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Wind Power

Tracer Bullet 07-7


Photo: numerous wind turbines with mountain range in the background.

Photo: Wind turbine field.
From the Sandia National Laboratories Web site.





Wind power or wind energy is the process by which the wind is used to generate mechanical power or electricity and is one of the fastest-growing forms of electricity generation in the world. An update of TB 81-5, this guide is a review of the literature in the Library’s collections on wind power with an emphasis on recent material. Not intended to be a comprehensive bibliography, this guide is designed--as the name of the series implies--to put the readers “on target



Hand, M. Maureen. Turbines, wind. In Macmillan encyclopedia of energy. v. 3. New York, Macmillan Reference USA, 2001. p. 1188-1195.
   TJ163.28.M33 2001 <SciRR>

McGowan, Jon G. Wind power. In The Wiley encyclopedia of energy and the environment. v. 2. New York, Wiley, c1997. p. 1523-1534.
   TJ163.235.W55 1997 <SciRR>

Pasqualetti, Martin, Robert Righter, and Paul Gipe. Wind energy, history of. In Encyclopedia of energy. v. 6. Amsterdam, Boston, Elsevier Academic Press, c2004. p. 419-433.
   TJ163.28.E53 2004 <SciRR>



Subject headings used by the Library of Congress, under which works on wind power can be located in Library catalogs, include the following:

Highly Relevant




More General




Gipe, Paul. Wind energy basics: a guide to small and micro wind systems. White River Junction, VT, Chelsea Green Pub. Co., c1999. 122 p.
   Bibliography: p. 115-117.
   TJ820.G55 1999 <SciRR>

Gipe, Paul. Wind power: renewable energy for home, farm, and business. Rev. and expanded ed. White River Junction, VT, Chelsea Green Pub. Co., c2003. 496 p.
   Bibliography: p. 457-460.
   Completely rev. and expanded ed. of Wind power for home and business. c1993.
   TJ820.G565 2003 <SciRR>

Hau, E. Wind turbines: fundamentals, technologies, application, economics. 2nd English ed. Berlin, New York, Springer, c2006. 783 p.
   Includes bibliographical references.
   Rev. ed. of the English 1st ed. Windturbines.
   TJ828.H3813 2006 <SciRR>

Manwell, J. F., J. G. McGowan, and A. L. Rogers. Wind energy explained: theory, design and application. Chichester, Eng., New York, Wiley, c2002. 577 p.
   Includes bibliographical references.
   TJ820.M374 2002 <SciRR>

Righter, Robert W. Wind energy in America: a history. Norman, University of Oklahoma Press, 1996. 361 p.
   Includes bibliographical references.
   TK1541.R54 1996



Bhadra, S. N., D. Kastha, and S. Banerjee. Wind electrical systems. Oxford, New York, Oxford University Press, 2005. 317 p.
   Bibliography: p. 306-312.
   TK1541.B43 2005

Gipe, Paul. Wind energy comes of age. New York, Wiley, c1995. 536 p.
   Bibliography: p. 520-523.
   TJ820.G56 1995 <SciRR>

Patel, Mukund R. Wind and solar power systems: design, analysis, and operation. 2nd ed. Boca Raton, FL, Taylor & Francis, c2006. 448 p.
   Bibliography: p. 401-425.
   TK1541.P38 2006 <SciRR>

Wind energy resource atlas of the United States. Prepared by D. L. Elliott and others; Prepared for the U.S. Department of Energy. Golden, CO, Solar Technical Information Program, Solar Energy Research Institute, 1991. 210 p. (DOE/CH10094-4)
   Includes bibliographical references.
   TJ820.W5698 1991

Wind power in power systems. Edited by Thomas Ackermann. Chichester, Eng., Hoboken, NJ, John Wiley, c2005. 691 p.
   Includes bibliographical references.
   TK1541.W558 2005

Wind turbine technology: fundamental concepts of wind turbine engineering. Editor, David A. Spera. New York, ASME Press, 1994. 638 p.
   Includes bibliographical references.
   TJ828.W563 1994



Baker, T. Lindsay. North American windmill manufacturers’ trade literature: a descriptive guide. Norman, University of Oklahoma Press, c1998. 600 p.
   TJ820.B37 1998 <SciRR>

Bianchi, Fernando D., Hernán De Battista, and Ricardo J. Mantz. Wind turbine control systems: principles, modelling and gain scheduling design. London, Springer, c2007. 205 p.
   TJ828.B53 2007
   Bibliography: p. 195-201.

Harrison, Robert, Erich Hau, and Herman Snel. Large wind turbines: design and economics. Chichester, Eng., New York, Wiley, c2000. 185 p.
   TJ828.H37 2000
   Includes bibliographical references.

Lubosny, Zbigniew. Wind turbine operation in electric power systems: advanced modeling. Berlin, New York, Springer, c2003. 259 p.
   TJ828.L83 2003
   Bibliography: p. 251-255.

National Research Council (U.S.). Committee on Environmental Impacts of Wind-Energy Projects. Environmental impacts of wind-energy projects. Committee on Environmental Impacts of Wind-Energy Projects, Board on Environmental Studies and Toxicology, Division on Earth and Life Studies, National Research Council of the National Academies. Washington, National Academies Press, c2007. 376 p.
   Bibliography: p. 219-266.
   TD195.W54N38 2007

Wagner, S., R. Bareiss, and G. Guidati. Wind turbine noise. Berlin, New York, Springer, c1996. 204 p.    TJ828.W34 1996
   Bibliography: p. 183-193.

Wind-diesel systems: a guide to the technology and its implementation. Edited by Ray Hunter and George Elliot. Cambridge, New York, Cambridge University Press, 1994. 249 p.
   TK1541.W53 1994
   Includes bibliographical references.

Wind power in view: energy landscapes in a crowded world. Edited by Martin J. Pasqualetti, Paul Gipe, Robert W. Righter. San Diego, Academic Press, c2002. 234 p.
   TJ820.W5767 2002
   Includes bibliographical references.



Baker, T. Lindsay. A field guide to American windmills. Norman, University of Oklahoma Press, c1985. 516 p.
   TJ825.B25 1985 <SciRR>
   Bibliography: p. 459-503.

Baker, T. Lindsay. A guide to United States patents for windmills and wind engines 1793-1950. Edited by A. Clyde Eide. Watford, Herts, Eng., International Molinological Society, 2004. 121 p.
   TJ825.B257 2004
   (Bibliotheca molinologica, v. 18)

Heier, Siegfried. Grid integration of wind energy conversion systems. Translated by Rachel Waddington. 2nd ed. Chichester, Eng., Hoboken, NJ, Wiley, c2006. 426 p.
   Bibliography: p. 405-415.
   Translation of Windkraftanlagen im Netzbetrieb.
   TK1541.H3513 2006

Hills, Richard Leslie. Power from wind: a history of windmill technology. Cambridge, New York, Cambridge University Press, 1994. 324 p.
   Bibliography: p. 301-309.
   TJ823.H55 1994

International Energy Agency. IEA wind energy annual report 2006. Edited by Patricia Weis-Taylor. Executive Committee for the Implementing Agreement for Co-operation in the Research, Development, and Deployment of Wind Energy Systems of the International Energy Agency. Boulder, CO, PWT Communications, 2007. 272 p.
   Electronic format
   URL: AR IEA Wind/2006 IEAWind AR.indd.pdf

Wizelius, Tore. Developing wind power projects: theory and practice. London, Sterling, VA, Earthscan, 2007. 290 p.
   Bibliography: p. 277-280.
   TJ825.W59 2007



National Wind Coordinating Committee. Siting Subcommittee. Permitting of wind energy facilities: a handbook. Dick Anderson and others. Rev. ed. Washington, National Wind Coordinating Committee, 2002. 50 p.
   Includes bibliographical references.
   Electronic format

Wind energy: handbook. Tony Burton and others. Chichester, Eng., New York, J. Wiley, c2001. 617 p.
   Includes bibliographical references.
   TJ820.H35 2001 <SciRR>

Wind energy information guide. Produced for the U.S. Department of Energy by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory. Washington, The Laboratory, 1996. 1 v. (various pagings)
   TJ820.W5696 1996
   Includes bibliographical references.

Wind resource assessment handbook: fundamentals for conducting a successful monitoring program. Bruce H. Bailey and others. Prepared for National Renewable Energy Laboratory. Albany, NY, AWS Scientific, Inc., 1997. 1 v. (various pagings)
   Includes bibliographical references.
   Electronic format



TECHNICAL REPORTS and other types of literature are indexed in the following guides:

Government Reports Announcements & Index (1946- )
   Z7916.G78 <SciRR A&I> and electronic format

Monthly Catalog of United States Government Publications (1895-)
   URL: (1976-)
   Z1223.A18 <SciRR A&I> and Electronic format



Most reports listed below are available in the microform collection of the Science, Technology & Business Division. These and other reports on the subject may also be purchased from the National Technical Information Service (NTIS), 5825 Port Royal Road, Springfield, Virginia 22161. NTIS telephone: (888) 584-8332 or (703) 605-6585. NTIS web site URL:

Advanced wind turbine program: next generation turbine development project (June 17, 1997-April 30, 2005). Tehachapi, CA, GE Wind Energy, LLC, May 2006. 92 p. (NREL/SR-500-38752)

Cherokee Nation Enterprises wind energy feasibility study. Catoosa, OK, Cherokee Nation Enterprises, 2006. 88 p.

Corbus, D., and M. Meadors. Small wind research turbine. Final report. Golden, CO, National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Oct. 2005. 176 p. (NREL/TP-500-38550)

Effect of windmill farms on military readiness. Washington, Office of the Director of Defense Research and Engineering, 2006. 63 p.

Integrated wind energy/desalination system, October 11, 2004-July 29, 2005. Niskayuna, NY, GE Global Research, Oct. 2006. 192 p. (NREL/SR-500-39485)

Laxson, A., M. M. Hand, and N. Blair. High wind penetration impact on U.S. wind manufacturing capacity and critical resources. Golden, CO, National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Oct. 2006. 34 p. (NREL/TP-500-40482)

United States. Government Accountability Office. Renewable energy: wind power's contribution to electric power generation and impact on farms and rural communities. Report to the ranking Democratic member, Committee on Agriculture, Nutrition, and Forestry, U.S. Senate. Washington, United States Government Accountability Office, 2004. 107 p. (GAO-04-756)
   Includes bibliographical references.
   TJ820.U58 2004

United States. Government Accountability Office. Wind power: impacts on wildlife and government responsibilities for regulating development and protecting wildlife: report to Congressional requesters. Washington, United States Government Accountability Office, 2005. 59 p. (GAO-05-906)
   Includes bibliographical references.
   TJ820.U587 2005

Walford, Christopher A. Wind turbine reliability: understanding and minimizing wind turbine operation and maintenance costs. Albuquerque, NM, Sandia National Laboratories, Mar. 2006. 32 p. (SAND2006-1100)

Wan, Y. A primer on wind power for utility applications. Golden, CO, National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Dec. 2005. 50 p. (NREL/TP-500-36230)



DISSERTATIONS can be identified by using online resources or the following indexes located in the Main Reading Room. Consult any reference librarian about options. Some dissertations may be available in full text through electronic resources on public terminals at the Library of Congress.

Comprehensive Dissertation Index (1861-1972)
   Z5053.X47 1973

Comprehensive Dissertation Index. Supplement (1973- annual)

Dissertation Abstracts International (1938- monthly)
   Z5053.D57 and Electronic format



Carter, Wolf. Model of a regenerative fuel cell-supported wind turbine AC power generating system. Ann Arbor, MI, University Microfilms, 2004.
   UMI publication number AAT EP10529
   Collation of the original: 63 p.
   Thesis (masters)--The University of Texas at El Paso, 2004.

DeCarolis, Joseph Frank. The economics and environmental impacts of large-scale wind power in a carbon constrained world. Ann Arbor, MI, University Microfilms, 2004.
   UMI publication number AAT 3154139
   Collation of the original: 175 p.
   Thesis (doctoral)--Carnegie Mellon University, 2004.

Johnson, Kathryn E. Adaptive torque control of variable speed wind turbines. Ann Arbor, MI, University Microfilms, 2004.
   UMI publication number AAT 3136625
   Collation of the original: 142 p.
   Thesis (doctoral)--University of Colorado at Boulder, 2004.

Kennedy, Scott Warren. A probabilistic assessment of large scale wind power development for long-term energy resource planning. Ann Arbor, MI, University Microfilms, 2003.
   UMI publication number AAT 3106658
   Collation of the original: 177 p.
   Thesis (doctoral)--Harvard University, 2003.

Montenegro León, Alejandro. Advanced power electronic for wind-power generation buffering. Ann Arbor, MI, University Microfilms, 2005.
   UMI publication number AAT 3178007
   Collation of the original: 194 p.
   Thesis (doctoral)--University of Florida, 2005.

Kraj, Andrea Grazyna. Icing characteristics and mitigation strategies for wind turbines in cold climates. Ann Arbor, MI, University Microfilms, 2007.
   UMI publication number AAT MR26134
   Collation of the original: 169 p.
   Thesis (masters)--University of Manitoba (Canada), 2007.

Sawin, Janet Laughlin. The role of government in the development and diffusion of renewable energy technologies: wind power in the United States, California, Denmark and Germany, 1970--2000. Ann Arbor, MI, University Microfilms, 2001.
   UMI publication number AAT 3023331
   Collation of the original: 618 p.
   Thesis (doctoral)--Fletcher School of Law and Diplomacy (Tufts University), 2001.

Wang, Quincy Qing. Maximum wind energy extraction strategies using power electronic converters. Ann Arbor, MI, University Microfilms, 2003.
   UMI publication number AAT NQ98876
   Collation of the original: 165 p.
   Thesis (doctoral)--The University of New Brunswick (Canada), 2003.


Abstracting and indexing services that index relevant journal articles and other literature are listed below. Some suggested terms for searching include wind power, windmills, wind turbines, and other headings listed in the Subject Headings section of this guide, or more specific headings, depending upon the topic of interest. Many of the titles may now be available in electronic format. Consult a reference librarian for the location and format of abstracting and indexing services.

ABI/Inform Global (1971- )
   Electronic format

Academic Search Premier (1965- )
   Electronic format

Applied Science & Technology Index (1913- )
   Z7913.I7 <SciRR A&I> and Electronic format

Business Periodicals Index (1958- )
   Z7164.C81B983 <BRS> and Electronic format

Electrical & Electronics Abstracts (1898- )
   Z5833.E37 <SciRR A&I> and Electronic format

Engineering Index (1884- )
   Z5851.E62 <SciRR A&I >and Electronic format

Environmental Sciences and Pollution Management (1967- )
   Electronic format

General Science Index (1978- )
   Z7401.G46 and Electronic format

GEOBASE (1980- )
   Electronic format

Physics Abstracts (1898- )
   QC1.P46 <SciRR A&I> and Electronic format

Reader's Guide to Periodical Literature (1900-)
   AI3.R48 <BusRR> and Electronic format



Journals that often contain articles on wind power include:

Home Power
IEEE Transactions on Energy Conversion
Power Engineering
Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews TJ807.R45
Renewable Energy
Renewable Energy World TJ809.R69
Solar Energy TJ810.S6
Wind Energy TJ820.W52
Wind Engineering TA654.5.W56
Windpower Monthly Newsmagazine Not in LC



Akhmatov, Vladislav. Influence of wind direction on intense power fluctuations in large offshore windfarms in the North Sea. Wind engineering, v. 31, Jan. 2007: 59-64.

Barclay, Robert M. R., E. F. Baerwald, and J. C. Gruver. Variation in bat and bird fatalities at wind energy facilities: assessing the effects of rotor size and tower height. Canadian journal of zoology, v. 85, Mar. 2007: 381-387.

Cameron, Alasdair. Growth on all fronts: the BTM wind market update. Renewable energy world, v. 10, July/Aug. 2007: 50-52, 54-59.

Glushakow, Bruce. Effective lightning protection for wind turbine generators. IEEE transactions on energy conversion, v. 22, Mar. 2007: 214-222.

Lackner, Matthew A., and Christopher N. Elkinton. An analytical framework for offshore wind farm layout optimization. Wind engineering, v. 31, Jan. 2007: 17-31.

Lewis, Joanna I., and Ryan H. Wiser. Fostering a renewable energy technology industry: an international comparison of wind industry policy support mechanisms. Energy policy, v. 35, Mar. 2007: 1844-1857.

McGowan, Jon G., and Stephen R. Connors. Windpower: a turn of the century review. Annual review of energy and the environment, v. 25, 2000: 147-197.

Smith, J. Charles, and others. Utility wind integration and operating impact state of the art. IEEE transactions on power systems, v. 22, Aug. 2007: 900-908.

Woofenden, Ian, and Hugh Piggott. Anatomy of a wind turbine. Home power, issue 116, Dec. 2006/Jan. 2007: 52-55.



Selected materials available in the Science Reading Room pamphlet boxes include the following:

AWEA electrical guide to utility scale wind turbines. Washington, American Wind Energy Association, Mar. 2005. 31 p.

Hazen, Mark E. Harnessing the wind. In his Alternative energy: an introduction to alternative & renewable energy sources. Indianapolis, IN, Prompt Publications, 1996. p. 95-126.

Sagrillo, Mick, and Ian Woofenden. Wind turbine buyer’s guide. Home power, issue 119, June/July 2007: 34-40.

Small wind electric systems: a Maryland consumer’s guide. Golden, CO, National Renewable Energy Laboratory, 2007. 26 p.

Small wind electric systems: a Virginia consumer’s guide. Golden, CO, National Renewable Energy Laboratory, 2007. 24 p.

Welander, Peter. Wind power’s growing contribution. Control engineering, v. 54, Oct. 2007: IP4, IP6, IP8, IP10.

Wind energy information guide 2004. Washington, American Wind Energy Association, 2004. 15 p.

Wind power outlook 2007. Washington, American Wind Energy Association, 2007. 6 p.

Wind power today. Golden, CO, National Renewable Energy Laboratory, 2007. 12 p.

Wiser, Ryan H., and Mark Bolinger. Annual report on U.S. wind power installation, cost, and performance trends 2006. Golden, CO, National Renewable Energy Laboratory, 2007. 24 p.

Woofenden, Ian. Wind-electric systems simplified. Home power, issue 110, Dec. 2005/Jan. 2006: 10-16.



The Internet offers a growing number of sites for research on wind power. Several of the organizations listed above provide links to related sites from their web sites. In addition to the following sites, it is also possible to use your favorite search engine and appropriate key words to identify more specific resources.

Auswind - The Australian Wind Energy Association

Avian Literature Database
   The Avian Literature Database is a bibliographic database of documents on the effects of wind energy development on birds.

BWEA (British Wind Energy Association)

Database of State Incentives for Renewable Energy (DSIRE)
   DSIRE is a comprehensive source of information on state, local, utility, and federal incentives that promote renewable energy and energy efficiency.

Energy Citations Database
   Energy Citations Database includes bibliographic citations to report literature, conference papers, journal articles, books, dissertations, and patents.

Energy Information Administration: Wind Data and Information

European Wind Energy Association (EWEA)

Home Power Magazine

International Energy Agency (IEA) Implementing Agreement for Co-operation in the Research, Development, and Deployment of Wind Energy Systems (IEA Wind)

Mother Earth News

NREL Publications Database
   The NREL Publications Database contains bibliographic information about publications developed or written by National Renewable Energy Laboratory staff and subcontractors.

NREL Renewable Resource Data Center: Wind Resource Information

Power Engineering

Renewable Energy World Magazine

Sandia National Laboratories: Wind Energy Technology

Utility Wind Integration Group

Wind Energy for Homeowners

Wind-Works by Paul Gipe



American Wind Energy Association (AWEA)
1101 14th Street NW, 12th Floor
Washington, DC 20005
Telephone: (202) 383-2500
Fax: (202) 383-2505

National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL)
Wind Research
1617 Cole Boulevard
Golden, CO 80401-3393
Telephone: (303) 384-6945

National Wind Coordinating Collaborative (NWCC)
1255 23rd Street NW, Suite 275
Washington, DC 20037
Telephone: (202) 965-6398
Telephone: (888) 764-WIND
Fax: (202) 338-1264

U.S. Department of Energy
Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy
Wind & Hydropower Technologies Program
1000 Independence Avenue SW
Washington, DC 20585
Telephone: (202) 586-9220
Telephone: (877) EERE-INF (877-337-3463)

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