might live a year and a half under ideal conditions. These include
the right temperature, food supply, and humidity. Generally speaking,
though, an adult flea only lives for 2 or 3 months. Without a host
for food, a flea's life might be as short as a few days. But with
ample food supply, the adult flea will often live up to 100 days.
- Cornell Entomology Fact Sheet on Fleas -
This fact sheet provides the basics on the flea species, behavior, ecology, life history, and management.
State Entomology Index of Internet Resources -
This is a directory and search engine of insect-related
resources on the Internet.
- National Park Service: Integrated Pest Management- Fleas -
This manual provides helpful information on identification and biology of fleas, as well as the control (non-chemical and chemical) of fleas.
of Florida: Fleas - This site sponsored by the Institute
of Food and Agriculture Services provides comprehensive
information about fleas as well as information about pesticides
used in the control of fleas.
Institute, St. Petersburg Fleas (Siphonaptera) Homepage
- This site is solely devoted to information about fleas.
It contains extensive information about the biology, morphology,
distribution, taxonomy, hosts, images, importance, and
of fleas. It also contains a database, references, and
Joanna. Fleas. New York, Morrow, 1973. 62 p. (Juvenile)
- Krasnov, Boris R. Functional and evolutionary ecology of fleas : a model for ecological parasitology. Cambridge, UK; New York: Cambridge University Press, 2008. 593 p.
Brendan. The compleat flea. London, Murray, 1969.
- Stevens, Kathryn. Fleas. Chanhassen, MN., Child's
World, c.2001. 32 p. (Juvenile)
more print resources...
Search on the
in the Library of Congress Online
Adult Cat Flea. Photo from the
Ohio State University Extension Fact Sheet