal font), Collection name with dates (in italics).
  6. Medium (software requirement needed to access source).
  7. URL (use bibliographic record URL or shorter digital id if available at bottom of bib record).
  8. Accessed date (in parenthesis).

Last name, First name Middle initial. Title of Work. Format. City: Publishing Company, copyright date. Source, Collection. Medium, http://...(accessed date).

Example:
Armitage, Frederick S., photographer. Bargain Day, Fourteenth Street, New York. 35 mm film. United States: American Mutoscope and Biograph Co, 1905. From Library of Congress, Early Motion Pictures, 1897-1920. RealMedia, MPEG, Quick Time, http://www.loc.gov/item/00694373 (accessed January 9, 2006).

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Government Publications

An excerpt from pages 747 & 748 of the Annals of Congress

An excerpt from pages 747 & 748 of the Annals of Congress

Many government publications originate through executive departments, federal agencies, and the United States Congress. Many of the documents are chronicled records of government proceedings, which become part of the Congressional Record. These documents are often posted without a clear indication of author, title, publisher or copyright date. Look for available clues and give as much information as possible, including the URL and date accessed.

Chicago Citation Format
(Chicago Manual of Style, 15th ed., sections 17.270, 17.295)

Structure:

  1. Creator’s last name, first name, middle initial (or filmographer’s name if no director is specified, but indicate role).
  2. Author’s last name, first name, middle initial (if given).
  3. Title of document (subsection is placed in quotes, followed by title in italics).
  4. Format (omit if it is a printed page).
  5. Publisher city: publishing company, copyright date (include as much information as possible such as page numbers).
  6. Source (From Library of Congress in normal font), Collection name with dates (in italics).
  7. Medium (software requirement needed to access source).
  8. URL (use bibliographic record URL or shorter digital id if available at bottom of bib record).
  9. Accessed date (in parenthesis).

Last name, First name Middle initial. Title of Work. Format. City: Publishing Company, copyright date. Source, Collection. Medium, http://...(accessed date).

Example:
“Proceedings December 17, 1792”. Annals of Congress. House of Representatives, 2nd Congress, 2nd Session. Washington: Gales and Seaton, 1849, pg. 747-748. From Library of Congress, A Century of Lawmaking for a New Nation: U.S. Congressional Documents and Debates, 1774-1875. http://memory.loc.gov/cgi-bin/
ampage?collId=llac&fileName=llac003.db&recNum=370 (accessed January 9, 2006).

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Manuscripts

The Library of Congress online collections include letters, diaries, recollections, and other written material. One example is this letter from Helen Keller to Mr. John Hitz. Helen describes her trip to Chicago to visit the World’s Columbian Exposition of 1893.

Chicago Citation Format
(Chicago Manual of Style, 15th ed., sections 17.270, 17.222-33)

Structure:

  1. Author’s last name, first name, middle initial.
  2. Title of document (in italics).
  3. Format (letter, manuscript, pamphlet…).
  4. Publisher city: publishing company, copyright date. (if given).
  5. Source (From Library of Congress in normal font), Collection name with dates (in italics).
  6. Medium (software requirement needed to access source, ).
  7. URL (use bibliographic record URL or shorter digital id if available at bottom of bib record).
  8. Accessed date (in parenthesis).

Last name, First name Middle initial. Title of Work. Format. City: Publishing Company, copyright date. Source, Collection. Medium, http://...(accessed date).

Example:
Keller, Helen. Helen Keller to John Hitz, August 29, 1893. Letter. From Library of Congress, The Alexander Graham Bell Family Papers, 1862-1939. http://www.loc.gov/item/magbellbib004020 (accessed January 11, 2006).

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Maps and Charts

Maps are far more than just maps of cities and towns. They document historical places, events, and populations, as well as growth and changes over time. This map is from the Library of Congress Geography and Map Division.

Chicago Citation Format
(Chicago Manual of Style, 15th ed., sections 17.270, 17.141)

Structure:

  1. Author’s last name, first name, middle initial (if given, or person responsible for content).
  2. Title of document (in italics) [shorten to meaningful limits, ].
  3. Format (map, chart).
  4. Publisher city: publishing company, copyright date.
  5. Source (From Library of Congress in normal font), Collection name with dates (in italics).
  6. Medium (software requirement needed to access source).
  7. URL (use bibliographic record URL or shorter digital id if available at bottom of bib record).
  8. Accessed date (in parenthesis).

Last name, First name Middle initial. Title of Work. Format. City: Publishing Company, copyright date. Source, Collection. Medium, http://...(accessed date).

Example:
Ashmun, Jehudi. Map of the West Coast of Africa from Sierra Leone to Cape Palmas, including the Colony of Liberia. Map. Philadelphia: A. Finley, 1830. From Library of Congress, Map Collections. http://www.loc.gov/item/96680499 (accessed January 9, 2006).

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Newspapers

The Stars and Stripes

An excerpt from The Stars and Stripes

Historic newspapers provide a glimpse of historic time periods. The articles, as well as the advertising, are an appealing way to get a look at the regions of the country or the world and the issues of the day.

Chicago Citation Format
(Chicago Manual of Style, 15th ed., sections 17.270, 17.188)

Structure:

  1. Author’s last name, first name, middle initial (if given; if no author is given, use title of Newspaper here instead in italics).
  2. Title of article (in quotes); Title of newspaper (if not used above) in italics.
  3. Format (leave blank if printed document).
  4. Publisher city: publishing company, copyright date.
  5. Source (From Library of Congress in normal font), Collection name with dates (in italics).
  6. Medium (software requirement needed to access source ).
  7. URL (use bibliographic record URL or shorter digital id if available at bottom of bib record).
  8. Accessed date (in parenthesis).

Last name, First name Middle initial. Title of Work. Format. City: Publishing Company, copyright date. Source, Collection. Medium, http://...(accessed date).

Example:
The Stars and Stripes, “Services Plan to Aid Returned Men in Securing Jobs.” Dec. 13, 1918. From Library of Congress. http://memory.loc.gov/cgi-bin/np_item.pl?collection=sgpsas&agg=sgpsas&iss=19181213&page=1 (accessed Feb. 10, 2012).

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Photographs

Photographs and drawings appear in many of the Library of Congress digitized historical collections. This photograph from the Library's online collections shows casualties of war on the battlefield at Gettysburg, Pennsylvania.

Chicago Citation Format
(Chicago Manual of Style, 15th ed., sections 17.270, 8.206)

Structure:

  1. Photographer’s last name, first name, middle initial (if given). [Include role after name, i.e. photographer.]
  2. “Photo Title.” (Title of a song, a poem or a single photograph is in quotes, not italics.) [Include brackets if given in bibliographic record.]
  3. Format (photograph).
  4. Publisher city: publishing company, copyright date (include c [circa] if given; if no date, use n.d.).
  5. Source (From Library of Congress in normal font), Collection name with dates (in italics).
  6. Medium (software requirement needed to access source ).
  7. URL (use bibliographic record URL or shorter digital id if available at bottom of bib record).
  8. Accessed date (in parenthesis).

Last name, First name Middle initial. Title of Work. Format. City: Publishing Company, copyright date. Source, Collection. Medium, http://...(accessed date).

Example:
O’Sullivan, Timothy, photographer. “[Incidents of the war. A Harvest of Death, Gettysburg, July 1863.]” Photograph. Washington, D.C.: Philip & Solomons, c1865. From Library of Congress: Selected Civil War Photographs, 1861-1865. http://www.loc.gov/pictures/item/cwp2003001110/PP (accessed January 9, 2006).

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Sound Recordings

This recording of Mrs. Ben Scott and Myrtle B. Wilkinson performing Haste to the Wedding is an example of Anglo-American dance music on the fiddle and tenor banjo recorded on October 31, 1939.

Chicago Citation Format
(Chicago Manual of Style, 15th ed., sections 17.270, 8.205)

Structure:

  1. Author’s last name, first name, middle initial (if given) [include performer, composer, etc.].
  2. Title of album (in italics) (Title of a song, a poem or a single photograph is in quotes, not italics).
  3. Format (sound recording).
  4. Publisher city: publishing company, copyright date.
  5. Source (From Library of Congress in normal font), Collection name with dates (in italics).
  6. Medium (software requirement needed to access source, i.e. MP3, RealAudio, WAV).
  7. URL (use bibliographic record URL).
  8. Accessed date (in parenthesis).

Last name, First name Middle initial. Title of Work. Format. City: Publishing Company, copyright date. Source, Collection. Medium, http://...(accessed date).

Example:
Scott, Mrs. Ben and Myrtle B. Wilkinson, performers. “Haste to the Wedding.” Sound recording. Turlock, CA: Sidney Robertson Cowell, October 31, 1939. From Library of Congress, California Gold: Northern California Folk Music from the Thirties. Real Audio, MP3, Wave. http://www.loc.gov/item/afccc.a4227b4 (accessed January 9, 2006).

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Special Presentations or Features

Special presentations, articles, and essays include examples that illustrate collection themes. Many collections include specific items, such as timelines, family trees or scholarly essays, which are not primary source documents. Such content has been created to enhance understanding of the collection.

This timeline of the Wright Brothers can be found in The Wilbur and Orville Wright Papers at the Library of Congress.

Chicago Citation Format
(Chicago Manual of Style, 15th ed., sections 17.270)

Structure:

  1. Author’s last name, first name, middle initial (if given).
  2. Title of document (in italics).
  3. Format (special presentation).
  4. Publisher city: publishing company, copyright date (if given).
  5. Source (From Library of Congress in normal font), Collection name with dates (in italics).
  6. Medium (software requirement needed to access source, ).
  7. URL (use bibliographic record URL or shorter digital id if available at bottom of bib record).
  8. Accessed date (in parenthesis).

Last name, First name Middle initial. Title of Work. Format. City: Publishing Company, copyright date. Source, Collection. Medium, http://...(accessed date).

Example:
The Wilbur and Orville Wright Timeline, 1867-1948. Special presentation. From the Library of Congress, The Wilbur and Orville Wright Papers. http://memory.loc.gov/ammem/wrighthtml/wrighttime.html (accessed January 10, 2006).

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