14th Amendment to the Constitution endows African American with citizenship.
15th Amendment of the Constitution provides African-American males with
the right to vote.
bans the admission of contract laborers.
Plessy v. Ferguson:
Supreme Court ruling that separate but equal accommodations
for African Americans and whites were Constitutional; decision allows
makes annual immigration quotas permanent.
Roosevelt signs Executive Order 8802: forbids discrimination in federal
hiring, job-training programs, and defense industries.
United States admits persons fleeing persecution in their native lands;
allowing 205,000 refugees to enter within two years.
and Nationality Act: individuals of all races eligible for naturalization;
reaffirms national origins quota system, limits immigration from Eastern
Hemisphere; establishes preferences for skilled workers and relatives
of U.S. citizens and permanent resident aliens; and tightens security
and screening standards and procedures
amends 1948 refugee policy to allow for the admission of 200,000 more
v. Topeka Board of Education: Supreme Court rules that separate
but equal educational facilities were unconstitutional.
Civil Rights Acts ensures voting rights; prohibits housing discrimination.
Refugee Act redefines criteria and procedures for admitting refugees.
Reform and Control Act (IRCA) legalizes illegal aliens residing in the
U.S. unlawfully since 1982
the importation of slaves but slavery in the United States continues
reporting on immigration.
Compromise of 1820 admits Maine and Missouri into the Union as a free
and a slave state, respectively. This legislation also prohibited slavery
in territories north of Missouri.
takes the presidential oath of office; Southern Confederacy ratifies
a new Constitution, elects Jefferson Davis as first Confederate president;
Civil War begins.
Union Army permits black men to enlist as laborers, cooks, teamsters,
Proclamation abolishes slavery, permits African American men to join
the Union Army.
legalizes the importation of contract laborers.