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Underground Architecture

Tracer Bullet 93-3

 

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SCOPE

Underground space development is one possible way to help solve urban problems such as congestion, lack of open space, and an aging infrastructure. What is sometimes referred to as underground architecture may in reality be earth-sheltered, earth-bermed, or earth-covered, rather than below the natural ground surface. Terms used to describe structures constructed in underground spaces include semisubterranean, subterranean, geotectural, lithotectural (i.e., mined rock-enclosed space), petratectural (i.e., covered with rock), psammotectural (i.e., covered with sand), argillatectural (i.e., covered with clay), and terratectural (i.e., earth-covered architecture, in which a building is constructed within an excavation, waterproofed and then backfilled and earth-covered).

The use of underground space may be evaluated in terms of how it preserves limited surface open space, limits visual impact, promotes efficient land use, better conceals large or ugly structures, provides a noise-free or vibration-free environment, reduces energy costs by reducing heat loss and increasing the potential for earth cooling, provides for safety and security, dampens daily temperature fluctuations, reduces life-cycle and maintenance costs, offers protection from natural disasters, environmental extremes, difficult living conditions, or a stressful climate, preserves areas of beauty or areas of historical significance so as not to visually impact them by buildings or other structures, or isolates an area where better control of air moisture or temperature is required. Disadvantages include increased construction costs, limited or no natural light, limited access and air circulation, limited visibility, negative psychological reactions, and site restrictions. Questions frequently asked about the use of underground space often concern drainage, waterproofing, windows, lighting, and ventilation.

This Tracer Bullet reviews the literature on the development and use of underground space in the collections of the Library of Congress, and it partially supersedes TB 82-3 on Earth Sheltered Buildings. Not intended as a comprehensive bibliography, it is designed--as the name of the series implies--to put the reader "on target."

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INTRODUCTIONS TO THE TOPIC

Carmody, John, and Raymond Sterling. Earth sheltered housing design. Underground Space Center, University of Minnesota. 2nd ed. New York, Van Nostrand Reinhold, c1985. 350 p.
   Includes bibliographical references.
   Rev. ed. of Earth sheltered housing design (Underground Space Center, University of Minnesota, 1979).
   TH4819.E27C37 1985 <SciRR>

Sterling, Raymond, and John Carmody. Underground space design. Designed and illustrated by John Carmody. Underground Space Center, Department of Civil and Mineral Engineering, University of Minnesota. New York, Van Nostrand Reinhold, c1993. 328 p.
   Includes bibliographical references.
   Contents: pt. 1. Overview of subsurface space utilization, by Raymond L. Sterling.-- pt. 2. Design for people in underground facilities, by John Carmody.
   TA712.C254 1993 <SciRR>

Van Lohuizen, H. P. S. New dimensions for the twenty-first century. Tunnelling and underground space technology, v. 7, Apr. 1992: 105-108.
   Pamphlet box <SciRR> and TA800.T7893

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SUBJECT HEADINGS

Subject headings used by the Library of Congress, under which books on underground space can be located in most card, book, and online catalogs, include the following:

Higly Relevant

UNDERGROUND ARCHITECTURE
UNDERGROUND CONSTRUCTION

Relevant

EARTH-SHELTERED HOUSES
UNDERGROUND AREAS

Related

BUILDINGS--ENERGY CONSERVATION

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BASIC TEXTS

Boyer, Lester L., and Walter T. Grondzik. Earth shelter technology. College Station, Tex., Texas A&M University Press, c1987. 221 p.
   Bibliography: p. 197-216.
   TH4819.E27B66 1987 <SciRR>

Edelhart, Mike. The handbook of earth shelter design. Garden City, Doubleday, 1982. 235 p. T
   Bibliography: p. 198-203.
   H4819.E27E42 <SciRR>

Klodt, Gerald. Earth sheltered housing. Reston, Va., Reston Pub. Co., c1985. 296 p.
   Bibliography: p. 289-292.
   H4819.E27K58 1985 <SciRR>

Rollwagen, Mary, Susan Taylor, and T. Lance Holthusen. The consumer's guide to earth sheltered housing: a step-by-step workbook for prospective owners. New York, Van Nostrand Reinhold Co., c1984. 163 p.
   Bibliography: p. 147-149.
   TH4819.E27R64 1984 <SciRR>

Wade, Herb. Building underground: the design and construction handbook for earth-sheltered houses. Emmaus, Pa., Rodale Press, c1983. 289 p.
   Bibliography: p. 263-273.
   TH4819.E27W3 1983 <SciRR>

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ADDITIONAL TEXTS

Baggs, S. (Sydney), David W. Baggs, and Joan C. Baggs. New ed. Australian earth-covered buildings. Kensington, NSW, Australia, New South Wales University Press; Portland, Ore., Available in North America through International Specialized Book Services, 1991. 184 p.
   Bibliography: p. 170-175.
   TH4819.E27B32 1991

Carmody, John, and Raymond Sterling. Underground building design: commercial and institutional structures. Underground Space Center, University of Minnesota. New York, Van Nostrand Reinhold Co., c1983. 254 p.
   Bibliography: p. 248-250.
   TA712.C25 1983

Carter, David. Build it underground: a guide for the self-builder & building professional. New York, Sterling, c1982. 208 p.
   TA712.C257 1982

Frenette, Edward R. Earth sheltering: the form of energy and the energy of form. Editor, T. Lance Holthusen. American Underground-Space Association, in conjunction with their 1981 design competition. New York, Pergamon Press, c1981. 245 p.
   TH4819.E27E4 1981

Golany, Gideon. Earth-sheltered habitat: history, architecture, and urban design. New York, Van Nostrand Reinhold, c1983. 240 p.
   Bibliography: p. 217-235.
   NA2542.7.G64 1983

LaNier, Royce. Geotecture: subterranean accommodation and the architectural potential of earthworks. South Bend, Ind., c1970. 72 p.
   Bibliography: p. 69-71.
   TA712.L3

Lesser, Wendy. The life below the ground: a study of the subterranean in literature and history. Boston, Faber and Faber, c1987. 207 p.
   Bibliography: p. 203-207.
   PN56.O7L4 1987

Scott, Ray G. The underground home answer book. Blue Ridge Summit, Pa., Tab Books, c1983. 263 p.
   TH4819.E27S347 1983

Williams, Rosalind H. Notes on the underground: an essay on technology, society, and the imagination. Cambridge, Mass., MIT Press, c1990. 265 p.
   Includes bibliographical references.
   TA712.W55 1990

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SPECIALIZED TEXTS

Ahrens, Donna, Tom Ellison, and Raymond Sterling. Earth sheltered homes: plans and designs. Underground Space Center, University of Minnesota. New York, Van Nostrand Reinhold Co., c1981. 125 p.
   TH4819.E27A35

Bulson, P. S. Buried structures: static and dynamic strength. London, New York, Chapman and Hall, 1985. 227 p.
   Includes bibliographical references.
   TA712.B85 1985

DeBord, David Douglas, and Thomas R. Dunbar. Earth-sheltered landscapes: site considerations for earth-sheltered environments. New York, Van Nostrand Reinhold, c1985. 126 p.
   Bibliography: p. 119-121.
   TH4819.E27D43 1985

Golany, Gideon. Chinese earth-sheltered dwellings: indigenous lessons for modern urban design. Honolulu, University of Hawaii Press, c1992. 178 p.
   Bibliography: p. 159-173.
   NA7448.G6 1992

Golany, Gideon. Earth-sheltered dwellings in Tunisia: ancient lessons for modern design. Newark, Del., University of Delaware Press; London, Associated University Presses, c1988. 164 p.
   Bibliography: p. 148-160.
   NA7461.8.A1G6 1988

Golany, Gideon. Urban underground space design in China: vernacular and modern practice. Newark, Del., University of Delaware Press; London, Associated University Presses, c1989. 160 p.
   Bibliography: p. 151-153.
   NA2542.7.G65 1989

Macdonald, Angus Wyman. Building your own earth-tempered home: a construction manual. Hendersonville, N.C., Mother Earth News, 1984. 96 p.
   TH4819.E27M33 1984

Scott, Ray G. How to build your own underground home. 2nd ed. Blue Ridge Summit, Pa., Tab Books, c1985. 209 p.
   TH4819.E27S34 1985

Sterling, Raymond, John Carmody, and Gail Elnicky. Earth sheltered community design: energy-efficient residential development. Underground Space Center, University of Minnesota. New York, Van Nostrand Reinhold Co., c1981. 270 p.
   Bibliography: p. 251-262.
   TH4819.E27S72

Underground structures: design and construction. Edited by R. S. Sinha. Amsterdam, New York, Elsevier; New York, distributors for the U.S. and Canada, Elsevier Scientific Pub. Co., 1991. 529 p. (Developments in geotechnical engineering, 59B)
   Includes bibliographical references.
   TA712.U477 1991

Underground structures: design and instrumentation. Edited by R. S. Sinha. Amsterdam, New York, Elsevier; New York, distributors for the U.S. and Canada, Elsevier Science Pub. Co., 1989. 480 p. (Developments in geotechnical engineering, 59A)
   Includes bibliographical references.
   TA712.U48 1989

University of Minnesota. Underground Space Center. Earth sheltered housing: code, zoning, and financing issues. Prepared by Ray Sterling, Roger Aiken, John Carmody. Rev. ed. New York, Van Nostrand Reinhold Co., c1981. 143 p.
   Includes bibliographical references.
   TH4819.E27U54 1981

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CONFERENCE PROCEEDINGS

American Society of Civil Engineers. Underground Construction Research Council. The use of underground space to achieve national goals; report of a program for improving the effectiveness of underground construction. Prepared by Robert F. Baker and others. New York, 1972. 335 p.
   Bibliography: p. 79-86.
   Prepared in cooperation with American Institute of Mining, Metallurgical and Petroleum Engineers.
   TA712.A52 1972

Conference on Re-shaping Cities Using Underground Construction, Melbourne, 1974. Conference on Re-shaping Cities Using Underground Construction, Melbourne, October 21-22, 1974. Organised by the Australian Tunnelling Committee of the Australian Geomechanics Society. Sydney, Institution of Engineers, Australia, [1974?] 91 p. (Institution of Engineers, Australia, National conference publication, no. 74/5)
   Includes bibliographical references.
   TA712.C66 1974

Design and performance of underground excavations: ISRM Symposium, Cambridge, U.K., 3-6 September 1984. Conception et comportement des excavations souterraines. Editors, E. T. Brown and J. A. Hudson. London, British Geotechnical Society; Distributed by T. Telford, 1984. 518 p.
   Includes bibliographical references.
   Summaries in French and German.
   TA712.D47 1984

Underground Space Conference and Exposition, Kansas City, Mo., 1981. The potential of earth-sheltered and underground space: today's resource for tomorrow's space and energy viability: proceedings of the Underground Space Conference and Exposition, Kansas City, Missouri, June 8-10, 1981. Edited by T. Lance Holthusen. New York, Pergamon Press, c1981. 503 p.
   Includes bibliographical references.
   "Sponsored by the American Underground-Space Association".
   TH4819.E27U5 1981

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BIBLIOGRAPHIES

Keehn, Pauline A. Earth-sheltered houses: an annotated bibliography, 1950-1985. Jefferson, N.C., McFarland, c1987. 360 p.
   Z7914.D87K4 1987

Moe, Christine. Underground space: a new resource. Monticello, Ill., Vance Bibliographies, 1981. 12 p. (Public administration series--bibliography, P-768)
   Z5853.U53M63

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ABSTRACTING AND INDEXING SERVICES

Abstracting and Indexing Services which index relevant journal articles and other literature relevant to underground space development are listed below. Consult reference librarian for location of abstracting and indexing services in the Science Reading Room.

Applied Science & Technology Index (1913- )
   Z7913.I7 <SciRR A&I> and CD-ROM <SciRR>
   See: Underground Construction

Architectural Index (1950- )
   Z5941.A66 <MRR>
   See: Underground Architecture

Artificial Periodicals Index (1972/1973- )
   Z5941.A69 <MRR>
   See: Underground Buildings

Art Index (1929-)
   Z5937.A78 <MRR CD-ROM> and <MRR>
   See: Underground Construction

Bibliography and Index of Geology (1933- )
   Z6031.G4 <SciRR A&I>
   See: Underground Installations -- Underground Space

Energy Research Abstracts (1976- )
   Z5853.P83U544b <SciRR A&I>
   See: Subsurface Structures
   Underground Facilities
   Underground Space

Engineering Index (1884- )
   Z5851.E62 <SciRR A&I> and CD-ROM <SciRR>
   See: Buildings--Underground

General Science Index (1978- )
   Z7401.G46 <SciRR A&I>
   See: Underground Areas

Magazine Index (1980- )
   Available in several formats in LC
   See: Underground Construction
   Underground Architecture
   Underground Areas

Readers' Guide to Periodical Literature (1900 -)
   AI3.R48 <B&E>
   See: Houses, Earth Sheltered
   Underground Structures

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JOURNALS

Journals that often contain relevant articles to underground space development include the following:

Tunneling and Underground Space Technology
(Formed in 1986 by the merger of
Underground Space
(1976-1985) TA712.U47 and
Advances in Tunnelling Technology and Subsurface Use
(1981-1985) TA800.A36)
TA800.T7893
AUA News [American Underground-Space Association] Recent issues in Pamphlet Box <SciRR>

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REPRESENTATIVE JOURNAL ARTICLES

Digging in against jet noise, vandals. ENR, v. 224, Jan. 25, 1990: 16-17.
   02748 <MicRR> and Business Periodicals Ondisc <N&CPR>

Dorris, Virginia Kent, and Lee Yanowitch. Past, present, future mix during final work at treasured Louvre. ENR, v. 229, July 20, 1992: 24-27.
   02748 <MicRR> and Business Periodicals Ondisc <N&CPR>

Finnish Tunnelling Association. City planners' notions of rock spaces. Tunnelling and underground space technology, v. 7, Oct. 1992: 399-406.
   TA800.T7893

Howells, D. J., and T. C. F. Chan. Development of a regulatory framework for the use of underground space in Hong Kong. Tunnelling and underground space technology, v. 8, Jan. 1993: 37-40.
   TA800.T7893

Kerr, William C., George J. Tamaro, and Daniel M. Hahn. Exchange Place Station subsurface reconstruction and improvements. Journal of construction engineering and management, v. 118, Mar. 1992: 166-178.
   TA1.A5236

Kind-Barkauskas, F. Creative aspects of and uses for underground structures -- examples from Germany. Tunnelling and underground space technology, v. 8, Jan. 1993: 25-30.
   TA800.T7893

Nishida, Y., and N. Uchiyama. Japan's use of underground space in urban development and redevelopment. Tunnelling and underground space technology, v. 8, Jan. 1993: 41-46.
   TA800.T7893

Smith, Robert J. Risk management for underground projects: cost-saving techniques and practices for owners. Tunnelling and underground space technology, v. 7, Apr. 1992: 109-118.
   TA800.T7893

Sterling, Ray, John Carmody, and Walter H. Rockenstein. Case study of life safety standards for a large mined underground space facility in Minneapolis, Minnesota. Tunnelling and underground space technology, v. 7, Apr. 1992: 119-126.
   TA800.T7893

Watanabe, I., and others. Safety and disaster prevention measures for underground space: an analysis of disaster cases. Tunnelling and underground space technology, v. 7, Oct. 1992: 317-324.
   TA800.T7893

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SELECTED MATERIALS

Selected materials available in the Science Reading Room pamphlet boxes include the following:

Cross, Michael. Japan invests millions in life underground. New scientist, v. 122, Apr. 29, 1989: 31.

Global review of underground space '91/92. Westport, Conn., Green Global Publications, c1991. 96 p.

Global review of underground space '93. Westport, Conn., Green Global Publications, c1993. 48 p.

Groundworks: North American underground projects 1980-1989. Susan R. Nelson, editor. Minneapolis, Minn., American Underground-Space Association, 1989. 105 p.

Ishioka, H. Security management for underground space. Tunnelling and underground space technology, v. 7, Oct. 1992: 335-338.

Robbins, Richard J. Balancing risk and innovation in underground construction. AUA news, v. 7 winter 1992-93: 7-8.

Underground cities may ease overcrowding. American city & county, v. 107, Mar. 1992: 22.

Underground cities: Japan's answer to overcrowding. Futurist, v. 24, Jul./Aug. 1990: 29-32.

Wells, Malcolm. Notes from underground: an architect's sketchbook. Futurist, v. 25, Jan./Feb. 1991: 29-32..

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ADDITIONAL SOURCE OF INFORMATION

Susan Nelson, Executive Director
American Underground-Space Association
511 11th Avenue So., Suite 248
Minneapolis, MN 55415
Telephone: (612) 339-5403
FAX: (612) 339-3207

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