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Biodiversity, or biological diversity, is usually defined as the variety and variability of living organisms and the biological communities in which they live, plus the ecological and evolutionary processes that keep them functioning. There are four levels of diversity: genetic, species, ecosystem, and landscape. Biodiversity is directly and indirectly affected by human activities, which sometimes lead to unintended reductions in diversity. Many scientists and conservationists think the loss of biodiversity should already be considered a crisis and will accelerate in the near future. They argue that biodiversity must be maintained because of the ecosystem services, economic benefits, and evolutionary potential it provides, as well as for esthetic and ethical reasons. Not intended to be a comprehensive bibliography, this guide is designed--as the name of the series implies--to put the reader "on target."

Myers, Norman. Tackling mass extinction of species: a great creative challenge. Berkeley, University of California, College of Natural Resources, Dept. of Forestry and Resource Management, 1986. 40 p. (The Horace M. Albright lectureship in conservation, 26)
   S900.H6 no. 26

Wildlife conservation. In Environmental viewpoints: selected essays and excerpts on issues in environmental protection. v. 1. Detroit, Gale Research, c1992. p. 473-504.
   TD169.E656 <SciRR>

Wilson, Edward O. Threats to biodiversity. Scientific American, v. 261, Sept. 1989: 108-112, 114, 116.



Subject Headings used by the Library of Congress, under which books on biodiversity can be located in most card, book, and online catalogs, include the following:

Highly relevant






More General




Biodiversity II: understanding and protecting our biological resources. Marjorie L. Reaka-Kudla, Don E. Wilson, and Edward O. Wilson, editors. Washington, Joseph Henry Press, 1997. 551 p.
   QH75.B5228 1997 <SciRR>

Biological diversity: problems and challenges. Edited by S. K. Majumdar and others. Easton, Penn., Pennsylvania Academy of Science, c1994. 461 p.
   QH75.B554 1994

Conserving the world's biological diversity. By Jeffrey A. McNeely and others. Gland, Switzerland, International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources; Washington, World Resources Institute, Conservation International, World Wildlife Fund-US, World Bank, c1990. 193 p. Includes bibliographical references (p. 157-183).
   QH75.C682 1990

Global biodiversity: status of the earth's living resources: a report. Compiled by the World Conservation Monitoring Centre. Editor, Brian Groombridge; in collaboration with the Natural History Museum, London, and in association with IUCN-the World Conservation Union and others. London, New York, Chapman&Hall, 1992. 585 p.
   QH313.G58 1992 <SciRR>

Global biodiversity assessment. V. H. Heywood, executive editor; R. T. Watson, chair. Cambridge, New York, Cambridge University Press, 1995. 1140 p. "Published for the United Nations Environment Programme."
   QH541.15.B56G58 1995 <SciRR>

National Forum on BioDiversity (1986, Washington, D.C.). Biodiversity. E. O. Wilson, editor, Frances M. Peter, associate editor. Washington, National Academy Press, 1988. 521 p. "The source of the book is the National Forum on BioDiversity, held in Washington, D.C. on September 21-24, 1986, under the auspices of the National Academy of Sciences and Smithsonian Institution."
   QH75.A1N32 1986

Noss, Reed F., and Allen Y. Cooperrider. Saving nature's legacy: protecting and restoring biodiversity. Washington, Island Press, c1994. 416 p. Includes bibliographical references (p. 343-387).
   QH76.N67 1994 <SciRR>

Ryan, John C. Life support: conserving biological diversity. Washington, Worldwatch Institute, c1992. 62 p. (Worldwatch paper, 108)
   QH75.R93 1992 and Pamphlet box <SciRR>

Wilson, Edward Osborne. The diversity of life. Cambridge, Mass., Belknap Press of Harvard University Press, 1992. 424 p.
   QH313.W55 1992 <SciRR>



Titles about Particular Geographic Areas or Habitats

Arctic and alpine biodiversity: patterns, causes, and ecosystem consequences. F. Stuart Chapin III and Christian Korner. Berlin, New York, Springer-Verlag, c1995. 332 p. (Ecological studies, v. 113) Based on papers from a workshop held in Kongsvold, Norway, Aug. 17-20, 1993.
   QH84.1.A7 1995

Biodiversity and ecosystem processes in tropical forests. Gordon H. Orians, Rodolfo Dirzo, J. Hall Cushman, editors. Berlin, New York, Springer, c1996. 229 p. (Ecological studies, v. 122)
   QH541.5.R27B56 1996

Biodiversity of the southeastern United States: aquatic communities. Edited by Courtney T. Hackney, S. Marshall Adams, William H. Martin. New York, Wiley, c1992. 779 p.
   QH104.5.S59B56 1992

Norse, Elliott A. Ancient forests of the Pacific Northwest. Washington, Island Press, c1990. 327 p. "The Wilderness Society." Includes bibliographical references (p. 293-314).
   SD387.O43N67 1990

Terborgh, John. Diversity and the tropical rain forest. New York, Scientific American Library; Distributed by W.H. Freeman, c1992. 242 p. (Scientific American Library series, no. 38)
   QH541.5.R27T47 1992

Thorne-Miller, Boyce, and John G. Catena. The living ocean: understanding and protecting marine biodiversity. Washington, Island Press, c1991. 180 p. Includes bibliographical references (p. 155-167).
   QH91.T49 1991 <SciRR>

Understanding marine biodiversity: a research agenda for the nation. Committee on Biological Diversity in Marine Systems. Washington, National Academy Press, 1995. 114 p. "The workshop, entitled Biological Diversity in Marine Systems, was held May 24-26, 1994, at the Arnold and Mabel Beckman Center of the National Academy of Sciences in Irvine, California." Includes bibliographical references (p. 76-93).
   QH91.A1U485 1995

Titles about Particular Aspects of Biodiversity

Air pollution effects on biodiversity. Edited by Jerry R. Barker and David T. Tingey. New York, Van Nostrand Reinhold, 1992. 322 p. "This book is based on a workshop that evaluated the effects of air pollution on biodiversity ... " Available on microfiche from National Technical Information Service, Springfield, Va., as PB92-170166.
   QH545.A3A38 1992

Biodiversity: culture, conservation, and ecodevelopment. Edited by Margery L. Oldfield and Janis B. Alcorn. Boulder, Westview Press, 1991. 349 p.
   S494.3.B56 1991

Biodiversity and ecosystem function. Ernst-Detlef Schulze, Harold A. Mooney (eds.). Berlin, New York, Springer-Verlag, c1993. 525 p. (Ecological studies, v. 99)
   QH313.B54 1993

Cook, Laurence Martin. Genetic and ecological diversity: the sport of nature. London, New York, Chapman&Hall, 1991. 192 p.
   QH75.C713 1991

Davis, Peter. Museums and the natural environment: the role of natural history museums in biological conservation. London, New York, Leicester University Press, 1996. 286 p.
   QH70.A1D38 1996

Environmental policy and biodiversity. Edited By R. Edward Grumbine. Washington, Island Press, c1994. 416 p.
   GE180.G78 1994

Global warming and biological diversity. Edited by Robert L. Peters and Thomas E. Lovejoy. New Haven, Yale University Press, c1992. 386 p.
   QH543.G56 1992

Kellert, Stephen R. The value of life: biological diversity and human society. Washington, Island Press/Shearwater Books, c1996. 263 p. Includes bibliographical references (p. 219-248).
   GF21.K47 1996

Landscape linkages and biodiversity. Defenders of Wildlife. Edited by Wendy E. Hudson. Washington, Island Press, 1991. 196 p.
   QH75.L28 1991

Magurran, Anne E. Ecological diversity and its measurement. Princeton, N.J., Princeton University Press, [1988]. 179 p. Includes bibliographical references (p. 115-125).
   QH75.M32 1988 <SciRR>

Molecular genetic approaches in conservation. Edited by Thomas B. Smith and Robert K. Wayne. New York, Oxford University Press, 1996. 483 p.
   QH75.M65 1996

Perspectives on biodiversity: case studies of genetic resource conservation and development. Christopher S. Potter, Joel I. Cohen, Dianne Janczewski, editors. Washington, AAAS Press, c1993. 245 p. (AAAS publication, 93-10S)
   Q181.A1A68 no. 93-10S

Pimm, Stuart L. The balance of nature? Ecological issues in the conservation of species and communities. Chicago, University of Chicago Press, c1991. 434 p. Includes bibliographical references (p. 391-417).
   QH541.P558 1991

Systematics, ecology, and the biodiversity crisis. Edited by Niles Eldredge. New York, Columbia University Press, c1992. 220 p. "Outgrowth of a symposium held at the American Museum of Natural History in March 1990."
   QH313.S97 1992



Conservation biology: the theory and practice of nature conservation, preservation, and management. Peggy L. Fiedler and Subodh K. Jain, editors. New York, Chapman and Hall, 1992. 507 p.
   QH75.C662 1992

Ecological heterogeneity. Jurek Kolasa, Steward T. A. Pickett, editors; contributors, T. F. H. Allen and others. New York, Springer-Verlag, c1991. 332 p. (Ecological studies, v. 86)
   QH541.15.E24E28 1991

Hunter, Malcolm L. Fundamentals of conservation biology. Cambridge, Mass., Blackwell Science, c1996. 482 p. Includes bibliographical references (p. 413-459).
   QH75.H84 1996 <SciRR>

Landscape boundaries: consequences for biotic diversity and ecological flows. Andrew J. Hansen, Francesco di Castri, editors; contributors, A. D. Armand and others. New York, Springer-Verlag, c1992. 452 p. (Ecological studies, v. 92)
   QH541.15.E27L36 1992

Meffe, Gary K., C. Ronald Carroll, and contributors. Principles of conservation biology. Sunderland, Mass., Sinauer Associates, c1994. 600 p. Includes bibliographical references (p. 565-586).
   QH75.M386 1994 <SciRR>

Primack, Richard B. Essentials of conservation biology. Sunderland, Mass., Sinauer Associates, c1993. 564 p. Includes bibliographical references (p. 515-547).
   QH75.P752 1993 <SciRR>

Spellerberg, Ian F. Monitoring ecological change. Cambridge, Eng., New York, Cambridge University Press, 1991. 334 p.
   QH541.15.M64S73 1991



Biodiversity data sourcebook. Compiled by the World Conservation Monitoring Centre; editor, Brian Groombridge; advisory editor, Martin Jenkins; in collaboration with IUCN - The World Conservation Union, United Nations Environment Programme, World Wide Fund for Nature. Cambridge, U.K., World Conservation Press, 1994. 155 p. (WCMC biodiversity series, no. 1) Includes bibliographical references (p. 149-155).
   QH75.B5324 1994

Conservation and environmentalism: an encyclopedia. Editor, Robert Paehlke. New York, Garland Pub., 1995. 771 p. (Garland reference library of social science, v. 645).
   GE10.C68 1995 <SciRR>

Krebs, Charles J. Ecological methodology. New York, Harper&Row, c1989. 654 p. See particularly p. 328-369.
   QH541.15.S72K74 1989 <SciRR>

Measuring and monitoring biological diversity. Standard methods for mammals. Edited by Don E. Wilson and others. Washington, Smithsonian Institution Press, c1996. 409 p. Includes bibliographical references (p. 355-390).
   QL708.5.M435 1996

World watch list for domestic animal diversity. Edited by Beate E. Scherf. 2nd ed. Rome, Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, c1995. 769 p. Includes bibliographical references: p. (756-766).
   SF105.3.W67 1995 <SciRR>



Biodiversity and human health. Edited by Francesca Grifo and Joshua Rosenthal. Washington, Island Press, c1997. 379 p.
   RA565.A2B56 1997

Biodiversity in managed landscapes: theory and practice. Edited by Robert C. Szaro, David W. Johnston. New York, Oxford University Press, 1996. 778 p. Based on a symposium held in Sacramento, California, July 13-17, 1992.
   QH75.A1B524 1996

Biodiversity, science and development: towards a new partnership. Edited by Francesco di Castri and Talal Younes. Wallingford, Oxon, UK, CAB International in association with the International Union of Biological Sciences, c1996. 646 p. "Edited papers from an International Forum held in September 1994 in Paris organized by IUBS."
   QH541.15.B56B58 1996

Systematics and conservation evaluation. Edited by P. L. Forey, C. J. Humphries, and R. I. Vane-Wright. Oxford, Published for the Systematics Association by Clarendon Press; New York, Oxford University Press, 1994. 438 p. (The Systematics Association special volume, no. 50) Papers presented during a symposium held in London, June 17-20, 1992.
   QH75.A1S97 1994

Symposium on Agroecology and Conservation Issues in Tropical and Temperate Regions (1990, University of Padova). Biotic diversity in agroecosystems: papers from a Symposium on Agroecology and Conservation Issues in Tropical and Temperate Regions, University of Padova, Padova, Italy, 26-29 September 1990. Edited by M. G. Paoletti and D. Pimentel. Amsterdam, New York, Elsevier, 1992. 356 p. "Reprinted from Agriculture, ecosystems and environment, vol. 40, nos. 1-4 (1992)."
   S589.7.S93 1990

Tropical deforestation and species extinction. Edited by T. C. Whitmore and J. A. Sayer. London, New York, Chapman&Hall, 1992. 153 p. Papers presented at a workshop held during the 18th General Assembly of the International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources, Nov. 28- Dec. 5, 1990 in Perth, Australia.
   QH78.T76 1992



Gerard, Philip W. Agricultural practices, farm policy, and the conservation of biological diversity. Washington, U.S. Dept. of the Interior, National Biological Service, 1995. 28 p. (Biological science report, 4) Includes bibliographical references (p. 25-28).
   QH76.G47 1995

Noss, Reed F., Edward T. LaRoe, and J. Michael Scott. Endangered ecosystems of the United States: a preliminary assessment of loss and degradation. Washington, U.S. Dept. of the Interior, National Biological Service; May be obtained from the Publications Unit, U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, 1995. 58 p. (Biological report, 28) Includes bibliographical references (p. 19-28).
   QH76.N665 1995

Our living resources: a report to the nation on the distribution, abundance, and health of U.S. plants, animals, and ecosystems. Edited by Edward T. LaRoe and others. Washington, U.S. Dept. of the Interior, National Biological Service, 1995. 530 p.
   QH104.O88 1995 <SciRR>

Technologies to maintain biological diversity. Washington, Congress of the U.S., Office of Technology Assessment, 1987. 334 p. (OTA-F-330)
   QH75.T366 1987



Technical Reports and other types of literature are indexed in the following guides:

Government Reports Announcements & Index (1946-1996)
   See: Biological Diversity Z7916.G78 <SciRR A&I> and CD-ROM <SciRR>

Monthly Catalog of United States Government Publications (1895- )
   See: Biological Diversity Biological Diversity Conservation Z1223.A18 <SciRR A&I> and Computer Format



The following selected technical reports are available in the microform collection of the Science Reading Room. They are sold by the National Technical Information Service, Springfield, Virginia 22161.

Barker, J. R., and others. Biodiversity and human impacts. Corvallis, Or., Corvallis Environmental Research Lab., 1990. 40 p.
   PB90-263963 <SciRR>

Biodiversity and coarse woody debris in southern forests: Proceedings of the Workshop on Coarse Woody Debris in Southern Forests: Effects on Biodiversity. Editors, James W. McMinn and D. A. Crossley. Asheville, N.C., Southeastern Forest Experiment Station, 1996. 154 p. (FSGTR-SE-94) Report on a workshop held in Athens, Georgia, October 18-20, 1993.
   PB97-123699 <SciRR>

Gow, D., and K. Clark. Peru: an assessment of biological diversity. Washington, Development Alternatives, Inc., 1988. 86 p. (AID-PN-ABC-597)
   PB90-177718 <SciRR>

Managing forest ecosystems to conserve fungus diversity and sustain wild mushroom harvests. Editors, David Pilz and Randy Molina. Portland, Or., Pacific Northwest Research Station, 1996. 112 p. (FSGTR-PNW-371) Report on a workshop held in Corvallis, Oregon on May 3-4, 1994.
   PB96-193370 <SciRR>

Norse, Elliott, and others. Threats to biological diversity in the United States. Final report. Cambridge, Mass., Industrial Economics, Inc., 1990. 61 p.
   PB91-125757 <SciRR>

Wickham, James D., Jianguo Wu, and David F. Bradford. Stressor data sets for studying species diversity at large spatial scales. Reno, Nev., Desert Research Institute, 1995. 44 p. (EPA/600/R-95/018)
   PB95-249462 <SciRR>



Bibliography. In Conserving the world's biological diversity. By Jeffrey A. McNeeley and others. Gland, Switzerland, International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources; Washington, World Resources Institute, Conservation International, World Wildlife Fund-US, World Bank, c1990. p. 157-183.
   QH75.C682 1990 and Pamphlet box <SciRR>

Clewis, Beth. Biological diversity: a selected bibliography. Monticello, Ill., Vance Bibliographies, [1990]. 12 p. (Public administration series--bibliography, P 2985)
   Z7405.N38C54 1990

Stein, Edith Carol. Biodiversity. In her The environmental sourcebook. In cooperation with the Environmental Data Research Institute. New York, Lyons&Burford, c1992. p. 117-142.
   TD170.S84 1992 <SciRR>



Abstracting and indexing services that index relevant journal articles and other literature on biodiversity are listed below. Some suggested terms are given as aids in searching. Consult a reference librarian for location of abstracting and indexing services in the Science Reading Room. NOTE: Most of these titles may also be available on CD-ROM terminals or in computer format.

Applied Science & Technology Index (1913- )
   See: Diversity (Biology)
   Z7913.I7 <SciRR A&I> and Computer format

Biological Abstracts (1926- )
   QH301.B37 <SciRR A&I> and Computer format

Biological Abstracts/RRM (1967- )
   See: Biodiversity Biological Diversity
   Z5321.B672 <SciRR A&I>

Biological & Agricultural Index
   (1916-) See: Diversity (Biology)
   Z5073.A46 <SciRR A&I> and Computer format

Biology Digest (1974- )
   See: Biodiversity
   QH301.B44 <SciRR A&I>

Ecological Abstracts (1974- )
   See: Biodiversity
   QH540.E27 <SciRR A&I>

Ecology Abstracts (1975- )
   See: Biological Diversity
   QH540.A66 <SciRR A&I>

General Science Index (1978- )
   See: Diversity (Biology)
   Z7401.G46 <SciRR A&I> and Computer format

Magazine Index
   See: Biological Diversity Biological Diversity Conservation
   Computer format

Readers' Guide to Periodical Literature (1900- )
   See: Diversity (Biology)
   AI3.R48 <MRR Alc> <N&CPR> and Computer format

Science Citation Index (1961- )
   See especially Permuterm Subject Index (1966-) for entries under relevant keywords.
   Z7401.S365 <SciRR A&I> and CD-ROM <SciRR>

Zoological Record (1864- )
   See appropriate headings in Section 1, Comprehensive Zoology.
   Z7991.Z87 <SciRR A&I>



Journals that often contain relevant articles include the following:

Audubon QL671.A82
Biodiversity and Conservation Uncataloged
Biodiversity Letters QH75.A1B53
Biological Conservation S900.B5
BioScience QH1.A277
Conservation Biology: the Journal of the Society for Conservation Biology QH75.A1C665
Defenders: the Conservation Magazine of Defenders of Wildlife S960.D43
Diversity: a News Journal for the International Plant Genetic Resources Community Not in LC Collection. Some issues may be available in the Science & Tech. Division.
Endangered Species Update Not in LC collection
Natural Areas Journal QH76.J68
Nature Conservancy QH76.N33a
Pacific Conservation Biology QH77.P3P33
Science Q1.S35
Wilderness QH1.L93



Allan, J. David, and Alexander S. Flecker. Biodiversity conservation in running waters. BioScience, v. 43, Jan. 1993: 32-43.

Bull, Alan T., Michael Goodfellow, and J. Howard Slater. Biodiversity as a source of innovation in biotechnology. In Annual review of microbiology. v. 46; 1992. Palo Alto, Calif., Annual Reviews. p. 219- 252. Discusses microbial diversity, screening of microorganisms for desired attributes, and conservation of the microbial genepool.

Cracraft, Joel. The urgency of building global capacity for biodiversity science. Biodiversity and conservation, v. 4, July 1995: 463-475.

Gardner, Scott L., and Mariel L. Campbell. Parasites as probes for biodiversity. Journal of parasitology, v. 78, Aug. 1992: 596-600.

Gibbons, J. Whitfield, and others. Perceptions of species abundance, distribution, and diversity: lessons from four decades of sampling on a government-managed reserve. Environmental management, v. 21, Mar./Apr. 1997:

Jablonski, David. The tropics as a source of evolutionary novelty through geological time. Nature, v. 364, July 8, 1993: 142-144.

Lugo, Ariel E. Comparison of tropical tree plantations with secondary forests of similar age. Ecological monographs, v. 62, Mar. 1992: 1-41.

Mann, Charles C. Extinction: are ecologists crying wolf? Science, v. 253, Aug. 16, 1991: 736-738.

Myers, Norman. Environmental services of biodiversity. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, v. 93, Apr. 2, 1996: 2764-2769.

Norton, Bryan G., and Robert E. Ulanowicz. Scale and biodiversity policy: a hierarchical approach. Ambio, v. 21, May 1992: 244-249. One of 10 articles in a special issue on The Economics of Biodiversity Loss.

Prance, Ghillean T. Systematics, conservation and sustainable development. Biodiversity and conservation, v. 5, July 1995: 490-500.

Reid, Walter V., and Mark C. Trexler. Responding to potential impacts of climate change on U.S. coastal biodiversity. Coastal management, v. 20, Apr./June 1992: 117-142.

Upton, Harold F. Biodiversity and conservation of the marine environment. Fisheries, v. 17, May/June 1992: 20-25. "This issue of Fisheries is devoted to a discussion of biodiversity and some of the issues it raises for fisheries professionals."



Selected Materials available in the Science Reading Room pamphlet boxes include the following.

Chapin, F. Stuart, and others. Biotic control over the functioning of ecosystems. Science, v. 277, July 25, 1997: 500-504.

Davis, Cabell S., Carin J. Ashjian, and Philip Alatalo. Zooplankton diversity. Oceanus, v. 39, spring/summer 1996: 7-11. One of seven articles in a special section on Marine Biodiversity.

Ehrlich, Paul R. Habitats in crisis: why we should care about the loss of species. Wilderness, v. 50, spring 1987: 12-15. One of several articles in a special issue on Biodiversity and the Public Lands.

Hobbs, Richard J., and Laura F. Huenneke. Disturbance, diversity, and invasion: implications for conservation. Conservation biology, v. 6, Sept. 1992: 324-337. A review article with numerous references.

Hooper, David U., and Peter M. Vitousek. The effects of plant composition and diversity on ecosystem processes. Science, v. 277, Aug. 29, 1997: 1302-1305.

Horn, Henry S. Biodiversity in the backyard. Scientific American, v. 268, Jan. 1993: 150-152.

Lubchenco, Jane. The role of science in formulating a biodiversity strategy. In Science and biodiversity policy, supplement to BioScience. Washington, American Institute of Biological Sciences, 1995. p. S7-S9. One of 17 articles in this supplement, bound with 1995 issues of BioScience.

May, Robert M. How many species are there on Earth? Science, v. 241, Sept. 16, 1988: 1441-1449.

Pimm, Stuart L., and others. The future of biodiversity. Science, v. 269, July 21, 1995: 347-350.

Raven, Peter H. Defining biodiversity. Nature conservancy, v. 44, Jan./Feb. 1994: 10-15.

Sepkoski, J. John. Presidential address: biodiversity: past, present, and future. Journal of paleontology, v. 71, no. 4, July 1997: 533-539. Includes numerous bibliographical references pertaining to the paleontological aspects of this topic.

Soule, Michael E. Conservation: tactics for a constant crisis. Science, v. 253, Aug. 16, 1991: 744-750. One of five articles on biodiversity in this issue of Science.



Additional sources of information are listed below. To identify the current addresses of other relevant sources, consult Conservation Directory (S920.C64 <SciRR Desk>) and World Directory of Environmental Organizations (S920.W67 <SciRR Desk>) under such keywords as Biodiversity and Biological Diversity.

Defenders of Wildlife
1101 14th Street, N.W., Suite 1400
Washington, DC 20005
Telephone: (202) 682-9400

The Nature Conservancy
4245 North Fairfax Drive, Suite 100
Arlington, VA 22203
Telephone: (800) 628-6860

World Wildlife Fund
1250 24th Street, N.W.
Washington, DC 20037
Telephone: (202) 293-4800



The Internet offers a growing number of biodiversity sites; these may contain bibliographies, information resources, lists of species, and texts of documents.

The Biological Resources Division of the U.S. Geological Survey

IUCN - the World Conservation Union

The World Conservation Monitoring Centre

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