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Chemical and Biological Warfare

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Photo: large, industrial building with steep, snow-capped mountain range in the background.
Tooele Chemical Agent Disposal Facility, Deseret Chemical Depot 22, Utah. From the Center for Disease Control Web site.

GENERAL INFORMATION

BiodefenseEducation.org
   http://www.biodefenseeducation.org/
   A biodefense digital library and learning collaboratory; curated by Donna M. D'Alessandro, M.D. and Michael P. D'Alessandro, M.D., funded in part by the National Institute of Health's National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases. Content includes news stories, discussions, reference library and more.

Biological and Chemical Weapons Control
   http://www.fas.org/main/content.jsp?formAction=325&projectId=4
   Federation of American Scientists (FAS)
   Organized list of links to FAS documents.

Bioterror News
   http://www.msnbc.msn.com/id/3032275/
   MSNBC, Health, c2004.
   Current news stories on a hot topic.

How Biological and Chemical Warfare Works
   http://people.howstuffworks.com/biochem-war.htm
   Brain, Marshall. HowStuffWorks.com Raleigh, N.C., HSW Media Networks, c1998-2003. In this edition of HowStuffWorks, you will learn how chemical and biological weapons really work, how they might be deployed and what the actual threats are.

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INDEXES & DATABASES

Air University Library Index to Military Periodicals (AULIMP)
   http://stinet.dtic.mil/oai/oai?&verb=getRecord&metadataPrefix=html&identifier=ADA279833
   Air University Library's Index to Military Periodicals is a subject index to significant articles, news items, and editorials from English language military and aeronautical periodicals. The Index contains citations since 1988 and is updated continuously.

Catalog of U.S. Government Publications
   http://www.gpoaccess.gov/cgp/index.html
   U.S. Government Printing Office, GPO Access. An index to print and electronic publications created by Federal agencies. When available, links are provided to the full-text of these publications. Additionally, the locate libraries feature enables users to find libraries by state or area code that can make print publications available for their use. Coverage begins with January 1994. New records are added daily.

Electronic Research Tools
   http://eresources.loc.gov/
   Subscription databases available in all Library of Congress Reading Rooms.

Facts on International Relations and Security Trends (FIRST)
   http://first.sipri.org/
   FIRST is a joint project of the International Relations and Security Network (ISN) and the Stockholm International Peace Research Institute (SIPRI). The integrated database system contains clearly documented information from research institutes around the world. It covers areas in the field of international relations and security, such as hard facts on armed conflicts and peace keeping, arms production and trade, military expenditure, armed forces and conventional weapons holding, nuclear weapons, chronology, statistics and other reference data.

Scientific & Technical Information Network (STINET)
   http://www.dtic.mil/dtic/prodsrvc/stinet.html
   Defense Technical Information Center (DTIC). Public STINET access is free of charge, and does not require users to register with DTIC in order to search citations to unclassified unlimited distribution documents. It also provides free online full-text versions of all unclassified unlimited documents recently added to DTIC's Technical Reports Collection.

National Technical Information Service
   http://www.ntis.gov/search/index.asp?loc=3-0-0
   U.S. Department of Commerce. NTIS is the federal government's central source for the sale of scientific, technical, engineering, and related business information by or for the U.S. government and complementary materials from international sources. Approximately 2.5 million products are available in a variety of formats including online, electronic, multimedia, CD-ROM , paper, and microfiche. You can access information on more than 750,000 of these products from this web site.

PubMed
   http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?db=PubMed
   PubMed, a service of the National Library of Medicine, includes over 14 million citations for biomedical articles back to the 1950's. These citations are from MEDLINE and additional life science journals. PubMed includes links to many sites providing full text articles and other related resources.

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PERIODICALS

Arms Control Today
   http://www.armscontrol.org/act/
   Published by the Arms Control Association, a national nonpartisan membership organization dedicated to promoting public understanding of and support for effective arms control policies. This site also has an excellent Subject Resources page of links to full text documents. Full text of archived journal articles are available to 1997.

Bulletin of the Atomic Scientists
   http://www.thebulletin.org/index.html
   The Educational Foundation for Nuclear Science (EFNS) publishes the Bulletin of the Atomic Scientists. The EFNS mission is to educate citizens about global security issues, especially the continuing dangers posed by nuclear and other weapons of mass destruction. Journal articles are available in the Back Issues Index, available online in full text to 1990.

The CBW Chronicle
   http://www.stimson.org/cbw/?sn=cb20011221166
   Periodic newsletter about international and domestic events related to the control and elimination of chemical and biological weapons. Published by the Henry L. Stimson Center.

CML Army Chemical Review
   http://www.wood.army.mil/chmdsd/default.htm
   U.S. Army Chemical School, Ft. Leonard Wood, Missouri. Articles are indexed to February 2001, but not currently available online.

Emerging Infectious Diseases
   http://www.cdc.gov/ncidod/EID/index.htm
   Published by the Centers for Disease Control. The EID journal is available in its entirety and as individual articles in the AdobeTM AcrobatTM (.pdf) file format and is a true representation of the print version. Articles online date to 1995.

Journal of the American Medical Association (JAMA)
   http://jama.ama-assn.org/
   Varying degrees of access, ranging from Tables of Contents only (November 1962 - December 1974) to Abstracts only (January 1975 - December 1997) to Full Text (January 1975 - December 1997). To access full text of most articles, you must purchase either a subscription or one-time access.

Medicine, Conflict, and Survival
   http://www.frankcass.com/jnls/mcs.htm
   Frank Cass Publishers. An international journal for medical and health professionals and for peace researchers. Complete tables of contents and abstracts for some online.

New Scientist
   http://www.newscientist.com/
   Personal subscribers to the print edition of New Scientist can access the Archive for free; first time users may use the archive free of charge for 7 days. See especially the Bioterrorism and Bioweapons Special Report

Science
   http://www.sciencemag.org/
   Published by the American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS). Free public access allows searching all available issues (Summaries/abstracts since 6 Oct. 95; full text since 20 Sep. 96). Free partial access to abstracts and summaries available as well as a pay-per-article option.

Science & Technology Review
   http://www.llnl.gov/str/
   Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. The monthly issues can be accessed in HTML and portable document format (PDF), as can the complete index of all online issues (March 1994 to present) of Science & Technology Review and Energy & Technology Review (predecessor). Search engine also available.

Science News
   The Science News online editions archive provides free access to the full text of articles that are available online (18 percent of all articles published in Science News), bibliographic references and sources for all articles published in Science News, and online-only features, since April 25, 1996.

Scientific American
   http://www.sciam.com/
Subscribers to SciAm Digital can search and access everything from 1993 to present. Some issues are exclusively online; various subscription plans available. Use the search engine to identify articles back to 1999.

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FULLTEXT ONLINE

Journal Articles

Arnon, Stephen S., and others.
    Botulinum Toxin as a Biological Weapon.
   Journal of the American Medical Association, v. 285, Feb. 28, 2001: 1059-1070.
   http://jama.ama-assn.org/cgi/content/full/285/8/1059

Borio, Luciana, and others.
   Hemorrhagic fever viruses as biological weapons.
   Journal of the American Medical Association, v. 287, May 8, 2002: 2391-2405.
   http://jama.ama-assn.org/cgi/content/full/287/18/2391

Casadevall, Arturo.
   Passive antibody administration (immediate immunity) as a specific defense against biological weapons.
   Emerging infectious diseases, v. 8, Aug. 2002: 833-841.
   http://www.cdc.gov/ncidod/EID/vol8no8/01-0516.htm

Dando, Malcolm.
   The impact of the development of modern biology and medicine on the evolution of offensive biological warfare programs in the twentieth century.
   Defense analysis, v. 15, Apr. 1999: 43-62.
   http://search.epnet.com/direct.asp?an=3792949&db=mth

Davidson, Margaret.
   Biowarrior.
   American history, v.38, Jun. 2003: 44-49.
   http://search.epnet.com/direct.asp?an=9901617&db=mth

Dennis, David, and others.
   Tularemia as a biological weapon.
   Journal of the American Medical Association, v. 285, June 2001: 2763-2773.
   http://jama.ama-assn.org/cgi/content/full/285/21/2763

Graham, Sarah.
   Sensing trouble: chemists approach homeland security in a variety of ways.
   Scientific American.com, Apr. 28, 2003.
   http://www.sciam.com/article.cfm?articleID=000C4241-C213-1EA6-BDC0809EC588EEDF&pageNumber=1&catID=4

Henderson, Donald A., and others.
   Smallpox as a biological weapon.
   Journal of the American Medical Association, v. 22, June 1999: 2127-2137.
   http://jama.ama-assn.org/cgi/content/full/281/22/2127

Inglesby, Thomas V., and others.
   Anthrax as a biological weapon.
   Journal of the American Medical Association, v. 281, May 1999: 1735-1745.
   http://jama.ama-assn.org/cgi/content/full/281/18/1735

Inglesby, Thomas V., and others.
   Plague as a biological weapon.
   Journal of the American Medical Association, v. 283, May 2000: 2281-2290. R15.A48
   http://jama.ama-assn.org/cgi/content/full/283/17/2281

National Symposium on Medical and Public Health Response to Bioterrorism.
   On February 16-17, 1999, in Arlington, Virginia, 950 public health officials, physicians, and other medical personnel, along with government, military, and intelligence experts gathered for the first National Symposium on Medical and Public Health Response to Bioterrorism.
   Emerging infectious diseases, v. 5, July-Aug. 1999: 491-602.
   http://www.cdc.gov/ncidod/eid/vol5no4/contents.htm

Slezak, Thomas.
   On the Front Lines of Biodefense.
   Science & Technology Review, April 2004.
   http://www.llnl.gov/str/April04/Slezak.html

Stix, Gary.
   One last look. Although United Nations weapons inspector Rocco Casagrande and his colleagues found no bioweapons in Iraq, they could sense that the government had not come clean.
   Scientific American, v. 288, June 6, 2003: 36-37.
   http://www.sciam.com/article.cfm?colID=30&articleID=000D5CB1-2116-1EB7-BDC0809EC588EEDF

Tucker, Jonathan.
   Preventing the misuse of pathogens: the need for global biosecurity standards.
   Arms control today, June 2003.
   http://www.armscontrol.org/act/2003_06/tucker_june03.asp

Wheelis, Mark.
   Biological warfare at the 1346 Siege of Caffa.
   Emerging infectious diseases, v. 8, Sept. 2002: 971-975.
   http://www.cdc.gov/ncidod/EID/vol8no9/01-0536.htm

Wright, Laura.
   New study finds Agent Orange use was underestimated.
   Scientific American.com, April 17, 2003.
   http://www.sciam.com/article.cfm?articleID=000BAF8A-F589-1E9D-A9B3809EC588EEDF

Books

Biosecurity : limiting terrorist access to deadly pathogens
   Tucker, Jonathan B. Washington, D.C., United States Institute of Peace, 2003.
   http://www.usip.org/pubs/peaceworks/pwks52.pdf

Bioterrorism and Public Health: an Internet Resources Guide
   http://www.emedguides.com/bioterrorism
   Edited by John G. Bartlett, and others. Princeton, N.J., eMedguides.com, Inc.; Montvale, N.J., Thomson Physicians' Desk Reference, c2002.

Chemical and Biological Defense; DoD's Evaluation of Improved Garment Materials
   http://handle.dtic.mil/100.2/ADA351348
   Washington, General Accounting Office, Aug. 1998. 19 p. ADA-351348. GAO/NSIAD-98-214. (PDF Format; requires Adobe Acrobat Reader).

Chemical and Biological Terrorism: Research and Development to Improve Civilian Medical Response
   http://search.nap.edu/books/0309061954/html/index.html
   Committee on R&D Needs for Improving Civilian Medical Response to Chemical and Biological Terrorism Incidents, National Research Council, Washington, National Academy Press, c1999.

Countering Bioterrorism: The Role of Science and Technology
   http://www.nap.edu/books/0309086078/html/index.html
   Panel on Biological Issues, Committee on Science and Technology for Countering Terrorism, National Research Council, Washington, National Academy Press, 2002.

The Gathering Biological Warfare Storm (2nd Edition)
   Davis, Jim A. and Barry R. Schneider. Maxwell Air Force Base, Alabama, U.S. Air Force Counterproliferation Center, April 2002
   http://www.au.af.mil/au/awc/awcgate/cpc-pubs/biostorm/cover.htm

Making the Nation Safer: The Role of Science and Technology in Countering Terrorism
   http://www.nap.edu/books/0309084814/html/index.html
   Committee on Science and Technology for Countering Terrorism, National Research Council. Washington, DC, National Academy Press, 2002.

Potential military chemical/biological agents and compounds.
   http://www.mipt.org/pdf/Potential-Military-Chemical-Biological-Agents-Compounds.pdf
   Army, Navy, Marine Corps, Air Force - Multiservice Tactics, Techniques, and Procedures. January 2005

Recommendations for the Disposal of Chemical Agents and Munitions
   http://www.nap.edu/books/0309050464/html/
   Committee on Review and Evaluation of the Army Chemical Stockpile Disposal Program, National Research Council. Washington, DC, National Academy Press, 1994.

A Review of the Scientific Literature as it Pertains to Gulf War illnesses
   http://www.gulflink.osd.mil/library/rand_reports.html
   Various authors. Santa Monica, Calif., Rand, [1998-c2001].

Textbook of Military Medicine
   http://www.bordeninstitute.army.mil/medaspofharshenvrnmntsvol2/default_index.htm
   Medical Aspects of Chemical and Biological Warfare, Office of the Surgeon General, Department of the Army. Last Revision Date: May 1997. Virtual Naval Hospital, Digital Library of Naval Medicine and Military Medicine.

Veterans and Agent Orange
   http://books.nap.edu/catalog/10603.html
   Committee to Review the Health Effects in Vietnam Veterans of Exposure to Herbicides (Fourth Biennial Update, 2003).

The War Next Time: Countering Rogue States and Terrorists Armed with Chemical and Biological Weapons. (2nd Edition)
   Davis, Jim A. and Barry R. Schneider. Maxwell Air Force Base, Alabama, U.S. Air Force Counterproliferation Center, April 2004.
   http://www.au.af.mil/au/awc/awcgate/cpc-pubs/war_next_time/cover.htm

Technical Reports

Chemical and biological defense; DoD's evaluation of improved garment materials.
   http://handle.dtic.mil/100.2/ADA351348
   Washington, General Accounting Office, Aug. 1998. 19 p. ADA-351348. GAO/NSIAD-98-214.

Chemical, Biological, Radiological, and Nuclear Terrorism: The Threat According to the Current Unclassified Literature.
   http://handle.dtic.mil/100.2/ADA404213
   Washington, D.C., Center for Counterproliferation Research, National Defense University, 31 May 2002. 47 p. ADA-404213
   Includes extensive annotated bibliography: "The Threat of CBRN Terrorism - Views from the Open Literature" pp.14-46.

Grotte, Jeffery H. Frequently asked questions regarding biological detection.
   http://handle.dtic.mil/100.2/ADA406047
   Alexandria, Va., Institute for Defense Analysis, Nov. 2001. 27 p. ADA-406047.

Hancock, J. R., D'Agostino, P. A., and L. R. Provost. Sample preparation and identification techniques for chemical warfare and mid-spectrum agents.
   http://handle.dtic.mil/100.2/ADA364876
   Alberta, Canada, Defence Research Establishment Suffield, March 1999. 38 p. ADA-364876. A general survey for the NATO AC/225 LG/7-SIBCA Handbook, Chapter 8.

Kraft. James E. U.S. military role in countering the biological and chemical warfare threat: attacking the enemy's will.
   http://handle.dtic.mil/100.2/ADA348427
   Washington, U.S. Dept. of Defense, 1999. 34 p. ADA-348427.

Smart, Jeffery. History of the Army protective mask.
   http://handle.dtic.mil/100.2/ADA376445
   Natick, Mass., U.S. Army Soldier and Biological Chemical Command, Aug. 1999. 65 p. ADA-376445.

Yee, Eugene C. On the theory of particle count detection with an application to the triggering of biological warfare detection systems.
   http://handle.dtic.mil/100.2/ADA375905
   Alberta, Canada, Defence Research Establishment Suffield, Mar. 2000. 48 p. ADA375905

Other Documents

Chemical Weapons Convention
   http://www.opcw.org/html/db/cwc/eng/cwc_frameset.html

Individual Preparedness and Response to Chemical, Radiological, Nuclear, and Biological Terrorist Attacks
   http://www.rand.org/publications/MR/MR1731/
   Davis, Lynn E., and others. RAND, 2003.
   Individual preparedness is an important element of our nation's strategy for homeland security. This report adopts a scenario-driven approach that provides a rigorous way to identify actions-linked specifically to terrorist attacks—individuals can take to protect their health and safety.

The Medical Aspects of Gas Warfare
   http://www.vlib.us/medical/gaswar/gasindex.htm
   Articles, extracts and excerpts from primary sources for World War I.

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U.S. GOVERNMENT

Anthrax Vaccine Immunization Program
   http://www.anthrax.osd.mil/
   The Department of Defense Anthrax Vaccine Immunization Program (AVIP). The compilation of important medical journal articles pertaining to Anthrax and the Anthrax vaccine.

Army Magazine Green Book: Army Weapons and Equipment
   http://www.ausa.org/www/greenbook.nsf/(all)/12B30F52D622575685256C4100765E9F?OpenDocument
   Nuclear-Biological-Chemical (NBC) Defense Systems, October 2002.
   Copyright © 2004 by The Association of the U.S. Army

Bioterrorism Planning and Response
   Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality (HHS)
   http://www.ahrq.gov/browse/bioterbr.htm
   Link to web-assisted audio conference calls on Bioterrorism and Health System Preparedness, research projects, tools and resources, conference presentations, evidence reports, and agency press releases. Search and browse function-enabled.

The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention
   http://www.cdc.gov/default.htm
   U.S. Dept. of Health & Human Services. This site has an index, with pages on such topics as Biological Agents, Chemical Agents, Agents, Diseases, and Threats and more, with detailed lists of links on each.

Chemical & Biological Defense Information Analysis Center (CBIAC)
   http://www.cbiac.apgea.army.mil
   Department of Defense (DoD) Information Analysis Center (IAC), the CBIAC serves as the focal point for DoD Chemical and Biological Defense (CBD) scientific and technical information. It provides services to DoD organizations, other government groups, and their approved contractors. Service to other parties is limited to the publicly accessible information on this web site.

NIAID Biodefense Research
   http://www.niaid.nih.gov/biodefense/
   National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (NIAID) biodefense Web site, part of the National Institutes of Health (NIH); information for biomedical researchers, the public, and the media.

U.S. Army Medical Research Institute of Chemical Defense (USARICD)
   http://ccc.apgea.army.mil/default.htm
   The Chemical Casualty Care Division (CCCD) of the United States Army Medical Research Institute of Chemical Defense (USAMRICD) is one of six medical research laboratories and institutes operated by the U. S. Army Medical Research and Materiel Command (USAMRMC). This site offers free access to a variety of textbooks, handbooks, and articles online.

U.S. Army Medical Research Institute of Infectious Diseases (USAMRIID)
   http://www.usamriid.army.mil/
   Online resources include the library's catalog, links to citations and full text of many publications, and a Related Links page.

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NON-GOVERNMENTAL ORGANIZATIONS

Arms Control Association
   http://www.armscontrol.org/
   A national nonpartisan membership organization dedicated to promoting public understanding of and support for effective arms control policies. publishes Arms Control Today. Site has important documents and treaties, ACA fact sheets, and relevant ACT news articles, features, and editorials organized by subject. Online document Chemical-Biological Arms Control.

Chemical and Biological Arms Control Institute (CBACI)
   http://www.cbaci.org/
   A private, nonprofit, nonpartisan policy research organization established in 1993 to address the challenges to global security and stability in the early 21st century, with a special, but not exclusive focus on the elimination of chemical and biological weapons.

The Chemical and Biological Weapons Nonproliferation Project (CBWNP)
   http://www.stimson.org/cbw/?SN=BB2001112951
   Since 1993, the project has focused on issues related to the Chemical Weapons Convention, as well as the Biological & Toxin Weapons Convention,and issued reports on topics including weapons destruction technologies, the utility of export controls, terrorism involving chemical and biological weapons, and the status of chemical and biological weapons programs in various countries. Publishes the CBW Chronicle.

Chemical and Biological Arms Control Program (Federation of American Scientists)    http://www.fas.org/bwc/index.html
   The Federation of American Scientists Chemical and Biological Arms Control Program covers all aspects of chemical and biological weapons and their control, concentrating on efforts to prevent the development and use of biological weapons (BW) and the further proliferation of BW programs.

National Academy of Sciences
   http://www.nasonline.org/site/PageServer
   A private, non-profit, self-perpetuating society of distinguished scholars engaged in scientific and engineering research, dedicated to the furtherance of science and technology and to their use for the general welfare.

Organisation for the Prohibition of Chemical Weapons (OPCW)
   http://www.opcw.org/index.html
   The mission of the OPCW is to implement the provisions of the Chemical Weapons Convention;web site has links to details on chemical disarmament, implementing the chemical weapons ban. All important documents are posted in fulltext, including the Geneva Protocol, the Chemical Weapons Convention, the Convention on the Prohibition of the Development, Production and Stockpiling of Bacteriological (Biological) and Toxin Weapons and on Their Destruction, and more.

Stockholm International Peace Research Institute (SIPRI)
   http://www.sipri.se/
   Conducts research on conflict and cooperation for international peace and security; a public website where researchers, policy makers and the interested public can browse through the results of research activities. Content includes lists of publications, fact sheets, and research report abstracts. The Library has an online catalog, searchable article database, and other resources.

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ACADEMIC

Center for Biosecurity
   http://www.upmc-biosecurity.org/
   University of Pittsburgh Medical Center (UPMC). Includes details on BW agents, Biosecurity Bulletin archives, publications (some fulltext), Reading List and more.

Center for Civilian Biodefense Strategies
   http://www.hopkins-biodefense.org/index.html
   Effective November 1, 2003, the faculty and staff formerly of the Johns Hopkins Center for Civilian Biodefense Strategies are now affiliated with the Center for Biosecurity of the University of Pittsburgh Medical Center (UPMC).

Center for Infectious Disease Research & Policy
   http://www.cidrap.umn.edu/index.html
   Academic Health Center -- University of Minnesota. Detailed information sources on bioterrorism, biosecurity, food safety. Includes a Hot Topics link with current news, selected readings, and more.

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BIBLIOGRAPHIES, GUIDES, ETC.

All the Virology on the WWW
   David M. Sander, Ph.D.
   Phenomenal list of resources with links to all information sources on viruses and virology on the web. See especially Biological Weapons and Warfare.

Anthrax Vaccine and Biological Weapons Issues
   http://www.maxwell.af.mil/au/aul/bibs/anthrax/anthrax.htm
   Compiled by Melinda M. Mosley, Bibliographer, Air University Library Maxwell AFB, AL. June 2000.

Biological Warfare Collection
   American Society for Microbiology
   The ASM Archives collects materials relating to the scientific and policy aspects of biological warfare. These include bibliographies of technical reports, articles, books, legal materials, and a chronology.

Chemical and Biological Warfare (CBW) Tracer Bullet 03-1
   The Library of Congress
   Research guide that includes a brief introduction to the topic, lists of resources and strategies for finding more. See especially the list of Internet Resources.

Nuclear Biological Chemical
   http://www.au.af.mil/au/aul/bibs/nbc/nbccont.htm
   Compiled by Linda K. Colding, Bibliographer, Air University Library Maxwell AFB, AL. January 1998.

Nuclear Biological Chemical Supplement
   http://www.au.af.mil/au/aul/bibs/nbcs/nbcstoc.htm
   Compiled by Sandhya Malladi, Bibliographer, Air University Library, Maxwell AFB, AL. October 2001.

WEBCAST

Chemical Warfare from WWI to Al-Qaeda
   http://www.loc.gov/today/cyberlc/feature_wdesc.php?rec=3846
   Speaker: Dr. Jonathan Tucker, senior researcher at the Monterey Institute's Center for Non-proliferation Studies discussed his new book "War of Nerves: Chemical Warfare from World War I to Al-Qaeda" in a program sponsored by the Science, Technology and Business Division.

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