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Pesticides and Food

Tracer Bullet 94-5


Pesticides are of great concern to the American consumer. While the use of pesticides and other agrochemicals has increased the availability of fruits and vegetables, some research indicates the residues of these compounds may constitute a health hazard. New studies linking pesticides to diseases in children, reproductive disorders in men, and breast cancer in women contribute to these concerns. The issues involved are complex, and the literature dealing with the topic is often very technical. This compilation furnishes a review of the literature in the collections of the Library of Congress on pesticides and food. Not intended as a comprehensive bibliography, this compilation is designed--as the name of the series implies--to put the reader "on target."



Cooper, Mary H. Regulating pesticides. CQ researcher, v. 4, Jan. 28, 1994: 75-93
   An examination of issues involved in pesticide regulation, a chronological overview of important events, and lists of resources for further research.

Ecobichon, Donald J. Toxic effects of pesticides. In Casarett and Doull's toxicology: the basic science of poisons. Editors, Mary O. Amdur, John Doull, Curtis D. Klaassen. 4th ed. New York, Pergamon Press, c1991. p. 565-622.
   RA1211.C296 1991 <SciRR>

Hathcock, John N. Toxicology of pesticide residues in foods. In Encyclopedia of human biology. v. 7. San Diego, Academic Press, c1991. p. 559-566.
   QP11.E53 1991 <SciRR>

Levine, Robert. Recognized and possible effects of pesticides in humans. In Handbook of pesticide toxicology. v. 1. Edited by Wayland J. Hayes, Jr., and Edward R. Laws, Jr. San Diego, Academic Press, c1991. p. 275-360.
   RA1270.P4H36 1991 <SciRR>
   Bibliography: p. 346-360.

Marshall, W. D. Pesticide residues in foods. In Encyclopedia of food science and technology. v. 3. New York, Wiley, c1992. p. 2048-2055.
   TP368.2.E62 1991 <SciRR>

Winter, Carl K. Dietary pesticide risk assessment. Reviews of environmental contamination and toxicology, v. 127, 1992: 23-67.
   TX501.R48 <SciRR>
   Bibliography: p. 61-67.



Subject headings used by the Library of Congress, under which books on pesticides and food can be located in most card, book, and online catalogs, include the following:

Highly Relevant

   See also subdivision "Toxicology" under specific categories of chemicals, e.g., "Fungicides," "Herbicides," "Fertilizers"



More General




Briggs, Shirley A. Basic guide to pesticides: their characteristics and hazards, by Shirley A. Briggs and the staff of Rachel Carson Council. Washington, Hemisphere Pub. Corp., c1992. 283 p.
   Includes bibliographical references.
   RA1270.P4B73 1992 <SciRR>

National Research Council (U.S.). Committee on Pesticides in the Diets of Infants and Children. Pesticides in the diets of infants and children. Committee on Pesticides in the Diets of Infants and Children, Board on Agriculture and Board on Environmental Studies and Toxicology, Commission on Life Sciences, National Research Council. Washington, National Academy Press, 1993. 386 p.
   Includes bibliographical references.
   RA1225.N38 1993 <SciRR>

The Pesticide question: environment, economics, and ethics. David Pimentel and Hugh Lehman, editors. New York, Chapman & Hall, 1993. 441 p.
   Includes bibliographical references.
   QH545.P4P4793 1993 <SciRR>

Pesticide residues and food safety: a harvest of viewpoints. Developed from a special conference sponsored by the Division of Agrochemicals of the American Chemical Society, Point Clear, Alabama, January 21-25, 1990. B. G. Tweedy and others, editors. Washington, American Chemical Society, 1991. 360 p. (ACS Symposium Series, 446)
   Includes bibliographical references.
   TX571.P4P464 1991

Regulating pesticides in food: the Delaney paradox. Committee on Scientific and Regulatory Issues Underlying Pesticide Use Patterns and Agricultural Innovation, Board on Agriculture, National Research Council. Washington, National Academy Press, 1987. 272 p.
   Includes bibliographical references.
   KF3878.R44 1987



Billings, Charlene W. Pesticides: a necessary risk. Hillside, N.J., Enslow Publishers, c1993. 112 p.
   SB951.13.B55 1993

Bosso, Christopher John. Pesticides and politics: the life cycle of a public issue. Pittsburgh, Pa., University of Pittsburgh Press, c1987. 294 p.
   Bibliography: p. 267-287.
   KF3959.B67 1987

Chemicals in the human food chain. Edited by Carl K. Winter, James N. Seiber, Carole F. Nuckton. Contributors Sandra O. Archibald and others. New York, Van Nostrand Reinhold, c1990. 276 p.
   Includes bibliographical references.
   TX531.C518 1990

Ecobichon, Donald J., and Robert M. Joy. Pesticides and neurological diseases. 2nd ed. Boca Raton, CRC Press, c1994. 381 p.
   Includes bibliographical references.
   RC347.5.E26 1994

Food contamination from environmental sources. Edited by Jerome O. Nriagu and Milagros S. Simmons. New York, Wiley, c1990. 785 p. (Advances in environmental science and technology, v. 23)
   TD180.A38, v. 23 <SciRR>
   See particularly "Pesticide contamination of food in the United States" : p. 257-293.

Garland, Anne Witte. For our kids' sake: how to protect your child against pesticides in food. New York, Natural Resources Defense Council, c1989. 87 p.
   TX571.P4G37 1989

Mott, Lawrie, and Karen Snyder. Pesticide alert: a guide to pesticides in fruits and vegetables. Natural Resources Defense Council. San Francisco, Sierra Club Books. c1987. 179 p.
   Includes bibliographical references.
   TX571.P4M67 1987 <SciRR>

National Research Council (U.S.). Committee on the Institutional Means for Assessment of Risks to Public Health. Risk assessment in the federal government: managing the process. Committee on the Institutional Means for Assessment of Risks to Public Health, Commission on Life Sciences, National Research Council. Washington, National Academy Press, 1983. 191 p.
   Bibliography: p. 181-189.
   RC276.N38 1983

Needleman, Herbert L., and Philip J. Landrigan. Raising children toxic free: how to keep your child safe from lead, asbestos, pesticides, and other environmental hazards. New York, Farrar, Straus and Giroux, 1994. 259 p.
   Includes bibliographical references.
   RA1225.N44 1994 <SciRR>

Scientists' review: pesticides in the diets of infants and children. Ames, Iowa, Council for Agricultural Science and Technology, 1993. 20 p. (Council for Agricultural Science and Technology. Special publication, no. 17)
   Includes bibliographical references.
   RA1225.N383S35 1993

Whelan, Elizabeth M. Toxic terror: the truth behind the cancer scares. Buffalo, N.Y., Prometheus Books, 1993. 476 p.
   Includes bibliographical references.
   RA565.W47 1993



Farm chemicals handbook. 1951- Willoughby, Ohio, Meister Pub. Co.
   S633.A5 <SciRR>

Howard, Philip H. Handbook of environmental fate and exposure data for organic chemicals. Chelsea, Mich., Lewis Publishers, c1989-
   Includes bibliographical references.
   TD176.4.H69 1989 <SciRR>

Manual of pesticide residue analysis. Edited by Hans-Peter Thier and Hans Zeumer (Working Group "Analysis"). Translated by J. Edwards. Bonn, Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft, Pesticides Commission; New York, VCH, c1987- 1992. 2 v.
   TX571.P4M36 1987 <SciRR>

Montgomery, John H. Agrochemicals desk reference: environmental data. Boca Raton, Lewis Publishers, c1993. 625 p.
   Bibliography: p. 421-466.
   TD427.A35M66 1993 <SciRR>

Registry of toxic effects of chemical substances. Rockville, Md., National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health, 1975-1986.
Some issues updated by supplements.
   RA1215.N37a <SciRR Desk>
   Up-to-date information available in Registry of toxic effects of chemical substances (Microfiche ed.).



Pesticide residues in food: technologies for detection. Washington, Congress of the U. S., Office of Technology Assessment; U. S. Govt. Print. Off., 1988. 232 p.
   TX571.P4P49 1988
   Supt. of Docs. no.: Y3.T 22/2:2 P43/3

Pesticides: EPA's formidable task to assess and regulate their risks; report to Congressional requesters. United States General Accounting Office. Washington, The Office, 1986. 138 p.
   SB970.4.U5P47 1986
   Supt. of Docs. no.: GA1.13: RCED-86-125

United States. Congress. House. Committee on Agriculture. Subcommittee on Domestic Marketing, Consumer Relations, and Nutrition. Review of the U.S. General Accounting Office report on mismanagement of the 1987-88 nationwide food consumption survey. Joint hearing before the Subcommittee ... One Hundred Second Congress, first session, October 16, 1991. Washington: U.S. Govt. Print. Off., 1992. 199 p.
   KF27.A3336 1991e
   "Serial no. 102-41."
   Supt. of Docs. no.: Y4.AG 8/1: 102-41

United States. Congress. House. Committee on Agriculture. Subcommittee on Department Operations, Research, and Foreign Agriculture. Review the status of the Federal Insecticide, Fungicide, and Rodenticide Act, pesticide reregistration program, and the section 6(a)(2) submission process. Joint hearing before the Subcommittee ... One Hundred Second Congress, first session, October 30, 1991. Washington, U.S. Govt. Print. Off., 1992. 93 p.
   KF27.A33277 1991
   "Serial no. 102-47."
   Supt. of Docs. no.: Y4.AG 8/1: 102-47

United States. Congress. House. Committee on Energy and Commerce. Subcommittee on Health and the Environment. Safety of pesticides in food. Hearing before the Subcommittee ... One Hundred Second Congress, first session, on H.R. 2342, a bill to amend and revise the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act to regulate pesticide chemical residues in food, June 19, 1991. Washington, U.S. Govt. Print. Off., 1991. 438 p.
   KF27.E553 1991c
   "Serial no. 102-35."
   Supt. of Docs. no.: Y4.EN 2/3: 102-35

United States. Congress. House. Committee on Energy and Commerce. Subcommittee on Health and the Environment. Safety of pesticides in food. Joint hearing before the Subcommittee on Health and the Environment of the Committee on Energy and Commerce, House of Representatives, and the Committee on Labor and Human Resources, United States Senate, One Hundred Third Congress, first session, September 21, 1993. Washington, U.S. Govt. Print. Off., 1994. 189 p.
   Pamphlet box <SciRR> and KF27.E553 1993q
   "Serial no. 103-55."
   Supt. of Docs. no.: Y4.EN 2/3: 103-55

United States. Congress. Senate. Committee on Agriculture, Nutrition, and Forestry. Circle of poison: impact on American consumers. Hearing before the Committee ... One Hundred Second Congress, first session, on improving the safety of exported pesticides, focusing on the health impact of certain pesticides manufactured in the United States on the American consumer, September 20, 1991. Washington, U.S. Govt. Print. Off., 1992. 528 p.
   KF26.A35 1991m
   Supt. of Docs. no.: Y4.AG 8/3: S.HRG. 102-865

United States. Congress. Joint Economic Committee. Alternative agriculture: perspectives of the National Academy of Sciences and the Council for Agricultural Sciences and Technology. Hearing before the Joint Economic Committee, Congress of the United States, One Hundred First Congress, second session, June 6, 1990. Washington, U.S. Govt. Print. Off., 1990. 336 p.
   KF25.E2 1990r
   Supt. of Docs. no.: Y4.EC 7: AG 8/17

United States. General Accounting Office. Nutrition monitoring: mismanagement of nutrition survey has resulted in questionable data. Report to the Honorable George E. Brown, Jr., House of Representatives. Washington, The Office, 1991. 62 p.
   Supt. of Docs. no.: GA1.13: RCED-91-117

United States. General Accounting Office. Pesticides: need to enhance FDA's ability to protect the public from illegal residues. Report to Congressional requesters. Washington, The Office, 1987. 58 p.
   Supt. of Docs. no.: GA1.13: RCED-87-7



Biomarkers of human exposure to pesticides. Developed from a symposium sponsored by the Division of Agrochemicals at the 204th National Meeting of the American Chemical Society, Washington, D.C., August 23-28, 1992. Editors, Mahmoud A. Saleh, Jerry N. Blancato, Charles H. Nauman. Washington, American Chemical Society, 1994. 326 p. (ACS Symposium Series, 542)
   Includes bibliographical references.
   RA1223.B54B57 1994

Carcinogenicity and pesticides: principles, issues, and relationships. Nancy N. Ragsdale, editor, Robert E. Menzer, editor. Washington, American Chemical Society, 1989. 246 p. (ACS Symposium Series, 414)
   Includes bibliographical references.
   RC268.7.P47C37 1989
   "Developed from a symposium sponsored by the Division of Agrochemicals at the 196th National Meeting of the American Chemical Society, Los Angeles, California, September 25-30, 1988."

The Effects of pesticides on human health. Proceedings of a workshop, May 9-11, 1988, Keystone, Colorado, sponsored by the Task Force of, i.e., on Environmental Cancer and Heart and Lung Disease. Editors, Scott R. Baker, Chris F. Wilkinson. Princeton, Princeton Scientific Pub. Co., c1990. 438 p. (Advances in modern environmental toxicology, v. 18)
   Includes bibliographical references.
   RA1270.P4E35 1990

Food toxicology: a perspective on the relative risks. Edited by Steven L. Taylor, Richard A. Scanlan. New York, Dekker, c1989. 466 p.
   Includes bibliographical references.
   RA1258.F65 <SciRR>
   Proceedings of the 12th basic symposium sponsored by the Institute of Food Technologists (IFT) and the International Union of Food Science and Technology, held June 17-18, 1988, in New Orleans.

Silent spring revisited. Edited by Gino J. Marco, Robert M. Hollingworth, and William Durham. Washington, American Chemical Society, 1987. 214 p.
   Includes bibliographical references.
   QH545.P4S55 1987
   "Based on a symposium on the topics posed in Rachel Carson's Silent Spring, held in Philadelphia, August 1984."



Technical reports and other types of literature are indexed in the following guides:

Government Reports Announcements & Index (1895- )
   Z7916.G78 <SciRR A&I> and CD-ROM <SciRR>
   See: Pesticide Residues
   Food Contamination

Monthly Catalog of United States Government Publications (1895- )
   Z1233.A18 <SciRR A&I> and CD-ROM <N&CPR>
   See: Pesticide Residues in Food
   Pesticides(s) -- Toxicology Pesticides -- Law and Legislation
   Pesticides Policy
   Food Contamination



Federal grade standards for fresh produce: linkages to pesticide use. Nicholas J. Powers and Richard G. Heifner. Washington, Economic Research Service, Commodity Economics Division, U.S. Dept. of Agriculture, Aug. 1993. 30 p.
   PB94-102373 <SciRR>

Nies, J. Dirk. Enhancement of the Pesticide Residues Information System (PRIS). Final report. Submitted to Pesticide Policy Branch, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. Rockville, Md., Dynamac Corporation, July 1993. 2 v.
   PB93-209013 and PB93-209021 <SciRR>

Pesticide residues and food safety: aspects of a changing structure. Edited by Walter L. Ferguson and Philip Szmedra. Washington, Resources and Technology Division, Economic Research Service, U.S. Dept. of Agriculture, Feb. 1991. 43 p.
   PB91-184036 <SciRR>

RED facts: daminozide. Fact sheet. Washington, Office of Pesticide Programs, Environmental Protection Agency, Sept. 1993. 8 p.
   PB94-126117 <SciRR>



Abstracting and Indexing Services which index relevant journal articles and other literature are listed below. Some suggested terms are given as aids in searching.

Applied Science & Technology Index (1913- )
   Z7913.I7 <SciRR> and CD-ROM <SciRR>    See: Pesticides--Residues
   Pesticides--Laws and Regulations
   Food Contamination
   Food Laws and Regulations
   See also names of individual pesticides, herbicides, etc.

Bibliography of Agriculture (1942- )
   Z5073.U572 <SciRR>
   See: Pesticide Residues
   Pesticide Residues in Food
   Food Contamination
   Food Legislation

Biological & Agricultural Index (1916- )
   Z5073.A46 <SciRR> and CD-ROM <SciRR>
   See: Fruit Contamination--Drugs and Pesticides
   Food Analysis
   Food Contamination--Drugs and Pesticides
   Food Safety
   Vegetable Contamination--Drugs and Pesticides

Business Index (1958- )
   Available in several formats at LC
   See: Pesticide Residues--Health Aspects
   Pesticides--Health Aspects
   Names of specific pesticides, e.g., Parathion

Food Science and Technology Abstracts (1969- )
   Available in several formats at LC
   See: Food Safety
   Names of specific pesticides, e.g., Alar, Malathion

General Science Index (1978- )
   Z7401.G46 <SciRR>
   See: All headings beginning Pesticides
   Food Contamination
   Food Laws and Regulations
   See also names of individual pesticides, herbicides, etc.

Index Medicus (1960- )
   Z6660.I422 <SciRR> and CD-ROM <SciRR>
   See: Pesticide Residues

Magazine Index (1980-)
   Available in several formats at LC
   See: Pesticide Residues in Food
   Pesticides--Health Aspects
   Names of individual pesticides, e.g., Dibromochloropropane

Nutrition Abstracts and Reviews. Series A: Human and Experimental (1977-)
   QP141.A1N86 <SciRR>
   See: Pesticide Residues

Readers' Guide to Periodical Literature (1900-)
   See: Pesticide Residues in Food
   Food Laws and Regulations



Journals that often contain articles relevant to pesticides and food include the following:

Annual Report on Carcinogens
Chemical & Engineering News TP1.C35
Consumers' Research TX335.A1C68
FDA Consumer HD9000.9.U5A1735
Food Technology TP370.F63
IARC Monographs on the Evaluation of Carcinogenic Risks to Humans RC268.6.I28a <SciRR>
Reviews of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology TX501.R48 <SciRR>
Science Q1.S35
Supermarket News HD9321.1.S863



Ames, Bruce N., Renae Magaw, and Lois Swirsky Gold. Ranking possible carcinogenic hazards. Science, v. 236, Apr. 17, 1987: 271-280.

Blair, Dorothy. Uncertainties in pesticide risk estimation and consumer concern. Nutrition today, v. 24, Nov./Dec. 1989: 13-19.

Buchel, K.H. Political, economic, and philosophical aspects of pesticide use for human welfare. Regulatory toxicology and pharmacology, v. 4, June 1984: 174-191.

Ember, Lois. Move on pesticides may spur food law changes. Chemical & engineering news, v. 71, Feb. 8, 1993: 7-8.

Eom, Young Sook. Consumers respond to information about pesticide residues. FoodReview, v. 15, Oct./Dec. 1992: 6-10.

Fan, A.M., and R. J. Jackson. Pesticides and food safety. Regulatory toxicology and pharmacology, v. 9, Apr. 1989: 158-174.

Foulke, Judith E. FDA reports on pesticides in foods. FDA consumer, v. 27, June 1993: 28-32.

Greenhalgh, Roy. Agrochemicals: pesticides and other strategies for pest control. Impact of science on society, no. 157 (v. 40, no. 1) 1990: 27-36.

Hathaway, Janet S. The Delaney clause and carcinogenic pesticides. Environment, v. 30, Nov. 1988: 4-5.

Lecos, Chris. Pesticides and food: public worry no. 1. FDA consumer, v. 18, July/Aug. 1984: 12-15.

McAuliffe K., and others. How safe is your food? U.S. news and world report, Nov. 16, 1987: 70-72.

Pesticides and food safety. In United States. Environmental Protection Agency. EPA journal, v. 16, May/June 1990: 1-56.
   Contents: Russell, C. A crisis in public confidence.--Facing a tough issue.- -Providing some answers: an interview with Linda J. Fisher.--A look at the basics.--A forum.--"Big Green" and pesticides.--Zicht, J. Pesticides and food safety: a feature for young readers.

Pimentel, David, and others. Benefits and costs of pesticide use in U.S. food production. BioScience, v. 28, Dec. 1978: 772, 778-784.

Risk assessment of pesticides, a C&EN news forum. Chemical & engineering news, v. 69, Jan. 7, 1991: 27-55.

The Risk/benefit concept as applied to food: a scientific status summary by the Institute of Food Technologists' Expert Panel on Food Safety & Nutrition. Food technology, v. 42, Mar. 1988: 119-126.

Sachs, Carolyn, Dorothy Blair, and Carolyn Richter. Consumer pesticide concerns: a 1965 and 1984 comparison. Journal of consumer affairs, v. 21, no. 1, 1987: 96-107.

Thonney, Patricia F., and Carole A. Bisogni. Residues of agricultural chemicals on fruits and vegetables: pesticide use and regulatory issues. Nutrition today, v. 24, Nov/Dec. 1989: 6-12.

Turnbull, G. J. Pesticide residues in food--a toxicological view: discussion paper. Journal of the Royal Society of Medicine, v. 77, Nov. 1984: 932- 935.

Zilberman, David, and others. The economics of pesticide use and regulation. Science, v. 253, Aug. 2, 1991: 518-522.



Selected materials available in the Science Reading Room pamphlet boxes include the following:

Abelson, Philip H. Pesticides and food. Science, v. 259, Feb. 26, 1993: 1235.

Auld, Garry W., Patricia A. Kendall, and Helen Chipman. Consumer and producer perceptions and concerns regarding pesticide use; focus group participants believed pesticide use was driven by consumer demand. Food technology, v. 48, Mar. 1994: 100, 102, 107-109.

Calabrese, Edward J. Animal extrapolation: a look inside the toxicologist's black box. Environmental science & technology, v. 21, July 1987: 618- 623.

Chaisson, Christine F. Understanding pesticides in foods. Chicago, American Dietetic Association, c1991. 10 p.

Conkling, Winifred. Pesticide perspectives: are pesticides poisoning your food? American health, v. 13, Oct. 1994: 46, 95.

Dittus, Kim L., and Virginia N. Hillers. Consumer trust and behavior related to pesticides; consumers believe pesticides are effective but have concerns about residue effects on personal health and the environment. Food technology, v. 47, July 1993: 87-89.

From label to label: the research, testing and registration of agricultural chemicals. Washington, National Agricultural Association, 1993. 13 p.

Gaynor, J. D., A. S. Hamill, and D. C. MacTavish. Efficacy, fruit residues, and soil dissipation of the herbicide metolachlor in processing tomato. In American Society of Horticultural Science. Journal, v. 118, Jan. 1993: 68-72.

Lamb, Charles C. Regulating carcinogenic pesticides. Chemtech, v. 21, Jan. 1991: 42-49.

Levine, Tina E. Assessment and communication of risks from pesticide residues in food. Food and drug law journal, v. 47, 1992: 207-214.

Malloy, Julia. Straight answers about produce and pesticides. Better homes and gardens, v. 70, Aug. 1992: 37-38.

Nemajovsky, Alexander R., and Terence J. Centner. Pesticide residues in food: the Delaney Clause and global harmonization of pesticide standards. Agribusiness, v. 7, May 1991: 187-196.

Papazian, Ruth. Pesticide residues: forbidden fruit? Harvard health letter, v. 19, Jan. 1994: 6-8.

Raloff, Janet. That feminine touch. Science news, v. 145, Jan 22, 1994: 56-59.
"Are men suffering from prenatal or childhood exposures to 'hormonal' toxicants?"

Rosen, Joseph D. Much ado about Alar. Consumers' research, v. 74, Feb. 2, 1991: 16-20.

Van Wagner, Lisa R. EPA tackles pesticide issue: proposed legislation would overhaul existing laws. Food processing, v. 55, May 1994: 66-67



Center for Science in the Public Interest (CSPI)
1875 Connecticut Ave., N.W., Suite 300
Washington, DC 20009
Telephone: (202) 332-9110

Food and Nutrition Information Center
National Agricultural Library, Room 304
10301 Baltimore Blvd.
Beltsville, MD 20705
Telephone: (301) 504-5719

Mothers & Others for a Livable Planet
40 West 20th St.
New York, NY 10011
Telephone: (212) 242-0010

National Coalition Against the Misuse of Pesticides (NCAMP)
701 E St., S.E., Suite 200
Washington, DC 20003
Telephone: (202) 543-5450

National Coalition for Integrated Pest Management (NCIPM)
800 Centre Park Dr., Suite 340
Austin, TX 78754
Telephone: (52) 834-8762

Natural Resources Defense Council (NRDC)
40 W. 20th Street
New York, NY 10011
Telephone: (212) 727-2700

Public Voice for Food and Health Policy
1101 14th Street, N.W., Suite 710
Washington, DC 20005
Telephone: (202) 371-1840

USDA Extension Service
14th St. and Independence Ave., S.W.
Washington, DC 20250
Telephone: (202) 720-4111
USDA suggests you check the Local Government listing in your local telephone book for the number of the Cooperative Extension Service nearest you. Cooperative Extension Service personnel have extensive training in pesticides use, and pesticide laws may differ in each State.


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