Battle of the Centuries
Compiled by Ruth Freitag, Senior Science Specialist
Table of Contents
Press Release: New LC Bibliography Offers Guide to Centurial Feud
When does the century end? This simple question has such a simple answer
that the very existence of a dispute is puzzling. As the superintendent
of the U.S. Naval Observatory remarked nearly 100 years ago, "There
can be no question of 'opinion' as to the date of the commencement
of the twentieth century any more than there can be a question of opinion
on any other simple arithmetical fact." Yet many find the truth of
the matter so unacceptable that the resulting controversy has generated
a considerable literature.
A chronological guide to such writings was recently published by the Library
of Congress. The Battle of the Centuries, a list of references
compiled by Ruth S. Freitag, a staff member of the Science and Technology division,
cites more than 200 pamphlets and articles in periodicals and newspapers, beginning
at the close of the 17th century, that relate to the conflict.
these references are enlivened by many quotations from some of the more spirited
disputants who wrote a century ago. Several of them foresaw that the struggle
would be renewed at the approach of the year 2000, and that their "great grandchildren...will
consult the files of the Times...for arguments to show that 1999
years make up 20 centuries."
However, as a more recent writer has noted, "the world has voted with its
cheque book in the debate, "and indeed many elaborate plans have already been
made to usher in the 21st century and the third millenium--a year early. Those
who call attention to the error are ignored, if not ridiculed. As a consolation,
the chairman of the Arts Council in Britian pointed out in 1990 that "you can
just have a celebration both years."
The cover of the 57-page pamphlet shows Father Time pondering the dividing
point between the 19th and 20th centuries.
From the Library of Congress FTP site the bibliography is available in ASCII
and Word Perfect 5.1 (battle.centuries.wp).
The bibliography is also available for $2.75 from the Superintendent of Documents,
PO Box 371954, Pittsburgh, PA 15250- 7954. Cite stock no. 030-001-00153-9.
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When the encyclopedia of human folly comes to be written, a page must be reserved
for the minor imbecility of the battle of the centuries--the clamorous dispute
as to when a century ends. The present bibliography documents the controversy
as it has arisen at the end of the 17th, 18th, and 19th centuries, as well as
a few skirmishes in the quarrel that has begun to develop with the approach of
the third millennium.
The source of the confusion is easy to discern; ever since learning how to
write, we have dated our documents with year designations beginning with the
digits 19. Obviously, when we must begin to date them starting with 20, we
have embarked on a new century! Haven't we? The answer is no, we have not;
we have merely arrived at the last year of the 20th century. As historians
and others involved in measuring time continue to remind us, there was no year
0. In fact, there has never been a system of recording reigns, dynasties, or
eras that did not designate its first year as the year 1. To complete a century,
one must complete 100 years; the first century of our era ran from the beginning
of A.D. 1 to the end of A.D. 100; the second century began with the year A.D.
While the period 1900-1999 is of course a century, as is any period of 100
years, it is incorrect to label it the 20th century, which began January 1,
1901, and will end on December 31, 2000. Only then will the third millennium
of our era begin.
Those who are unwilling to accept the clarity of simple arithmetic in this
matter and who feel strongly that there is something amiss with the result
have developed some impressively convoluted arguments to promote their point
of view. Baron Hobhouse, studying some of these arguments as set forth in letters
published in the Times of London during the first few days of January 1900,
found "that many of the reasons assigned are irrelevant, many are destructive
of the conclusion in support of which they are advanced, and that such as would
be relevant and logical have no basis whatever to maintain them in point of
fact." He was one of several observers of the fray at the end of the 19th
century who predicted that the foolishness would recur with the advent of the
year 2000, as people began to look for ways of demonstrating "that 1999 years
make up 20 centuries."
As a writer stated in the January 13, 1900, Scientific American, "It is a
venerable error, long-lived and perhaps immortal." The shortness of human
life is also a factor; as a century approaches its end, hardly anyone who experienced
the previous conflict is still living, so we are doomed to undergo another
Astronomers have been blamed for some of the confusion by their adoption of
a chronology that designates the year 1 B.C. as 0 and gives the preceding years
negative numbers, e.g., 2 B.C. becomes -1, 3 B.C. becomes -2, etc. This system
permits them to simplify calculations of recurring astronomical events that
cross the starting point of our era, such as series of solar eclipses and the
apparitions of periodic comets. However, this scheme affects only the years
preceding A.D. 1 and cannot be used as a justification for ending subsequent
centuries with the 99th year.
Some argue that Dionysius Exiguus made a mistake in his determination of the
year of Christ's birth when he devised our present chronology in the sixth
century, and that the discrepancy allows us to celebrate the end of a century
a year early. However, even though the starting point of our era may not correspond
to the chronologist's intention, it is still the point from which we count
our centuries--each of which still requires 100 years for completion.
Nevertheless, as many of the entries in this list (from p. 45 on) will indicate,
plans to celebrate the opening of the 21st century and the third millennium
at midnight on December 31, 1999, have become so widespread that anyone who
tries to call attention to the error is disparaged as a pedant and ignored.
Perhaps the only consolation for those intending to observe the correct date
is that hotels, cruise ships, supersonic aircraft, and other facilities may
be less crowded at the end of the year 2000.
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The arrangement of entries is chronological. All personal and corporate names,
pseudonyms, and initialisms have been indexed, along with a small number of topics
(e.g., Dictionary definitions, Zero year).
Library of Congress call numbers are given for materials in the general collections,
and symbols indicate the location of items that can be seen in the Microform
Reading Room (MicRR) or the Newspaper and Current Periodical Room (N&CPR;).
Shelfmarks for works held by the British Library (London) and the Bibliotheque
nationale (Paris), as well as locations in a few other European libraries,
are indicated in notes.
The National Union Catalog symbols listed below have been used to show the
location of a few publications in other U.S. libraries.
DN--Ob: U.S. Naval Observatory Library, Washington, D.C.
NN: New York Public Library
WU: University of Wisconsin, Madison
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Song for the Year 1900
Come, New Year, a welcome guest,
Fill with hope each anxious breast,
Whom the sad old ninety-nine
(Every rosy promise breaking,)
Left in its ill-starred decline
Disillusioned, scarred and aching;
Come! a new and healing balm
Spread around of peace and calm.
Give glad Springtime once again,
With the song-birds' merry strain;
Let her bring us flowery May,
Then give place to radiant Summer,
With red roses and sweet hay
(Though, alas! the birds are dumber).
Then proud Autumn give once more,
Rich with ripe and golden store.
So your course we now forecast,
And, when you retire at last,--
All your promises proved vain,
Curst, discredited, detected,--
We those pleasures yet again,
Which in you we once expected,
Credulous will hope to see
In another century. A. J. C.
Punch, Jan. 3, 1900
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Le Lorrain de Vallemont, abbe Pierre. Extrait d'une letre de Monsieur de
Vallemont Docteur en Theologie, a Monsieur Delpech Conseiller au
Parlement de Paris; sur la question: Si l'an 1700. finit le XVII. Siecle,
qui court; ou s'il commence le Siecle suivant. Journal des scavans, t. 25,
4 mars 1697: 155-161. AP25.J7, v. 25
Favors the view that the year 1700 will begin the new century, citing
a number of ecclesiastical authorities in support, but points out that,
among others, the members of the Academie Francaise are of the
opposite opinion, having included in the definition of the word siecle in
their dictionary the statement "Le Siecle qui court, a comence au premier
jour de l'an 1601."
Weigel, Erhard. Entwurff der Conciliation dess alten und neuen Calender-
Styli, welchergestalt solche im Nov. Anno 1699. anzustellen ist, und
hierauf im folgenden Monat, und neuem Seculo, der neue conciliirte
Stylus in bestandiger Harmonie, fortwahren kan. Nebst einer kurtzen
hierzu diensamen Instruction. Regenspurg, Gedruckt bey J. G. Hofmann
 8 p.
------ Fruhlings-Quartal des 1699sten Jahrs, zur Vorbereitung, auf das neue
Seculum MDCC, handelt von den Wurckungs-Arten menschlichen
Gemuthes, womit mehrere Kunst- und Tugend-Wurckungs-Vorthl zu
erforschen und zu finden. Jena, Zu finden bey J. Bielcken  24 p.
------ Quartalische Vorbereitung, am Ende des mit dem 1699sten Jahr
ablauffenden Siebenzenden Seculi nach Christi Geburth, zum neuen, mit
dem 1700. Jahr instehenden, Gott geb Gluck- und Segensvollen,
Achtzehenden Seculo. Jn demselbigen wo moglich, mehrere Kunst- und
Tugend-Wurckungs-Vorthl, durch freundliche Communication auch mit
den Teutschen Maas- und Weiss Liebhabern, zu erforschen. Jena, Zu
finden bey J. Bielcken  20 p.
Although these three publications do not appear to include discussion
of the dividing point between centuries, the titles indicate the author's
belief that the 99th, rather than the 100th, year marks the century's end.
The pamphlets are held by the Bayerische Staatsbibliothek, Munich;
for shelfmarks, see its Alphabetischer Katalog, 1501-1840, v. 58
(Munchen, New York, K. G. Saur, 1990).
Becker, Peter. Exercitatio historico-chronologica qua investigaturis seculi
praesentis decimi septimi finem, rationibus firmis demonstratur: Annum,
quem stylo usitatissimo inscribimus millesimum septingentesimum ... re
vera esse seculi XVII. finem. Rostochii, Richelius, 1699. 12 leaves.
Critique sur la dissertation du siecle prochain et sur la critique de M. ***,
bachelier en theologie. Paris, J. Musier, 1699.
Held by the Bibliotheque nationale in Paris under shelfmark V. 29420.
Delaisement, M. Dissertation sur le commencement du siecle prochain, et
la solution du probleme, scavoir laquelle des deux annees 1700 ou 1701
est la premiere du siecle. A Paris, J. Moreau, M. DC. XCIX. 19 p.
Held by the British Library under shelfmark 717. c. 36. (1.).
"... 1700 est la derniere annee du Siecle present, & 1701 la premiere
du Siecle suivant."
------ A dissertation upon the beginning of the next century: and the
solution of the problem; to know which of the two years 1700 or 1701
is the first of the next century? With some considerations about the
observation of the year of Jubilee. Translated out of French. London,
J. Nutt, MDCXCIX. 30 p.
Held by the British Library under shelfmark 8560. c. 42.
Includes, on p. 15-30, "A Critical letter, from M---- Batchelor in
Divinity, to the author of the Dissertation upon the beginning of the next
century. With an answer to the said letter."
La Fin du siecle. Par un anticritique malgre luy, pour repondre a plusieurs
dissertations contraires qui ont paru depuis cinq ou six mois. A Limoges,
1699. 104 p.
Held by the Bibliotheque nationale in Paris under shelfmark G. 11502.
Juni, Ulrich. Anmerkungen uber das unpartheyische Bedenken von Prof.
Weigelii proponirter Calender-Conciliation, nebst eine Beantwortung
derselben. [Leipzig?] 1699.
According to Houzeau and Lancaster's Bibliographie generale de
l'astronomie, this deals with the question of which year would be the
first of the 18th century.
Juni, Ulrich. Untersuchung der Streitfrage ob 1700 oder 1701 fur das erste
Jahr des kunftigen Seculi zu halten seye. [Leipzig?] 1699.
Lettre a un gentil-homme de province sur la question du tems: quelle est la
derniere annee de ce siecle, ou 1699 ou 1700? Paris, M. Brunet 
Held by the Bibliotheque nationale in Paris under shelfmark V. 29422.
Lettre critique de M.***, bachelier en theologie, a l'auteur de la
Dissertation, sur le commencement du siecle prochain. Avec la reponse
a la mesme lettre. A Paris, J. Moreau, M. DC. XCIX. 28 p.
Held by the British Library under shelfmark 717. c. 36. (5.). The
Reponse is by M. Delaisement.
See note to entry 5 for English translation.
Mallemans de Messanges, Claude. La question decidee sur le sujet de la fin
du siecle, si l'annee 1700 est la derniere du dix-septieme siecle ou la
premiere du dix-huit. Paris, J. Moreau, 1699. 55 p.
Held by the Bibliotheque nationale in Paris under shelfmarks V.
29424 and Res. G. 2112.
Reviewed in Journal des savans, t. 27, 15. juin 1699, p. 430-432
(AP25.J7, v. 27).
Nouvelle dissertation sur le siecle prochain, ou l'on fait voir que l'annee
1700 est la premiere du siecle. Par M.... D. Avocat en Parlement. A
Paris, J. Moreau, 1699. 21 p.
Held by the British Library under shelfmark 717. c. 36. (2.).
La Querelle des auteurs sur le commencement du siecle prochain. A Paris,
J. Moreau, M. DC. XCIX. 33 p.
Held by the British Library under shelfmark 717. c. 36. (3.).
Presented in the form of five conversations. "De tout ce qui est dit
cy-dessus, on peut conclure que ceux qui soutiennent que l'annee 1701
est la premiere du siecle prochain, ont pris le party de la verite."
Replique a La querelle des auteurs sur le commencement du siecle prochain.
[A Paris, J. Moreau, 1699] 26 p.
Held by the British Library under shelfmark 717. c. 36. (4.).
Argues the case for 1700 as the first year of the 18th century.
Reponse a la dissertation sur le commencement du siecle prochain, si c'est
l'an 1700 ou 1701 qui sera le premier du siecle. Paris, J. B. Coignard,
Held by the Bibliotheque nationale in Paris under shelfmark Vz. 2216.
Abicht, Johann G. Annus MDCC ex hypothesi vulgari seculi XVII ultimus
et ex hypothesi scaligeri seculi XVIII secundus disputationi priori pro
loco in ... facultate philosophica obtinendo demonstratus, eruditorum
examini proponitur a M. Joh. Georg. Abicht. Lipsiae, Typis J. C.
Brandenburgeri  16 p.
Held by the Biblioteca nazionale centrale in Rome.
[Bagelaar, Jan] Aanmerking op de gedagten van F. Halma, over het begin
der 18e eeuw. Amsterdam, P. Sceperus, 1700. 8 p.
Held by the Koninklijke Bibliotheek, The Hague, in its pamphlet
Halma, Francois. Brief aan den H. M. van Nispen ... waar in het verschil
over 't einde der 17 en 't begin der 18de eeuw nader ter toetse komt.
Amsterdam, 1700. 92 p.
Jens, Petrus. Ondersoek der bewysen van F. Halma, wegens het geschil der
nieuwe eeuw. Nevens een korte betooning na de manier der wiskonst
voorgesteld. Waer mede uyt de gewoonte van all volkeren, koningen,
tydschryvers, etc. bewese werd, dat dit loopende jaer het laetste jaer der
seventiende eeuw is. In 'sGravenhage, By M. Uytwerf, 1700. 16 p.
Held by the British Library under shelfmark T. 1715. (11.).
Lettera scritta a Carlo Cesare Scaletti patrizio faentino intorno alle
controversie, o equivoci, che si sono presi da qualcheduno, che l'anno M.
DCC non sia l'ultimo, ma il primo dal secolo. In Bologna, Per gli eredi
Pisarri, 1700. 12 p.
Signed F. F. O. D. O. I.
Ludolf, Hiob, the younger. Widerlegung der von einem Anonymo so
intitulirten und in Utopia gedruckten, grundlichen und genauen
Untersuchung vom Anfange des herannahenden Jahrhunderts. Jena,
Nispen, C. van. Over het begin der XVIIIe eeuwe. Dordrecht, 1700.
Rabus, Petrus. Over het begin der eeuwe. Rotterdam, 1700.
Rondelli, Geminiano. Urania custode del tempo. Varie considerazioni ...
intorno al computo, e denominazione degli anni, con le quali resta
determinato, l'anno corrente essere l'ultimo del secolo decimo-settimo
dell'epoca Cristiana, e non il primo del secolo decimo-ottavo. In
Bologna, Per gli eredi Pisarri, MDCC. 45 p.
Held by the Bibliotheque nationale in Paris under shelfmark 4o V.
Cordatus, Sincerus. Neu-Jahrs-Gedanken, zugleich auff den Anfang dieses
neuangehenden Seculi gerichtet. Leipzig, 1701.
Moller, Daniel W. Disputatio de saeculo. Altdorfii, 1701.
On the controversy over the first year of the 18th century.
Risposta ad una dama in vantaggio di chi tiene l'anno M.DCC. per lo primo,
e non per l'ultimo del secolo. In Bologna, Per il Pisarri, M DCCI. 55
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Dissertations on the commencement of the next century. Gentleman's
magazine, v. 68, May 1798: 401. AP4.G3, v. 68
Two letters on the controversy. The first, dated Mar. 13 and signed
"A Constant Reader," submits two simple methods of showing "that the
XIXth century commences the 1st of Jan. 1801." The second, dated
Wooler, Mar. 21, and signed N. G.," argues for the opposing view.
Conclusion of the century. Gentleman's magazine, v. 68, June 1798:
468-469. AP4.G3, v. 68
A letter dated June 4 and signed "B. S." repudiates the arguments of
N. G. in the previous issue.
End of century? Gentleman's magazine, v. 68, June 1798: 493-494.
AP4.G3, v. 68
A letter dated June 12 and signed "C. N." supports N. G. and points
out that "the Astronomer Royal and Dr. Herschel, the two greatest living
authorities, are of opinion that the next century will commence with the
year 1800 ..."
The Commencement of the nineteenth century elucidated. Gentleman's
magazine, v. 68, July 1798: 573-578. AP4.G3, v. 68
Three letters arguing at varying lengths in favor of 1800 as the first
year of the new century. The first, dated Gray's-inn-square, July 10th,
is signed "C. Sh."; the second, dated July 9, is signed "C. N."; and the
third, dated July 16, is signed "G. W."
Conclusion of the century. Gentleman's magazine, v. 68, Aug. 1798:
676-682. AP4.G3, v. 68
Seven letters, all supporting 1801 as the first year of the 19th century.
The first letter, dated Aug. 8, is signed "R. E. R."; the second, Aug. 7,
is signed "Omicron"; the third, dated L. Horsley, Aug. 13, is signed "R.
O."; the fourth, Aug. 13, is signed "Pythagoras"; the fifth, Aug. 19, is
signed "D. C."; the sixth, Aug. 20, is signed "R. C."; and the last, Aug.
21, is signed "R. W." A note from the editor on p. 682 expresses a vain
hope that the controversy "is now completely and clearly settled." In the
September issue, however, on p. 791, there is a paragraph indicating that
both factions have continued their epistolary outpourings. The editor
briefly describes but declines to print contributions received from C. N.,
C. Sh., B. S., N. J., M. S. F. A., and A. R.
Burja, Abel. Werther und Werner. Ein Gesprach uber die Frage: ob das
neue Jahrhundert mit dem Jahre 1800 oder mit 1801 anfangt? Berlin,
Bei C. F. Schone, 1799. 48 p.
Held by the British Library under shelfmark 8562. aaa. 34.
Werner explains to Werther why the new century begins with the year
Cantzlaar, Jan. Voorstelling dat het jaar 1800, (en niet het jaar 1801) het
begin der negentiende eeuw is of moet zijn. Met de voornaamste
bewijzen, die daar voor kunnen worden bygebragt. Rotterdam, N.
Cornel, 1799. 20 p.
Monnich, Bernhard F. Auch eine Antwort auf die Frage: ist das Jahr 1800
das letzte im 18ten oder das erste im 19ten Jahrhundert. Berlin, Reimer,
Ueber die Frage: ist das laufende Seculum mit dem 31ten December 1799.,
oder 1800. vollendet? Neues Hannoverisches Magazin, 9. Jahrg., 15.
Apr. 1799: columns 481-496. AP30.H24, v. 9
Refers to the publication in an unspecified 1798 issue of the
Gentleman's Magazine of the view that the century will end on Dec. 31,
1799, and explains at considerable length why this cannot be so. He
dismisses the notion of a zero year as an English whim and cites the
Aug. 1798 issue of the magazine (entry 32) as a source of additional
adverse criticism of the idea.
Wann fangt das XIX. Jahrhundert an? Allgemeine musikalische Zeitung, 1.
Jahrg., 18. Sept. 1799: columns 857-862. music.
ML5.A43, v. 1
An effort--admittedly unsuccessful--to demonstrate the correct starting
date of the 19th century by means of a musical canon or round song.
Comments on this essay by Otto Schmid-Dresden, accompanied by
the music, appear as "Wann fangt das neue Jahrhundert an?" in Blatter
fur Haus- und Kirchenmusik, 4. Jahrg., Feb. 1900, p. 27-28 (ML5.B6, v.
The Eighteenth century. Gentleman's magazine, v. 69, 1799, suppl.:
1176. AP4.G3, v. 69
Three letters on the controversy, all dated Dec. 31. The first, from
Camberwell and signed "D.," wonders why, if 1800 years have passed,
the date 1800 is to be used for the coming 12 months. The second, from
"A School boy," concludes that "1800 must be the last number of an
eighteenth series, and also of the eighteenth century." The last, signed
"De Willowby," presents a short humorous poem involving confusion
between the words "century" and "sentry."
Etwas uber die Frage: wenn endiget sich unser jetziges Saculum? Neues
Hannoverisches Magazin, 9. Jahrg., 16. Dec. 1799: columns
1605-1611. AP30.H24, v. 9 Rare Bk. Coll.
Signed P. H.
Argues that the century will have completed its course on Jan. 1,
The Next century. Times (London), Dec. 26, 1799: 4.N&CPR
"We have uniformly rejected all letters, and declined all discussion
upon the question of when the present century ends? as it is one of the
most absurd that can engage the public attention, and we are astonished
to find it has been the subject of so much dispute, since it appears to be
perfectly plain. The present century will not terminate till January 1,
1801, unless it can be made out that 99 are 100. Eighteen centuries are
1800 years, then how can 18 centuries be completed till the year 1800
has expired? What is the meaning of a century, but a clear distinct series
of 100 years? How can 100 be completed by 99? ... We shall not pursue
this question further, nor should we now have said so much upon it, had
not several applications been made for our opinion. It is a silly, childish
discussion, and only exposes the want of brains of those who maintain
a contrary opinion to that we have stated ..."
Ophelderende aanmerkingen over het einde der 18de eeuw. Nieuwe
algemene konst- en letter-bode, 12. deel, 27 dec. 1799: 202-205.
Includes discussion of Cantzlaar's 1799 pamphlet (entry 34).
See also the short note, "Historische en Letterkundige Anecdotes," in
13. deel, 17 jan. 1800, p. 22, about a German satirical medal relating to
the dispute over the end of the 17th century, and "Pieter Leefgraag en
Heintje-Maat," in the issue of 28 feb. 1800, p. 68-71, a story
(translated from the German by J. G. Busch) that turns on the wish of an
ailing man to survive until the beginning of the 19th century.
Cantzlaar, Jan. De tyd- en eeuw-onderzoeker, voor het jaar 1800.
Bevattende de ontwikkeling der gronden en bewyzen van de
sterrekundigen, omtrent de stelling dat het jaar 1800. na de geboorte J.
C. het eerste jaar der negentiende eeuw is. no. 1-12. Te Rotterdam, N.
Cornel, 1800. 98 p.
Held by the British Library under shelfmark 1609/3323.
Darragon, Francois L. L'anti-Lalende [sic]; ou, Refutation de la lettre du
celebre astronome Lalende. [Paris, De l'Impr. de Gauthier, 1800] 11 p.
Held by the British Library under shelfmark R. 404. (4.).
The text of Lalande's letter as published in Le Bien-informe, 23
nivose, an 8 (Jan. 13, 1800), clearly stating that the year 1800 belongs
to the 18th century, is included. The refutation consists more of abuse
Gelder, Jacob de. Geschied- en wiskundige verhandeling over het verschil
wegens het slot-jaar der XVIII. eeuw. 's Hage, J. J. Stuerman, 1800.
Hindenburg, Karl F. Beantwortung der Frage, ob das neunzehnde
Jahrhundert mit dem ersten Januar 1800, oder mit dem ersten Januar
1801 anfange. Leipzig, 1800.
Korte wysgeerige verhandeling over de gemeene christelijke jaartelling,
waarin bewezen wordt, dat de negentiende eeuw dezer jaartelling eerst
begint met de 1 January 1801. Rotterdam, 1800.
By P. P. R. P.
Mackay, Andrew. The commencement of the nineteenth century,
determined upon unerring principles. Aberdeen, 1800. 62 p.
Held by the British Library under shelfmarks 531. 1. 17. (3.) and T.
"That the end of the year commonly denominated 1799, is the
termination of the eighteenth century; and, therefore, the beginning of the
year marked 1800, the commencement of the nineteenth century; the
author of this tract cannot entertain, even, a doubt. And that the
celebrated Drs. Maskelyne and Herschel, and the very learned M. de la
Lande, as well as every other practical astronomer, are of the same
opinion, is only what he could have expected: and he flatters himself the
following arguments will be convincing to at least some, if not to all, of
those who are still on the opposite side of the question."
Das merkwurdige Jahr 1800; oder, Erlauterung uber den Streit des Anfangs
vom 19ten Jahrhundert. Lobenstein, Ilgen, 1800.
Pye, Henry J. Carmen seculare for the year 1800. London, Printed for J.
Wright, Piccadilly, by W. Bulmer, Russel-Court, Cleveland-Row, St.
James's, 1800. 43 p.
Held by the British Library under shelfmark 1346. i. 11.
In an introduction, the Poet Laureate gives his reasons for concluding
that the new century begins Jan. 1, 1800.
These remarks are quoted at length in a review published in the
Gentleman's Magazine, v. 70, Jan. 1800, p. 64-66 (AP4.G3, v. 70). The
reviewer comments, "The worthy Laureat has certainly got into a scrape;
and we wish him well out of it: but we have stated his arguments fairly;
though not convinced by an iota of the statement that 99 can make 100."
See also the letter from A. D. in the Feb. 1800 issue of the
Gentleman's Magazine, p. 134, showing that the poet's view is in error.
End of the century; termination of the century clearly ascertained.
Gentleman's magazine, v. 70, Feb. 1800: 132-134.AP4.G3, v. 70
Signed R. C.
See also the brief item in the Apr. 1800 issue, p. 381, referring to
disputes in France about the end of the 18th century and quoting Lalande
as stating that "the year 1800 incontestibly belongs to the 18th, or old
Lofft, Capel. On the question of the century. Monthly mirror, v. 9, Feb.
1800: 83-88. AP4.M83, v. 9
Calls attention to a statement in the preface to v. 9, included with the
Jan. 1800 issue--"we, therefore, commence a new year, a new volume,
and, if the chronologists will give us leave, a new century"-- and explains
why he thinks the new century will not begin until Jan. 1, 1801.
Observations on Mr. Pye's preface to his ode for the new century. Monthly
mirror, v. 9, Mar. 1800: 148-150. AP4.M83, v. 9
Contests the arguments used by the poet to support his view that the
19th century began Jan. 1, 1800.
A New chapter of chronicles. Monthly mirror, v. 9, Apr. 1800: 201-203.AP4.M83, v. 9
A satire on the battle of the centuries, presented as a dispute between
two brothers named Cutshort and Fivescore.
Lardner, Dionysius. [When a century ends] In his The museum of science
& art. v. 7. London, Walton and Maberly, 1855. p. 6-7.
Q171.L297, v. 7
"... it is notorious that after the year 1800, questions were constantly
raised in society as to whether such or such a day or month belonged to
the eighteenth century or to the nineteenth." Shows that the year 100
belonged to the first century, and, similarly, 1800 to the 18th, and 1900
to the 19th, century.
When a century ends. Historical magazine, v. 2, Jan. 1858: 12-13.
E171.H64, v. 2
Quotes a letter written Jan. 23, 1799, by President Timothy Dwight
of Yale, responding to a query about the end of the 18th century. In his
view, this would not occur until the termination of the year 1800.
Quand a fini le XVIIIe siecle? Quand a commence le XIXe?
L'Intermediaire des chercheurs et curieux, 6. annee, 25 janv., 25 fev.
1870: columns 38-39, 111-114. AG309.I6, v. 6
The question is raised by A. Resol, who quotes contradictory views.
Responses are supplied by six correspondents, all of whom are agreed
that the 19th century began with the year 1801.
Walford, E. The last and present centuries. Notes and queries, 5th ser., v.
11, June 21, 1879: 486. AG305.N7, s. 5, v. 11
Calls attention to an obituary in the Times in which the year 1800 is
erroneously referred to as "the first year of the present century."
Top of Page
Quand le siecle finit-il? L'Intermediaire des chercheurs et curieux, 15.
annee, 25 dec. 1882: column 737; 16. annee, 10-25 janv., 10 mars 1883:
columns 25-26, 58-59, 147-148; 17. annee, 10 fev. 1884: column 75;
24. annee, 25 janv., 25 mars-10 avril, 10 juil. 1891: columns 35-36,
190-191, 204-205, 499-500. AG309.I6, v. 15-17, 24
The question, raised by J. Camus in 1882 and by E. M. in 1891,
produced a total of 15 responses, all clearly indicating that 1900 is the
last year of the 19th century.
When does the century begin? Notes and queries, 7th ser., v. 10, Sept. 20,
1890: 225. AG305.N7, s. 7, v. 10
"G. F. R. B." cites Thomas Holcroft's Memoirs (London, Longman,
Hurst, Rees, Orme and Brown, 1816) which records a discussion on this
subject that took place at a dinner on July 9, 1798.
Walford, E. The last decade of this century. Notes and queries, 7th ser., v.
11, Jan. 24, 1891: 64. MicRR (o) 85/144
"... the twentieth century will begin not, as supposed, in January,
1900, but in January, 1901."
Premiere annee d'un siecle. L'Intermediaire des chercheurs et curieux, v.
33, 20 mars, 10 juin 1896: columns 331, 669-671; v. 34, 20 aout:
columns 220-221; v. 35, 10 janv., 20 avril, 20 mai 1897: columns 15-16,
491-492, 632; v. 36, 20 juil., 30 sept.: columns 57-58, 396.
AG309.I6, v. 33-36
The question as originally raised by Verepius concerned the truth of
an assertion to the effect that the first year of a century can never begin
on a Wednesday, a Friday, or a Sunday. This turns out to be correct for
the Gregorian calendar (though not for the Julian), but the responses soon
reverted to the old dispute concerning the dividing point between
centuries. Includes mention of some well-known figures (e.g., Goethe
and Victor Hugo) who were among those confused by the problem.
Is the end of the present century to be expected on January 1st, 1900, or
January 1st, 1901? Science siftings, v. 10, Sept. 19, 1896: 355.
Q1.S8, v. 10
"... the twentieth century will begin on the morning of January 1st.,
In answer to another inquiry, this response was substantially repeated
in v. 14, Aug. 27, 1898, p. 278.
Foerster, Wilhelm J. Das neue Jahrhundert und der Kalender. Mit einem
Schlusswort uber das Osterfest. Westermanns illustrierte deutsche
Monatshefte, 85. Bd., Okt. 1898: 135-144.
AP30.W5, v. 85
Includes some discussion of the controversy over the new century's
beginning date, which the author states to be Jan. 1, 1901.
Pietzker, Friedrich. Das Jahr "Null." Naturwissenschaftliche Wochenschrift,
13. Bd., 2. Okt. 1898: 472-474. Q3.N9, v. 13
After stating that the year 1900 clearly belongs (and gives its name
to) the 19th century, the writer considers proposals to insert a year 0 in
the accepted chronology, as astronomers have done for some time. He
concludes that such a step is not justifiable.
Equilibrium, pseud. When will the XIXth century end; and the XXth begin?
Reprinted for the author from letters published in the Daily and Tri-
weekly gleaner. Kingston, Jamaica, "Gleaner" Co., 1899. 18 p.
Held by the British Library under shelfmark 8563. bb. 32. (4.).
Supports Jan. 1, 1900, as the beginning date of the 20th century.
Foerster, Wilhelm J. Kalendar und Uhren am Ende des Jahrhunderts.
Braunschweig, G. Westermann, 1899. 79 p. WU
Il 1900 [Millenovecento] se sia l'ultimo anno del secolo XIX o il primo del
secolo XX. Ristampa di un opuscolo pubblicato per analoga questione
nel 1800. Roma, Tip. Vaticana, 1899. 37 p.
Rajna, Michele. Quando finisce il secolo decimonono? In Almanacco
italiano. anno 5; 1900. Firenze, R. Bemporad, 1899. p. 54-58.
First published in a supplement to La Perseveranza (Milan), Feb. 12,
In a detailed discussion of the controversy, shows that 1900 is the last
year of the 19th century.
Scocchera, A. Al 1o gennaio 1900 comincera il ventesimo secolo dell'era
volgare; memoria dimostrativa. Napoli, A. Trani, 1899. 7 p.
O Ultimo anno do seculo. In Almanach Bertrand. 1. anno; 1900. Lisboa,
Antiga Casa Bertrand  p. 1-3. AY1014.A25, 1900
Refers to the controversy over the dividing point between the
centuries, shows why 1900 is the last year of the 19th century, and
suggests that the dispute will be renewed as the year 2000 approaches.
The Twentieth century. Times (London), Jan. 3, 1899: 8.N&CPR
Notes that "Mr. John Hutchinson, writing from the Middle Tem- ple
Library," calls attention to the preface to the prayer book, in which the
19th century is described as extending "from the year 1800 till the year
1899 inclusive," on the authority of an Act of Parliament (24 Geo. II., c.
23). The editor remarks, "whatever legal authority the Act may possess,
it cannot alter the fact that 1900 is the last year of the 19th century, and
that the 20th century will begin in 1901."
Topics of the times. New York times, v. 48, Jan. 11, 1899: 6.
Editorial marveling at the existence of a controversy as to the dividing
point between centuries: "the nineteenth century of the Christian era will
be completed when 1,900 years have elapsed since the first year of the
Christian era began--that is, at the instant when Dec. 31, 1900, turns from
'today' into 'yesterday,' while the twentieth century starts on its course
just as soon as one can with accuracy say 'This is Jan. 1, 1901.'"
The Twentieth century. (Being a page from the log-book of Zedwhyeks.)
Punch, v. 116, Jan. 18, 1899: 33. AP101.P8, v. 116
Facetious. The writer discusses the question with the Professor of
Calculation and Chronology at Colney Hatch (site of a large mental
Wenn ist das neunzehnte Jahrhundert zu Ende? Militar-Wochenblatt, 84.
Jahrg., 27. Jan. 1899: column 248. MicRR 39491
Argues that the new century begins Jan. 1, 1900.
The Beginning of the twentieth century. Observatory, v. 22, Feb. 1899:
104-105. QB1.O2, v. 22
Cites some earlier writings on the question.
[Kewitsch, Georg] Das neue Jahrhundert. Militar-Wochenblatt, 84. Jahrg.,
8. Feb. 1899: columns 336-337. MicRR 39491
Disagrees with the journal's view on the question and the reasoning
behind it, as expressed in its Jan. 27 issue, and presents the case in favor
of Jan. 1, 1901, as the starting date for the 20th century. This is
followed by an editorial comment maintaining the pro-1900 view.
In the Zeitschrift fur mathematischen und naturwissenschaftlichen
Unterricht, 30. Jahrg., 7. Heft, 1899, p. 487-490 (Q3.Z38, v. 30),
Kewitsch's article, somewhat revised and supplemented with additional
comments and explanations (but without the Militar-Wochenblatt's
editorial remarks), is reprinted under the same title.
Il Principio del nuovo secolo. La Civilta cattolica, ser. 17, v. 5, 18 febbr.
1899: 471-484. MicRR 01679
Presents both sides of the question in the form of a dialogue between
Tizio (pro-1900) and Sempronio (pro-1901).
Ewing, Neal H. When shall we greet the new era? New York times, v. 48,
July 22, 1899: 6. N&CPR
Letter to the editor arguing that the 20th century should begin Jan. 1,
1900, because the change in the first two digits of the year is so
impressive. "The centurial figures are the symbol, and the only symbol,
of the centuries." He believes we should not be troubled by the resulting
reduction to 99 years of the first century.
Ebeling, Herman L. The end of the century. New York times, v. 48, July
25, 1899: 6. N&CPR
Letter to the editor supporting 1901 as the first year of the 20th
Alden, Edward. As it might be. New York times, v. 48, July 31, 1899:
Letter to the editor expressing a belief that referring to the years by
ordinal rather than cardinal numeration would make it clear that the new
century begins in 1900.
West, George E. Something wrong with the system. New York times, v.
48, July 31, 1899: 6. N&CPR
Letter to the editor supporting, with very confused arguments, 1900
as the first year of the 20th century.
Topics of the times. New York times, v. 48, Aug. 2, 1899: 6.
"Defense of the view that the new century begins with 1900 seems to
have simmered down to the statement that our present system of
designating the years is not like another system used by certain persons
for certain other purposes, and that if that other system had been
extended, as it should have been, to the naming of the years, the new
century would begin twelve months earlier than it really will. All this is
undoubtedly true, but what, pray, has it to do with the case as it is?
Facts are one thing; might-have-been's and should-be's are another, and
failure to distinguish between the two leads to much waste of time and
McDonald, George E. Twentieth century. Notes and queries and historic
magazine, v. 17, Sept./Oct. 1899: 208. AG305.H5, v. 17
Provides a table to show how, "if the centuries were volumes, the
year 1900 would be included in the XIXth century." Truth Seeker is
cited as the source, but this could not be verified.
Waite, C. B. When will the nineteenth century close? Truth seeker, v. 26,
Sept. 23, 1899: 602. MicRR 02852
Supports his contention that the century will not end until Dec. 31,
1900, by quoting from the definition of "century" in "Webster's
Yanney, Benjamin F. Some calendarial facts about the twentieth century.
Scientific American, v. 81, Sept. 23, 1899: 195.
T1.S5, v. 23
"When will the twentieth century begin? Why there should be
different answers to this question is a little puzzling to know ... it begins
with the first second of the first hour of the first day of January, 1901."
See the letter from E. H. Van Patten, headed "The Twentieth Century
Problem," in the issue of Oct. 21, p. 262. Van Patten's arguments in
favor of Jan. 1, 1900, as the beginning date of the new century are
followed by the editor's explanation of why this cannot be so.
A version of Yanney's article appears under the title "Calendarial
Facts of Twentieth Century" in Popular Science, v. 33, Dec. 1899, p.
279 (Q1.P8, v. 33).
Schurig, Richard. Das wahre Geburtsjahr Christi und der Anfang des
Jahrhunderts. Zeitschrift fur mathematischen und naturwissenschaftlichen
Unterricht, 30. Jahrg., 8. Heft, 1899: 576-578.Q3.Z38, v. 30
Reprinted from the Leipziger Tageblatt of Dec. 29, 1894. Dealing on
p. 578 with the question of the turn of the century, Schurig, pointing out
that there was no year 0, states that the 20th century begins on Jan. 1,
Flammarion, Camille. En quelle annee commencera le vingtieme siecle?
In Societe astronomique de France. Bulletin, 13. annee, dec. 1899:
527-535. illus. QB1.S6, v. 13
Finds that a dispute has arisen at the end of every century since at
least 1599, but shows that the solution is very simple; since the era began
with a year 1, not a year 0, the 20th century begins Jan. 1, 1901.
Much of the article also appears in Flammarion's Annuaire
astronomique et meteorologique pour 1900, p. 174-177 (Paris, Librairie
E. Flammarion  QB9.A6, 1900).
The question was also raised or commented upon at meetings of the
Societe astronomique de France, according to brief reports in the Bulletin,
14 annee, janv. 1900, p. 18; fev., p. 63; mars, p. 112; and mai, p. 197
(QB1.S6, v. 14).
Topics of the times. New York times, v. 49, Dec. 8, 1899: 6.
Editorial commenting on the Kaiser's order that "everything
governmental, from regimental flags to postal cards, will on Jan. 1 next
be decorated in honor of the new century." The writer finds himself in
an embarrassing situation--either he must admit that a century is a period
of 99 years, or else hold to the opinion that it lasts 100 years, thus
hinting "that we think the Kaiser has made a very stupid mistake about
a very simple matter ... The mighty Kaiser has issued his commands, and
it would be distinctly impious to trust any longer to unassisted common
Hirsch, Gideon M. Beginnt das neunzehnte Jahrhundert mit dem
kommenden Neujahrstag? Das Magazin fur Litteratur, 68. Jahrg., 9.-16.
Dez. 1899: columns 1153-1160, 1177-1183. MicRR 38978
Believes the problem can be solved by changing the system of naming
centuries, e.g., calling the years 1900-1999 the 19th century, the years
1800-1899, the 18th century, etc. There are two postscripts (columns
1183-1185), the first from Rudolf Steiner suggesting a slight
modification--the years 1900-1999 to be called century 19, the years
1800-1899, century 18, etc.--which would allow the terms 19th century
and 20th century to retain their precise meaning (i.e., 1801-1900 and
1901-2000); the second is Hirsch's comment on Steiner's proposal.
When does the century close? Sunday school times, v. 41, Dec. 9, 1899:
798. BV1500.S8, v. 41
"One of the endless and useless questions which has been in
discussion for long years is, 'When does the century close?' ... While
different opinions are held as to what should have been the decision, it
is now practically accepted as a settled fact that the twentieth century is
to be reckoned as beginning January 1, 1900."
Topics of the times. New York times, v. 49, Dec. 15, 1899: 6.
"Laboring apparently under the delusion that there is controversy as
to when the twentieth century begins, The Boston Herald devotes the
better part of a page to the publication of letters from college Presidents
to whom it had submitted inquiries on the subject." Of the 14
responding, 11 were clearly in favor of 1901; one was "too enigmatic for
the comprehension of ordinary mortals"; and two expressed themselves
in favor of 1900.
The New century in Germany: according to the Kaiser's calendar it begins
Jan. 1, 1900. New York times, v. 49, Dec. 16, 1899: 1.
News item about the German emperor's orders to celebrate Jan. 1,
1900, as the opening of the 20th century.
End of the century. Washington post, Dec. 19, 1899: 6.N&CPR
"A century can end only with the completion of a hundred years, and
nineteen centuries can end only with the completion of nineteen hundred
years. The nineteenth century, therefore, ends with the last day of the
year 1900, and the twentieth century cannot begin before that time. Of
course, it is permissible to any one to claim that some century had only
ninety-nine years to its credit, and to argue from that amusing hypothesis
that the next century begins with the 1st day of January, 1900. But no
one is compelled by law to accept this proposition, and there is no
binding reason, so far as we can see, why this or that person need argue
the case at all. This is a free country, and almost any citizen can assert,
if he wants to, that 99 makes 100. What are we coming to, when our
best people can be muzzled by the dry and stupid laws of mathematics?"
Schram, Robert. Die Einrichtung unseres Kalenders und der Beginn des
Jahrhunderts. In Wissenschaftlicher Klub, Vienna. Monatsblatter, 21.
Jahrg., 20. Dec. 1899: 27-29. AS142.V41, v. 21
Presented at the Nov. 13 meeting of the society.
Goes back to the origins of our calendar to show why the 20th
century begins with the year 1901.
Topics of the times. New York times, v. 49, Dec. 20, 1899: 6.
Editorial comments on the papal decree which was said to refer to the
year 1900 as ushering in the new century. "The Latin text of the
document has now been made public, and in it there is no faintest trace
of support for so silly a theory ... The German Emperor, apparently,
must stand in solitary grandeur as the only man of any prominence who
cannot count up to one hundred."
When the century ends. Outlook, v. 63, Dec. 23, 1899: 951.
AP2.O8, v. 63
Comments on the decision of the German emperor to begin the 20th
century a year early and similar errors made by American college and
Midnight, December 31, 1900. Washington post, Dec. 28, 1899: 6.
Editorial. Restates the paper's position regarding the date of the
century's end and prints a letter from Donald Gillis of Asheville, N.C.,
expressing disagreement. The editor goes on to say:
"Meanwhile, The Post is open to conviction. We are not bigoted or
intolerant. If anyone will show us how a century can be completed with
less than 100 years, and how nineteen centuries can be completed with
less than 1900 years, and how the twentieth century can begin before the
nineteenth century ends, we shall joyfully put ashes in our hair and hail
him as a wizard."
Boyle, Sir Courtenay. The twentieth century. Times (London), Dec. 29,
1899: 10. N&CPR
Letter to the editor giving reasons why he believes the start of the
new century should be observed on Jan. 1, 1900. An editorial taking an
unqualified stance in opposition to such a step appears on p. 7 of the
... The Twentieth century. English mechanic and world of science, v. 70,
Dec. 29, 1899: 449. MicRR 85176
"A Fellow of the Royal Astronomical Society" comments on the
announcement from Berlin that "the Federal Council decided ... that the
new century shall be reckoned from January 1, 1900."
Is the twentieth century here, or is it not? Literary digest, v. 19, Dec. 30,
1899: 798-799. AP2.L58, v. 19
"One disquieting thought arises among all the 'letters to the editor'
declaring that the new century begins in 1900, and the patient daily
replies of the press with diagrams, supposed cyclometers, piles of
pennies, rows of apples, bricks, and matches, endless vistas of mile-posts,
regiments of marching soldiers, and imaginary sheep, elephants, and
grasshoppers jumping over imaginary fences. The disquieting thought is
that in a hundred years it will all be forgotten, and some 'letter to the
editor' will start the whole whirl of pennies, apples, etc., going again."
[The New century] Spectator, v. 83, Dec. 30, 1899: 974.
AP4.S7, v. 83
Paragraph commenting on the German emperor's decision to
inaugurate the 20th century on Jan. 1, 1900, and noting that "a majority
of the population of Europe will probably agree with him. The change
in the designating numeral blinds them to the fact that if the century
begins, as it must do, with the year 1, it cannot end till the hundredth
year has expired."
This item evoked letters from John Tennant, Arthur S. Owen, and
Oliver Lodge, published under the heading "The New Century" in v. 84,
Jan. 6, 1900, p. 15. The first of these questioned the editor's view, while
the other two supported it.
The New century. Spectator, v. 83, Dec. 30, 1899: 988.AP4.S7, v. 83
Letter to the editor signed Malachi. It alludes to the controversy
resulting from an editorial in the Times of Jan. 1, 1850, in which it was
stated that the second half of the century had begun. Even the Prince
Consort was said to have agreed with this notion. "Malachi" points out
that "the first year of the first century of the world (or of any era,
Christian or heathen) began with, not the year 0, but with the year 1;
equally each succeeding century began and begins with the year 1."
The Twentieth century. Times (London), Dec. 30, 1899: 6.N&CPR
Five letters to the editor, signed Herbert Stephen, Scaliger, Dionysius
Maximus, J. Y. Buchanan, and Reductio ad Absurdum, comment on the
suggestion mde by Sir Courtenay Boyle in the Dec. 29 issue. Four of the
writers oppose and one supports him.
Twentieth century already begun. Sunday school times, v. 41, Dec. 30,
1899: 846-847. BV1500.S8, v. 41
Quotes correspondents who take issue with the periodical's acceptance
of Jan. 1, 1900, as the beginning of the 20th century and discusses the
The Beginning and the end. Washington post, Dec. 31, 1899: 19. illus.
An article discussing the controversy is followed by five letters, from
Berkeley C. Waller, D. A. M'Knight, L. A. Boulay, G. L. Peckham, and
Charles H. Wood. The first two favor 1900 as the first of the new
century, and the others, 1901.
A cartoon shows a 99-years-a-century advocate arguing with Father
[Baumgartel, Gustav] Losung der Jahrhundertfrage mit dem Zirkel, von
einem Deutschen. Dresden, G. Kuhtmann, 1900. 64 p.
Believes that Dec. 25, 1900, is the true beginning date of the 20th
century, but states that Jan. 1, 1900, must be substituted since Dec. 25 is
not the first day of the year.
Cercignani, Emilio. La misura del tempo. Quando finische il secolo XIX?
Firenze, Lumachi, 1900. 39 p.
Crow, William, of Stratford. The century chart ... When does the century
end? When the circle is completed, December 31st 1900. Stratford,
Avenue Press  card. 11.5 x 7.5 cm.
Held by the British Library under shelfmark 1820. h. 8. (7.).
Das Deutsche Reich und Preussen. 1. Abschnitt. Neujahr. In Deutscher
Geschichtskalender fur 1900. Sachlich geordnete Zusammenstellung der
politische wichtigsten Vorgange im In- und Ausland von Karl
Wippermann. 1. Bd. Leipzig, F. W. Grunow, 1900. p.1-9.D2.D4, 1900, v. 1
Reprints various announcements and proclamations concerning the
new year, which was officially designated as the first of the new century,
and quotes several published sources on the question of when the century
End of the century. In Appletons' annual cyclopaedia and register of
important events. 3d ser., v. 4; 1899. New York, D. Appleton, 1900.
p. 59. AE5.A7, 1899
Explains why the year A.D. 1900 is the last of the 19th century.
Graf, Johann H. Wann beginnt das XX. Jahrhundert? Vortrag, gehalten im
Cyklus der akademischen Vortrage. Bern, K. J. Wyss, 1900. 23 p.
Hirsch, Gideon M. Neunzehntes oder zwanzigstes Jahrhundert?
Zeitrechnungsfragen. Mit einem Anhang: Zuschrift des Direktors der
Berliner Sternwarte, Prof. Dr. W. Forster. Breslau, Preuss & Junger,
1900. 32 p.
Ito-dre-casa. Era storica intermediaria alla soluzione sul principio del
secolo; complemento al calendario del 1o secolo dell'era volgare.
Modena, Societa tip. Modenese, 1900. 20 p.
Porro, Francesco. Il principio del secolo; due articoli. Torino, S. Lattes,
1900. 23 p.
Reprinted from Il Pensiero italiano, anno 2, luglio/ag. 1892, and
Gazzetta del popolo, 18 genn. 1899.
Schubring, Gustav. Das neue Jahrhundert und der christliche Kalender.
Erfurt, F. Bartholomaus, 1900. 8 p.
Discussed in "Zur Jahrhundertwende" in Zeitschrift fur
Naturwissenschaften, 73. Bd., 27. Feb. 1901, p. 411-415 (Q3.Z4, v. 73).
Whitmell, Charles T. The twentieth century: 1st January, 1901. In Leeds
Astronomical Society. Journal and transactions. no. 7; 1899. Leeds, R.
Jackson  p. 93. QB1.L4a, no. 7
Reprints text of a letter to the editor of the Yorkshire Post explaining
matters to those who "are still not clear why the 20th Century does not
begin until 1st January, 1901."
The Beginning of the century. Observatory, v. 23, Jan. 1900: 69.
QB1.O2, v. 23
Briefly reports the official decision in Germany to celebrate the
beginning of the 20th century on Jan. 1, 1900, and mentions that in
Sweden the year 1900 is also to be regarded as the first of the 20th
[End of the century] Current literature, v. 27, Jan. 1900: 1.
AP2.C95, v. 27
Editorial comment. Cites opposing views but takes no stand.
The End of this century. Cram's magazine, v. 1, Jan. 1900: 256-257.
AP2.C88, v. 1
"... the 20th Century does not, cannot begin until the first second of
the year 1901, or instantly after midnight on Dec. 31st, 1900."
Die Jahrhundert-Zahlung. Stimmen aus Maria-Laach, 58. Bd., Jan. 1900:
107-108. AP30.S7, v. 58
Points out that Schiller and Goethe regarded Jan. 1, 1800, as the first
day of the 19th century and concludes, "Wenn so grosse deutsche Geister
das 19. Jahrhundert mit 1800 anfingen, so konnen wir es getrost auch mit
Koppe, Max. Der Anfang des Jahrhunderts; eine Betrachtung uber Zahlen
und Messen. Zeitschrift fur den physikalischen und chemischen
Unterricht, 13. Jahrg., Jan. 1900: 1-9. QC1.Z4, v. 13
Argues for reckoning the beginning of the 20th century with the year
The Last year of the century. American monthly review of reviews, v.
21, Jan. 1900: 3. AP2.R4, v. 21
"We must give the nineteenth century the 365 days that belong to its
hundredth and final year before we begin the year 1 of the twentieth
McCormack, Thomas J. The year zero. Open court, v. 14, Jan. 1900:
32-36. AP2.O495, v. 14
Chiefly a rendering into English of Pietzker's essay, "Das Jahr
The Nineteenth century. Notes and queries and historic magazine, v. 18,
Jan. 1900: 23. AG305.H5, v. 18
Reply to a query, "Is there any book or record as to whether there
was any discussion in the latter years of the eighteenth century as to
when the nineteenth was to begin?" in v. 17, Nov./Dec. 1899, p. 224.
Cites Robert Southey, who in the initial chapter of The Doctor stated that
there was a great controversy.
Ritchie, John. Where the new century will really begin. Ladies home
journal, v. 17, Jan. 1900: 7. illus. MicRR 05422
Also deals with the question of when the new century begins.
Summarized as "Dawn of the Twentieth Century" in Popular
Astronomy, v. 8, Mar. 1900, p. 161-162 (QB1.P8, v. 8).
Saint-Saens, Camille. Quand commence le vingtieme siecle. In Societe
astronomique de France. Bulletin, 14. annee, janv. 1900: 52.
QB1.S6, v. 14
Points out that when referring to the age of a person or other living
creature, the number 1 signifies that the first year has been completed,
while in chronology it means that the first year has begun.
Zum Jahr Null. Zeitschrift fur mathematischen und naturwissenschaftlichen
Unterricht, 31. Jahrg., 1. Heft, 1900: 17-18.Q3.Z38, v. 31
Comments on a newspaper controversy that developed in a small town
in Wurttemberg as a result of Kewitsch's article, "Das neue Jahrhundert"
Germany. Times (London), Jan. 1, 1900: 6. N&CPR
A short article on the official court celebrations ordered by the
emperor to mark the beginning of the 20th century on Jan. 1, 1900.
Detailed descriptions of these events can be found under the heading
"The New Year in Germany" in the issue of Jan. 2, p. 3.
The Twentieth century. Times (London), Jan. 1, 1900: 11.N&CPR
Eighteen letters to the editor, from E. J. Reed, John Attfield, J. F.
Hogan, Geo. B., J. W. Sharpe, Edward Steward, Andrew N. Agnew,
Arthur A. Sykes, J. B. Dimbleby, H. E. Malden, H. W. Pullen, Henry
Haydon, Rankine Dawson, W. Day, J. B. C., H. B. P., E. M., and P. H.
B. Of those expressing an intelligible opinion on the matter, 10 held that
the 20th century begins on Jan. 1, 1901, and five argued for Jan. 1, 1900.
The letter from P. H. B. accompanied a correspondence, found in a book
of old newspaper cuttings, relating to the controversy 100 years earlier
(involving R. B. Sheridan, T. Westley, J. Richardson, and C. J. Fox).
The Twentieth century. Times (London), Jan. 2, 1900: 9.N&CPR
Fourteen letters to the editor, one from Sir Courtenay Boyle
responding to some of the critics whose letters appeared in the Jan. 1
issue, and the rest from the Earl of Dunraven, James Edmunds, John
Sargeaunt, Willoughby Maycock, H. N. Grimley, K. B. Ferguson, W. J.
Gordon, Harold B. Barkworth, A Secretary, L. E. H., C. F. N., L. Y. L.,
and A. C. Of these 13, eight support Jan. 1, 1901, as the first year of the
new century, and two favor Jan. 1, 1900; the letter from L. E. H. quotes
a passage from the Gentleman's Magazine to illustrate the parallel
controversy in 1800.
We close an incident. Washington post, Jan. 2, 1900: 6.N&CPR
Editorial announcing that "no more controversy over the close of the
nineteenth and the beginning of the twentieth century can be exploited in
these columns, at least during the year 1900."
The Twentieth century. Times (London), Jan. 3, 1900: 8.N&CPR
Seven letters to the editor, signed Herbert Stephen, Charles Bright, G.
J. Turner, C. A. Vince, Geo. B., Dionysius Maximus, and Gregory. Four
of these support the view that the new century begins in 1901, and one
maintains that it began Jan. 1, 1900.
The Year 1900. World, v. 52, Jan. 3, 1900: 7.AP4.W8, v. 52
The first paragraph deals with the dispute, remarking that "the parties
are at feud as mortal as that which divided the Big-Endians and Little-
Endians in Swift's satire." Readers are assured that "The century is not
completed until the last of its hundred years has come to an end; that is
to say, the nineteenth century will not finish until midnight on the last
day of December 1900."
The Twentieth century. Times (London), Jan. 4, 1900: 10.N&CPR
Eight letters to the editor, signed G., Only a Layman, T. Bailey
Saunders, Medway, M. L. Craven, A. K. S., Dionysius Minimus, and
Hastings C. Dent. Of those expressing clear opinions on the matter, two
favor 1901 as the first year of the new century, and two, 1900.
Stanley, William F. The twentieth century? English mechanic and world
of science, v. 70, Jan. 5, 1900: 474. MicRR 85176
Having read the remarks of "A Fellow of the Royal Astronomical
Society" on this subject in the previous issue, the writer says he finds it
difficult to accept the argument that "there never was a year 0."
The "Fellow" comments on this letter in the Jan. 12 issue, p. 493.
The Twentieth century? English mechanic and world of science, v. 70,
Jan. 5, 1900: 474. MicRR 85176
A letter signed "Tenbyten," quoting Lalande's remarks from the
Gentleman's Magazine of Apr. 1800 (cited in note to entry 50).
The Twentieth century. Times (London), Jan. 5, 1900: 6. N&CPR
Five letters to the editor, signed A. A. Common, R. M. Minton-
Senhouse, Dionysius Maximus, R. G. T., and S.P.Q.R. Four
express a clear preference for 1901 as the beginning of the new
Preceding the letters is a reprint of a leading article on the subject
from the Times of Dec. 26, 1799, sent by Sir Courtenay Boyle (see
The Twentieth century. Times (London), Jan. 6, 1900: 12. N&CPR
Nine letters to the editor, signed Courtenay Boyle, Robert
Pierpoint, Alan S. Cole, H. W. S.-W., A. G., Zeno, C. Brinsley
Marlay, Henry Wilson, and F. J. R. Carulla. Only the first and last
of these support 1900 as the beginning of the new century. Sir
Courtenay refers to a leading article in the Times of Dec. 31, 1849,
the writer of which appears to believe that the first half of the 19th
century had come to an end; H. W. S.-W. quotes a letter received
from the Astronomer Royal; A. G. shows that "in Berlin at any rate,
the 18th century was regarded as including the year 1800 and as
ending on the 31st of December in that year," and Marlay quotes a
pronouncement of the Bureau des longitudes published in Le Temps.
The Twentieth century. Times (London), Jan. 9, 1900: 15. N&CPR
Nine letters to the editor, signed Charles Bright, F. A. Straker, T.
E. Young, A. C. C., John W. Loch, R. G., C. R. K., John Hodgkin,
and M. L. Craven. All of the eight expressing clear opinions are in
favor of 1901 as the first year of the new century.
May, Phil. Portrait of a calculating gentleman (not at all a bad looking
chap) who has solved the problem as to whether we are in the
nineteenth or twentieth century. Punch, v. 118, Jan. 10, 1900: 32.
illus. AP101.P8, v. 118
Topics of the times. New York times, v. 49, Jan. 10, 1900: 6.
Commenting on a reader's protest against ridiculing those who
believe the 20th century has already begun, the editor points out
(once again) that there is no evidence of a year 0 as the first year of
the Christian era.
The Twentieth century. (Some specimen letters addressed to various
editors.) (Forwarded per A. A. S.) Punch, v. 118, Jan. 10, 1900:
AP101.P8, v. 118
Facetious. A pertinent comment by Mr. Bloskins appears at the
end of the column.
The Twentieth century. Times (London), Jan. 10, 1900: 7. N&CPR
Letters to the editor from Oliver Lodge and Albert Orme. Lodge
discusses the chronological conventions involved in the controversy
and concludes, "It appears to be most in accordance with the ideas
of the old chronologist who settled the Christian era to label the year
of the Birth 1 A.D., to call this the 1900th year, and to end the
century next December."
White, Horatio S. Erring with Plato. Nation, v. 70, Jan. 11, 1900: 31.
AP2.N2, v. 70
Letter to the editor citing passages from Heine, Schiller, and
Goethe to show that these writers were also confused about the first
year of the century.
Carter, Robert E. That twentieth century again. New York times,
v. 49, Jan. 12, 1900: 6. N&CPR
Letter to the editor. The writer thinks that regarding Jan. 1, 1900,
as the beginning of the 20th century can be justified because the
birth of Christ is believed to have occurred before the year chosen
to begin the Christian era.
Topics of the times. New York times, v. 49, Jan. 12, 1900: 6.
Editorial quoting remarks of Capt. C. H. Davis, superintendent of
the U.S. Naval Observatory. "'There can be,' says the Captain, with
an impatience which we are proud to share, 'there can be no
question of "opinion" as to the date of the commencement of the
twentieth century any more than there can be a question of opinion
on any other simple arithmetical fact. The twentieth century
commences with the 1st of January, 1901.'"
The Twentieth century? English mechanic and world of science, v. 70,
Jan. 12, 1900: 494. MicRR 85176
H. B. F. comments on William F. Stanley's letter published in the
previous issue (entry 135).
Glossen zur Tagesgeschichte [Jahrhundertwende] Ethische Kultur, 8.
Jahrg., 13. Jan. 1900: 14. 4-Serials
Points out that the two zeros and the change of 8 into 9 almost
inevitably served to lead people astray concerning the end of the
century, and expresses regret that learned persons did not take upon
themselves the duty of clearing up the confusion in a timely manner.
As a result, Germany is almost alone among the nations in
celebrating the arrival of the new century a year early.
See the comments of Wilhelm J. Foerster, headed "Zur Frage des
Jahrhundert-Anfanges," in the 20. Jan. issue, p. 23-24, and the
response, "In Bezug auf die 'Jahrhundertwende,'" signed "d.," in the
27. Jan. issue, p. 31.
The New century. Scientific American, v. 82, Jan. 13, 1900: 18.
T1.S5, v. 82
"In the daily and weekly press we find a fierce epistolary battle
raging between those who believe that the year 1899 marks the close
of the nineteenth century and those who hold that not until 1901
shall we cross the threshold that divides us from a new era ...
"It seems so difficult to understand that 1800, 1900, 2000,
designate not the beginning, but the end of a century, that one
naturally inquires the origin of the error. It may be that the mistake
is due to a kind of optical illusion ...
"A hundred years ago the same wordy war was waged; a hundred
years hence it will be renewed; and thus it will go on as century
after century comes rolling along. It is a venerable error, long-lived
and perhaps immortal."
Kellogg, Peter C. The ending of the century. New York times, v. 49,
Jan. 14, 1900: 20. N&CPR
Letter to the editor demolishing Robert E. Carter's pro-1900
arguments published two days earlier (entry 145).
Le XIXe siecle est-il fini? La Quinzaine, t. 32, 16 janv. 1900: 304.
AP20.Q7, v. 32
A short paragraph that answers the query in the negative, quoting
among others the editors of the Annuaire of the Bureau des
longitudes: "Le XIXe siecle finira le 31 decembre 1900 a minuit."
Did Plato err? Nation, v. 70, Jan. 18, 1900: 52. AP2.N2, v. 70
Letters to the editor from William M. Payne and Eugene Leser
commenting on the supposed error of Schiller and Goethe regarding
the first year of the 19th century (see entry 144).
Bennett, F. ... A point about the century which has been missed.
English mechanic and world of science, v. 70, Jan. 19, 1900: 510.
Expresses the view that the monk who established our chronology
blundered, and that there should have been two zero years--A.D. 0,
and the preceding year, B.C. 0!
Stanley, William F. Twentieth century. English mechanic and world
of science, v. 70, Jan. 19, 1900: 517. MicRR 85176
"I think a note should be made that the Emperor William's
opinion, that the century was complete in 1900, is only the general
consensus of scientific opinion in Germany."
Kirwan, Charles de. La fin du siecle. Cosmos, nouv. ser., t. 42, 20
janv. 1900: 66. Q2.C8, n.s., v. 42
Quotes the statement on this question in the Annuaire for 1900
issued by the Bureau des longitudes.
Lynn, William T. The beginning of the twentieth century. Notes and
queries, 9th ser., v. 5, Jan. 20, 1900: 41-42. AG305.N7, s. 9, v. 5
The commencement of the new century "obviously will not take
place until 1 January, 1901. Nevertheless, strange as it may appear,
there are some who hold that it has already begun ..."
Franklin, F. G. The century once more. Nation, v. 70, Jan. 25, 1900:
71. AP2.N2, v. 70
Letter to the editor including the first 32 lines of a poem
published in the Connecticut Courant for Jan. 5, 1801. The poem,
dated Jan. 1, 1801, begins "Precisely twelve o'clock, last night,/The
Eighteenth Century took its flight," and goes on to discuss the
confusion of those who thought it had ended the year before.
Edmunds, James. The twentieth century. English mechanic and world
of science, v. 70, Jan. 26, 1900: 540. illus. MicRR 85176
Presents a brief history of our chronology and calendar and their
Roman precursors. Since the Christian era did not begin with a zero
year, it is clear "that the 1900th year has to be completed before the
19th century is finished."
A correction appears in the Feb. 2 issue, p. 558.
Reprinted in the Observatory, v. 23, Feb. 1900, p. 84-87
(QB1.O2, v. 23), and in Popular Astronomy, v. 8, Mar. 1900, p.
140-143 (QB1.P8, v. 8).
Ausserungen beruhmter Manner (Mathematiker) uber den Beginn der
Jahrhunderte (Wolf, Bode, Hindenburg, Gauss). Zeitschrift fur
mathematischen und naturwissenschaftlichen Unterricht, 31. Jahrg.,
2. Heft, 1900: 93-94. Q3.Z38, v. 31
Contents: 1. Von Hindenburg, Prof. d. Mathematik in Leipzig
(1741-1808). Wolf und Bode.--2. Von Gauss.
The first section is reprinted from the Leipziger Neueste
Nachrichten of Jan. 1, 1900. The article cites Hindenburg, who
himself quotes Christian, Freiherr von Wolff and Johann Elert Bode
in support of the view that the 20th century begins in 1901.
Hindenburg's publication on the subject in 1800 caused the city of
Leipzig to celebrate the opening of the 19th century on Jan. 1, 1801.
The second section is an excerpt from a letter Gauss wrote to
Bolyai on Dec. 16, 1799, in which he implies a preference for
regarding that year as the last of the 18th century.
Bergold, E. Zum Jahrhundert-Streit. Zeitschrift fur mathematischen
und naturwissenschaftlichen Unterricht, 31. Jahrg., 2. Heft, 1900:
94-96. Q3.Z38, v. 31
Criticizes the treatment of this matter by Kewitsch in Heft 7 of
1899 and by the editor in Heft 1 of 1900 (entries 76 and 127) as
suggesting that it is a purely academic question, upon which one's
viewpoint is a matter of choice. By referring to chronological
practices in classical antiquity, upon which the chronology of
Dionysius Exiguus was based, he shows that there can be only one
current answer to the question--in the case of the 20th century, it can
begin only on Jan. 1, 1901. Kewitsch's response, ""Erwiderung von
Kewitsch gegen Berghold [sic]" appears on p. 139-140.
[Commencement of the new century] Science-gossip, new ser., v. 6,
Feb. 1900: 282. Q1.S4, n.s., v. 6
Short paragraph concluding, despite contrary views published in
some newspapers, that "We are still in the 19th century, and many
things may yet happen before its conclusion."
Dix-neuvieme ou vingtieme siecle? Ou nous en sommes. Bibliotheque
universelle et revue suisse, t. 17, fev. 1900: 416-418.
AP24.B5, v. 17
"Il faut croire que le nombre de ceux qui ont du temps a perdre
est tres considerable, et que les sujets de 'copie' manquent a
boucoup de journalistes, quand on voit combien de discussions,
orales ou ecrites, ont ete engagees sur la question de savoir si
l'annee 1900 fait partie du dix-neuvieme ou du vingtieme siecle ...
Car il n'y pas a en douter: 1900 est la derniere annee du dix-
neuvieme siecle: ce n'est pas la premiere annee du vingtieme."
End of the century. Current literature, v. 27, Feb. 1900: 100.
AP2.C95, v. 27
Editorial comment. Quotes a cable dispatch from London to
demonstrate that the "debate over the ending of the century is by no
means confined ... to the people of the United States."
XIX.-XX.--Division of the centuries. Father Time's memory at fault.
Horological journal, v. 42, Feb. 1900: 73-76. illus.
TS540.H8, v. 42
Discusses the controversy without taking sides.
The Only way. Macmillan's magazine, v. 81, Feb. 1900: 309-310.
AP4.M2, v. 81
Poem signed A. G. After making fun of some of the arguments
used by the pro-1900 faction, the writer ends with a mock surrender
to the Kaiser's decision: "Hail, then, to His august decree,/Who,
seated high on Potsdam's throne,/Proclaims the Nineteenth
Reprinted in the Living Age, v. 224, Mar. 24, 1900, p. 741-742
This twentieth century. A retractation. Irish monthly, v. 28, Feb. 1900:
57-59. AP4.I7, v. 28
The writer revises his earlier opinion that the year 1900 was the
last of the 19th century and now seeks to convince his readers that
"the Twentieth Century is already a month old." Among other
arguments, he cites "the Act of Parliament of 1752, which makes the
century close at midnight on December 31, 1899."
The Twentieth century. Macmillan's magazine, v. 81, Feb. 1900:
310-312. AP4.M2, v. 81
Letter to the editor signed "Dionysius Minimus" and dated
January 19th, 1900. Expresses the view that to prefer Jan. 1, 1901,
as the beginning date of the 20th century is to "prefer what is
bizarre, distracting, and uncomfortable to what is simple,
straightforward, and in the natural order of things ..."
Reprinted in the Living Age, v. 224, Mar. 24, 1900, p. 742-744
[Ule, Willi] Die Jahrhundertwende. Die Natur, 49. Jahrg., 18. Feb.
1900: 94. Q3.N2, v. 49
Regards the year 1900 as belonging to the 19th century, since
there was no zero year.
Le Vingtieme siecle. In Societe astronomique de France, Paris.
Bulletin, 14. annee, fev. 1900: 99-100. QB1.S6, v.14
A letter from General Parmentier supporting 1901 as the first year
of the 20th century is followed by a description of the festivities in
Berlin celebrating the arrival of the new century on Jan. 1, 1900.
Flammarion adds a note remarking, "puisque l'an 1899 est, par
definition meme, la 1899e annee de l'ere chretienne, l'annee 1900 est
la 1900e, et le siecle finira avec elle."
Winterwood, Geoffrey. Which century? Sunday magazine, new ser.,
v. 29, Feb. 1900: 137. AP4.S85, n.s., v. 29
"The arguments of those who contend that the twentieth century
began on the 1st January 1900 are often extremely ingenious, but so
far as we have seen them they turn on analogies which are inexact
and fallacious ... Most of us fail to realise that the Dionysian
reckoning was grafted on an old system of chronology, that the first
year was that to which was assigned the birth of Christ at
Bethlehem, and that the year preceding was the year B.C. 1."
Beginning of the twentieth century. Popular astronomy, v. 8, Mar.
1900: 160. QB1.P8, v. 8
The Date-line. Century magazine, v. 59, Mar. 1900: 801-802.
AP2.C4, v. 59
Editorial. Remarks that "1900 is the last year of the nineteenth
century, and not the first of the twentieth," citing the definition of
"century" in the Century Dictionary, and goes on to reflect upon the
"stir in the minds of men occasioned by so great a change in the
date as the one made this year ..."
Foerster, Wilhelm J. Zwei Ausserungen uber die Jahrhundertwende.
Zeitschrift fur mathematischen und naturwissenschaftlichen
Unterricht, 31. Jahrg., 3. Heft, 1900: 178-181. Q3.Z38, v. 31
Reprints. The first article is from the Preussischer
Normalkalender for 1901 (published here with a short addendum),
and the second, "Wann beginnt das neue Jahrhundert?" is from
Ethische Kultur, 8. Jahrg., 20. Jan. 1900, p. 23-24 (4-Serials). In
both, Foerster argues for a method of reckoning centuries that
supports the decision of the Prussian authorities to celebrate the
beginning of the 20th century on Jan. 1, 1900. The editor of the
Zeitschrift, Volkmar Hoffmann, adds a few other examples of
supporting arguments (p. 182).
Hobhouse, Sir Arthur Hobhouse, 1st Baron. The battle of the centuries.
Contemporary review, v. 77, Mar. 1900: 397-410. AP4.C7, v. 77
Considers the arguments used by those who believe that the 20th
century began on Jan. 1, 1900, as recorded in letters to the editor of
the Times. "I confess," writes Lord Hobhouse, "to having felt much
surprise when I first found that a truth, which I had thought to be as
rudimentary as the truth that 2 + 2 make 4, was questioned, not only
in the superficial way in which the unreflecting may question
anything, but seriously and by educated men. But my surprise has
been increased by trying to understand what reason exists for this
questioning, and by finding that many of the reasons assigned are
irrelevant, many are destructive of the conclusion in support of
which they are advanced, and that such as would be relevant and
logical have no basis whatever to maintain them in point of fact ...
I suppose that this dispute will die away for the present, but perhaps
in the year 2000 our great grandchildren will revive it, and will
consult the files of the Times or those (who knows?) of the
CONTEMPORARY REVIEW, for arguments to show that 1999 years
make up 20 centuries."
Hoffmann, Volkmar. Der Streit uber den Beginn des Jahrhunderts in
neuer Beleuchtung. Auseinandersetzung und Kompromiss-
Vorschlag. Zeitschrift fur mathematischen und
naturwissenschaftlichen Unterricht, 31. Jahrg., 3. Heft, 1900:
169-177. Q3.Z38, v. 31
Includes a prediction that humanity will not wait until Jan. 1,
2001, to celebrate the beginning of the new millennium.
Der Streit um den Jahrhundertanfang. Gaea; Natur und Leben, 36.
Jahrg., Marz 1900: 187-188. Q3.G2, v. 36
Points to all the authorities that have used the 100th year in
which to begin centuries, from Charlemagne on, and concludes that
this clearly supports Jan. 1, 1900, as the opening date of the 20th
Tille, Alexander. Der Beginn des nachsten Jahrhunderts. Die Zukunft,
30. Bd., 10. Marz 1900: 425-431. MicRR 39088
Discusses the confusion and makes it clear that, in the present
system of counting years, the new century will begin only with the
Le Siecle et la centieme annee. L'Intermediaire des chercheurs et
curieux, v. 41, 7, 22 avril 1900: columns 579, 704. AG309.I6, v. 41
An inquirer cites a newspaper report to the effect that a
disagreement between French and German views concerning the end
of the the century could be ascribed to a difference in meaning
between the words "Jahrhundert" and "siecle." The respondent states
that views on the matter were much the same in both countries;
while popular opinion was divided, the scientific academies of both
nations agreed that the new century would not begin until Jan. 1,
Schwab, Gustav. Der Beginn des Jahrhunderts. Zeitschrift fur
mathematischen und naturwissenschaftlichen Unterricht, 31. Jahrg.,
5. Heft, 1900: 356-358. Q3.Z38, v. 31
Topics of the times. New York times, v. 50, Nov. 9, 1900: 6.
Editorial commenting on the dispatch from Rome announcing that
on Dec. 31, 1900, Pope Leo XIII would celebrate the last mass of
Evans, John W. The coming of the new century. Its spasmodic career
across the map. Sphere, v. 3, Dec. 29, 1900: 368-369. illus.
AP4.S73, v. 3
Among the pictures is one of a ship; the caption reads, "The first
people to enter the new century may, perhaps, be on a vessel
crossing the date line at midnight on December 31, 1900. The
vessel shown here is one of the Canadian Pacific fleet which
regularly crosses the 180 deg. line on her journeys from Vancouver
to Hong Kong. Should she pass at the auspicious moment it will be
possible for the bow watch who has entered the twentieth century to
hail the man at the stern who, but a few yards away, is still a
The Century change of 1801. New York times, v. 50, Dec. 30, 1900:
Notes that the newspapers then "seem to have been as busy with
the dispute as to the initial year of the century as a certain part of
the public was a year ago." Quotes from the "Ode to the Century"
published in the Connecticut Courant of Jan. 5, 1801, and a letter
published in the Columbian Centinel (Boston) on Jan. 1, 1801,
predicting the renewal of "the century dispute" in a hundred years'
Ahrens, Wilhelm E. M. G. Der Jahrhundertanfang. In his
Mathematische Unterhaltungen und Spiele. Leipzig, B. G.
Teubner, 1901. p. 389-393. QA95.A28
Baumgartel, Gustav. Polemik uber die Jahrhundertfrage zwischen dem
Culturhistoriker Prof. Dr. Henne am Rhyn, Staatsarchivar in St.
Gallen, und dem Architekten Gustav Baumgartel, Dresden, als
Verfasser der beiden Schriften: "Losung der Jahrhundertfrage mit
dem Zirkel" und "Warum konnte die Jahrhundertfrage nicht
einheitlich gelost werden?" Anhang: Erorterung uber die Bedeutung
der "0" also Jahresbezeichnung vom Standpunkte der Chronologie.
Dresden, 1901. 20, 4 p. NN
B[aumgartel], G[ustav] Warum konnte die Jahrhundertfrage nicht
einheitlich gelost werden? 1900 oder 1901. Mit bildlicher
Darstellung. Dresden, G. Kuhtmann, 1901. 7 p. illus.
Assumes that Christ was born on Dec. 25, 1 B.C., which year is
numbered 0 in astronomical chronology. The author believes that
year should be regarded as the first of our era, which would mean
that the 20th century began on Jan. 1, 1900.
The Beginning of the century. In The Daily news almanac and
political register. 17th year; 1901. Chicago. p. 184. AY67.C4N5, 1901
Brief explanation of why "Dec. 31, 1900, was the last day of the
nineteenth century, and the twentieth century began Jan. 1, 1901."
Close of the old century. In Appletons' annual cyclopaedia and
register of important events. 3d ser., v. 5; 1900. New York, D.
Appleton, 1901. p. 428. AE5.A7, 1900
Describes how New York City welcomed the 20th century on the
night of Dec. 31, 1900.
See also "Twentieth Century's Triumphant Entry" in the New
York Times, v. 50, Jan. 1, 1901, p. 1-2 (N&CPR).
Kewitsch, Georg. Die astronomische Era und das Jahrhundert 19
(Jahrhundertwende). Freiburg i.B., C. Troemer, 1901. 15 p.
Fievez, Charles. A propos du XXe siecle. In Societe belge
d'astronomie. Bulletin, 6. annee, janv. 1901: 26-27. QB1.S7, v. 6
Foerster, Wilhelm J. Das neue Jahrhundert und die Reform unseres
Zahlungswesens. In Vereinigung von Freunden der Astronomie
und kosmischen Physik. Mitteilungen, 11. Jahrg., Jan. 1901: 8-16.
QB1.V4, v. 11
Griffith, George. Where will the 20th century commence? Pearson's
magazine, v. 11, Jan. 1901: 3-6. illus. AP2.P35, v. 11
"... the nineteenth century cannot end until Christendom has
counted nineteen hundred years."
Points out that the 20th century will begin at midnight at East
Cape, Siberia, and also discusses the question of when and where the
first day of the 20th century will dawn.
Kewitsch, Georg. Die astronomische Era. Zeitschrift fur
mathematischen und naturwissenschaftlichen Unterricht, 32. Jahrg.,
1. Heft, 1901: 1-9. Q3.Z38, v. 32
Proposes a general adoption of the astronomical system of
chronology. This involves substituting a year 0 for 1 B.C. and
designating earlier years with minus signs (e.g., 2 B.C. becomes -1).
The year 0 would then become the first in the Christian era, the
years 0 to 99 would be called century 0, the years 1900 to 1999
would constitute century 19, and the confusion over the turn of the
century would cease.
Lancaster, Albert B. M. Le XXe siecle. Ciel et terre, 21. annee, 1 janv.
1901: 522-523. QB1.C5, v. 21
Anding, Ernst. Ueber den Beginn des Jahrhunderts. Bayerisches
Industrie- und Gewerbeblatt, 87. Jahrg., 5.-19. Jan. 1901: 3-4, 9-12,
18-20. T3.B35, v. 87
Considers arguments for both views but favors 1901.
Keller, Arthur I. Welcoming the twentieth century. Harper's weekly,
v. 45, Jan. 5, 1901: 1. illus. AP2.H32, v. 45
Drawing shows a dozen people of all ages, the adults of the
family with wine glasses raised, gathering at a grandfather clock as
Welcome to the new century. Mail and express illustrated Saturday
magazine, Jan. 5, 1901: 5. illus. AP2.S17, 1901
Drawings with captions. The larger one shows crowds at the
New York city hall celebrating at midnight, Dec. 31, 1900. The
smaller one depicts the illuminated buildings of the city as seen from
the riverfront the same night.
Flammarion, Camille. Quel jour et en quel pays a commence le
vingtieme siecle? La Nouvelle revue, nouv. ser., t. 8, 15 fev. 1901:
484-494. MicRR 04839
Summarized in a report entitled "In quale giorno ed in quale
paese e incominciato il ventesimo secolo" in La Lettura, anno 1,
mar. 1901, p. 279-280 (AP37.L4, v. 1).
Ein nachtraglicher Ausspruch uber die Jahrhundertwende. (Von einem
Schweizer.) Zeitschrift fur mathematischen und
naturwissenschaftlichen Unterricht, 32. Jahrg., 3. Heft, 1901: 183. Q3.Z38, v. 32
Dated Zurich, June 22, 1900, and signed Dr. Bl., a letter to the
editor comments on the mildness of the controversy in Switzerland,
remarking that many were pleased that the old century had not yet
run its course. The only official action observed by the writer was
a notice from the church committee in Zurich, which stated that its
century would begin on Jan. 1, 1901.
Winterich, John T. Father Time's big night out. Nation's business,
v. 37, Jan. 1949: 46-48, 50. col. illus. HF1.N4, v. 37
"A look back to the birth of the twentieth century suggests what
is in store when the year 2001 comes."
Heiland, Fritz. Wann beginnt ein Jahrhundert? Die Sterne, 27. Jahrg.,
Heft 1/2, 1951: 1-2. QB1.S85, v. 27
An English translation by Alma M. Hammer, "When Does a
Century Begin?" appears in Popular Astronomy, v. 59, June 1951,
p. 341-342 (QB1.P8, v. 59).
Mid-century? In U.S. Library of Congress. Information bulletin, v. 9,
Jan. 2, 1950: 21. Z733.U57I6, v. 9
On the end of the first half of the 20th century.
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Quinn, Jim. ... and every year counts. Washington post weekend, Dec.
28, 1979: 43. N&CPR
A friend of the writer's points out that 1980 is "the last year of
the seventh decade of the 20th century." (It was actually the last
year of the eighth decade.)
[Doggett, LeRoy E.] Decade & century. [Washington, D.C.] U.S.
Naval Observatory, Nautical Almanac Office, 1980. 1 sheet.
Briefly describes the correct method of reckoning the beginning
and ending of decades and centuries.
Debut du siecle prochain. L'Intermediaire des chercheurs et curieux,
nouv. ser., 31. annee, juin, oct., dec. 1981: columns 572-573,
945-950, 1182-1183. AG309.I64, n.s., v. 31
The question, raised by Jean-Marc Blanc, received an immediate
(and unsatisfactory) response from the editorial staff; subsequent
replies furnished overlong and complicated explanations of this very
simple matter. Apparently nobody thought to look into the journal's
own files for the answers supplied when the question came up
toward the end of the previous century.
When do centuries start? Discover, v. 4, Oct. 1983: 77. Q1.D57, v. 4
A letter from Dick Ridgway questioning the answer given to one
of the "Mind Benders" on p. 98 of the Sept. 1983 issue, which turns
on the question of the dividing point between centuries. The editor's
response states, "Centuries end on the last day of the year ending
with the numbers 00; the twenty-first century will not begin until
January 1, 2001."
As the world turns. Esquire, v. 101, Jan. 1984: 36. AP2.E845, v. 101
"... an eager band of young professionals is busy preparing for
what has been billed as the world's most extravagant millennium
bash. The World Millennium Ball will begin (if all goes according
to plan) at six P.M. Greenwich time on December 31, 1999, at the
Great Pyramid of Cheops ..."
Leight, Warren D. How to act your (new) age. Northwest Orient,
v. 16, Dec. 1985: 13-15. illus.
Facetious advice on preparing for the third millennium, which the
author assumes will begin Jan. 1, 2000.
Freburger, William J. A siecle with 14 years left is no joke. National
Catholic reporter, v. 22, Mar. 28, 1986: 19. illus.
MicRR 02591 BX
"Even now as we enter the fin de siecle, it is difficult to say what
the coming of the millennium will bring. I suppose the only
problem we can tackle immediately is the question: Does the
millennium begin Jan. 1, 2000, or Jan. 1, 2001?"
White, Bill. Right day, wrong century. Science news, v. 130, Aug. 23,
1986: 126. Q1.S76, v. 130
Letter to the editor pointing out a mistake in a short note in the
July 12 issue (p. 22) entitled "Rickover Dead at 86." It was stated
there that the admiral had been "born on the 27th day of this
century" although the year of his birth was 1900, the last year of the
previous century. White continues, "A lot of misinformed people are
going to get drunk on the night of Dec. 31, 1999, thinking they are
celebrating a new century and a new millennium. I don't suppose
there's much hope you and other "esoteric" publications can make
them understand their error, but please, don't perpetuate the error
Le XXIe siecle ne commence pas en l'an 2000 ... Science & vie, no
836, mai 1987: 8. T2.S3, 1987
Quotes part of a letter from M. F. Georges of Paris, calling
attention to the fact that the Genitron, a device on display at the
Centre Pompidou which is counting off the seconds of time
remaining in the present millennium, has as its zero point Jan. 1,
2000, a year short.
The editor comments, "Contrairement a ce que pensent
bizarrement la plupart des gens, le XXIe siecle ne commencera
qu'apres zero heure le 31 decembre 2000. Mais peut-etre les
createurs du Genitron ont-ils voulu simplement distinguer la derniere
annee du siecle ..."
This piece generated so many letters from puzzled and
unconvinced readers that two further short articles were published in
an attempt to clarify matters: "Troisieme millenaire (bis)" in no 837,
juin, p. 6, and "Le XXIe siecle (ter)" in no 838, juil., p. 4.
Hagedorn, Ann. To mark year 2000, some events will be out of this
world. Fears of apocalypse spark plans for rescue by blimp; a big
bash at the pyramid. Wall Street journal, v. 211, June 27, 1988: 1, 6.
The writer and her subjects evidently assume that the year 2000
marks the beginning, rather than the end, of a millennium.
Kulikov, G. S. Kogda nachntsia tret'e tysiacheletie? Zemlia i
vselennaia, iiul'/avg. 1988:93-95.
Concludes that the third millennium will begin at midnight, Dec.
Fulmer, Dina. Turn of the century. Psychology today, May 1989: 6.
Letter to the editor calling attention to the erroneous assumption,
in an article published in the Dec. 1988 issue, that the 21st century
will begin on Jan. 1, 2000.
Smith, Charles W. There was no year 0. Washington post, May 15,
1989: A8. N&CPR
Letter to the editor. This inspired a response from Steve
Sullivan, published in the May 27 issue, p. A23, under the heading
"Symbolic Piffle," manifesting exasperation with the traditions of
history and chronology.
Lycett, Andrew. Where will you be at midnight on December 31,
1999? Times (London), May 29, 1989: 13. ports. N&CPR
On various plans for celebrating the third millennium in Britain--
generally, a year too soon.
Schwartz, Hillel. Century's end; a cultural history of the fin de siecle
from the 990s through the 1990s. New York, Doubleday 
397 p. illus. CB428.S39 1990
Bibliographic references included in "Endnotes" (p. -375).
For discussion of the dispute about the dividing point between
centuries, see the index under "centurial feuds."
Phil May's cartoon (see entry 140) is reproduced on p. 
Hamel, Jurgen. Wann beginnt das 3. Jahrtausend? Jahrzehnt,
Jahrhundert, Jahrtausend--wo liegen Anfang und Ende? Wissenschaft
und Fortschritt, 40. Jahrg., Heft 1, 1990: 16-17. illus. Q3.W5, v. 40
References (3): p. 17.
Additional illustrations appear on the inside front cover of the
Points out that the new century and millennium will not begin
until Jan. 1, 2001.
Roberts, Chalmers M. To celebrate or not--when is the question.
Smithsonian, v. 20, Jan. 1990: 172. col. illus. AS30.S6, v. 20
R[ebeyrol], Y[vonne] Ce siecle avait un an... Le Monde, 2 janv. 1990:
Cites the definition of "siecle" in Le Grand Larousse and states,
"Nous avons donc encore un an pour nous preparer a entamer la
derniere decennie du vingtieme siecle et onze ans avant d'arriver, le
1e janvier 2001, au vingt et unieme siecle."
Campbell, Steuart. A year in a thousand; Steuart Campbell on the
debate about when the millennium ends. New scientist, v. 125, Feb.
10, 1990: 66. illus. Q1.N52, v. 125
Believes that those supporting the view that the new millennium
begins Jan. 1, 2001, will never convince those who plan to celebrate
a year earlier.
Boussin, Andre. Debut du siecle prochain. L'Intermediaire des
chercheurs et curieux, no 466, mars 1990: columns 214-215.
Quotes a helpful explanation published in the Jan. 2, 1990, issue
of Le Monde (see entry 219).
Kemble, Lucian J. Premature millennialism. Natural history, Dec.
1990: 4-5. QH1.N13, 1990
Letter to the editor calling attention to "a common
misunderstanding about the turn of the millennium" expressed in an
editorial, "Natural History at 90," by Alan Ternes, in the May 1990
issue, p. 6.
Whitney, Craig R. Londoners can't wait for the year 2000. New York
times, v. 140, Dec. 31, 1990: 3. N&CPR
Reports that the Savoy is already overbooked for the night of
Dec. 31, 1999, by persons wishing to celebrate the arrival of the
third millennium, and adds that "some will argue that all these
people have got the date wrong. The first year of the new century
(and, therefore, of the millennium) begins on Jan. 1, 2001, not a year
earlier, these pedants will point out." The chairman of the Arts
Council, Lord Palumbo, is quoted as observing that "the nice thing
about it is that you can just have a celebration both years."
Trachet, Tim. Begint de 21e eeuw in het jaar 2000? Zenit, 18. jaarg.,
jan. 1991: 14-17. illus. DN-Ob
Points out that the 21st century will begin when 20 centuries, or
2000 years, have passed.
Need, Richard. The new millennium. Times (London), Jan. 31, 1991:
Letter to the editor. Protests the application, in a recent article,
of the term "pedants" to those "who realise that the century and
millennium do not end until December 31, 2000."
Hutton, Harry. The new millennium. Times (London), Feb. 4, 1991:
Quotes with approval the comment made by Father Alexander R.
Vidler in his autobiography, Scenes From a Clerical Life: "I prefer
the opinion that a century ends when its enumeration departs from
the calendar." Somehow this suggests that 1899 is the last year of
the 18th century.
Blackman, David. The new millennium. Times (London), Feb. 6,
1991: 13. N&CPR
Letter to the editor. Disputes the assertion made by Richard
Need (see entry 225), stating that "Common sense suggests that the
first millennium began on the first of January, AD 0 ..."
Martin, John F. The new millennium. Times (London), Feb. 7, 1991:
Letter to the editor. In an optimistic attempt to settle the dispute,
quotes an editorial from the Times of Jan. 1, 1900: "The New Year,
the last of the Nineteenth Century, which begins today ..."
Middleton, Fred C. The new millennium. Times (London), Feb. 9,
1991: 11. N&CPR
Letter to the editor. Calls attention to the flaw in Blackman's
argument (see entry 227), namely, that there was never a year AD
Don't be late for the party. Times (London), Apr. 2, 1991: 10.
"The world has voted with its cheque book in the debate on
precisely when the millennium ends. While pedants continue to pit
December 31, 1999, against the end of the year 2000, everyone who
is anyone, it seems, has opted for the earlier date as the time to
organise what they hope will be the mother of all parties."
Goes on to report that a hotel, the construction of which had not
yet begun, was already fully booked for that date, and points out that
flying Concorde westward would enable revelers to ring in the New
Year in several widely separated cities.
Counting the years. Time, special issue, fall 1992: 8. AP2.T37, 1992
A short note on chronology, dismissing those who know how to
count as "purists" and claiming that "very few of the world's citizens
will wait for Jan. 1, 2001, to mark the millennium's beginning."
Smilowe, Jill. The great event: tonight we're gonna party like it's
1999. You won't need an excuse to celebrate the greatest New
Year's eve of all. But you might need a reservation--now. Time,
special issue, Fall 1992: 10-11. col. illus. AP2.T37, 1992
"Reported by Wendy Cole/New York and Dan Cray/Los Angeles."
On the many plans for celebrating the start of the last year of the
20th century, under the misapprehension that it will be the first year
of the third millennium.
Top of Page
The numbers refer to entries, not pages.
***, M., bachelier en theologie, 4-5, 10
A., M. S. F., 32
A. A. S., 142
A. C., 130
A. C. C., 139
A. D., 49
A. G., 138, 165
A. K. S., 134
A. R., 32
Abicht, Johann G., 16
Academie francaise, Paris, 1
Agnew, Andrew N., 129
Ahrens, Wilhelm E. M. G., 183
Albert, Consort of Queen Victoria, 102
Alden, Edward, 80
Anding, Ernst, 194
Un Anticritique malgre luy, 6
Astronomer Royal. See Christie, Sir
William H. M.; Maskelyne, Nevil
Attfield, John, 129
B., G. F. R., 59
B., Geo., 129, 132
B., P. H., 129
B. S., 29, 32
Bagelaar, Jan, 17
Barkworth, Harold B., 130
Baumgartel, Gustav, 106, 184-185
Becker, Peter, 3
Bennett, F., 153
Bergold, E., 160
Bl., Dr., 198
Blackman, David, 227, 229
Blanc, Jean-Marc, 204
Bloskins, Mr., 142
Bode, Johann Elert, 159
Bolyai, Farkas, 159
Book of common prayer, 71
Boulay, L. A., 105
Boussin, Andre, 221
Boyle, Sir Courtenay, 98, 103, 130,
Bright, Charles, 132, 139
Buchanan, J. Y., 103
Burja, Abel, 33
Bureau des longitudes. See France.
Bureau des longitudes
Busch, J. G., tr., 41
C., A., 130
C., A. C., 139
C., D., 32
C., J. B., 129
C., R., 32, 50
C. F. N., 130
C. N., 30-32
C. R. K., 139
C. Sh., 31-32
Campbell, Steuart, 220
Camus, J., 58
Canadian Pacific Railway Company,
ocean steamships, 181
Cantzlaar, Jan, 34, 41-42
Carter, Robert E., 145, 150
Cartoons, 105, 140, 164, 195, 216
Carulla, F. J. R., 138
Centre national d'art et de culture
Georges Pompidou, 210
Cercignani, Emilio, 107
Christie, Sir William H. M., 138
Church of England. Book of common
Cole, Alan S., 138
Cole, Wendy, 232
Colney Hatch, 73
Columbian Centinel, 182
Common, Andrew A., 137
Concorde (jet transports), 230
Connecticut Courant, 157, 182
A Constant reader, 28
Cordatus, Sincerus, 25
Craven, M. L., 134, 139
Cray, Dan, 232
Crow, William, of Stratford, 108
D., A., 49
D., M...., avocat en Parlement, 12
D. C., 32
Darragon, Francois L., 43
Davis, Capt. Charles H., Jr., 146
Dawson, Rankine, 129
Day, W., 129
Delaisement, M., 4-5, 10, 15
Delpech, Jean, marquis de
Dent, Hastings C., 134
De Willowby, 38
Dictionary definitions, 84, 172, 219
Dimbleby, J. B., 129
Dionysius Exiguus, 153, 160
Dionysius Maximus, pseud., 103, 132,
Dionysius Minimus, pseud., 134, 167
Doggett, LeRoy E., 203
Dunraven, Windham Thomas
Wyndham-Quin, 4th Earl of, 130
Dwight, Timothy, 55
E. M., 58, 129
Ebeling, Herman L., 79
Edmunds, James, 130, 158
Emperor, German. See Wilhelm II,
Equilibrium, pseud., 65
Evans, John W., 181
Ewing, Neal H., 78
F., H. B., 147
F. F. O. D. O. I., 20
A Fellow of the Royal
Astronomical Society, 99, 135
Ferguson, K. B., 130
Fievez, Charles, 189
Flammarion, Camille, 87, 169, 197
Foerster, Wilhelm J., 63, 66, 112, 148,
Fox, Charles James, 129
France. Bureau des longitudes, 138,
Franklin, F. G., 157
Freburger, William J., 208
Fulmer, Dina, 213
G., A., 138, 165
G., N., 28-30
G., R., 139
G. F. R. B., 59
G. W., 31
Gauss, Karl Friedrich, 159
Gelder, Jacob de, 44
Un Gentil-homme de province, 9
Georges, F., 209
German emperor. See Wilhelm II,
Gillis, Donald, 97
Goethe, Johann Wolfgang von, 61, 120,
Gordon, W. J., 130
Graf, Johann H., 111
Great Pyramid (Egypt), 206, 211
Griffith, George, 191
Grimley, H. N., 130
H., L. E., 130
H., P., 39
H. B. F., 147
H. B. P., 129
H. W. S.-W., 138
Hagedorn, Ann, 211
Halma, Francois, 17-19
Hamel, Jurgen, 217
Hammer, Alma M., tr., 200
Haydon, Henry, 129
Heiland, Fritz, 200
Heine, Heinrich, 144
Henne am Rhyn, Otto, 184
Herschel, Sir William, 30, 47
Hindenburg, Karl F., 45, 159
Hirsch, Gideon M., 89, 112
Hobhouse, Sir Arthur Hobhouse, 1st
Hodgkin, John, 139
Hoffmann, Volkmar, 173, 175
Hogan, J. F., 129
Holcroft, Thomas, 59
Hugo, Victor Marie, comte, 61
Hutchinson, John, 71
Hutton, Harry, 226
J., N., 32
J. B. C., 129
Jens, Petrus, 19
Juni, Ulrich, 7-8
K., C. R., 139
Keiler, Arthur I., 195
Kellogg, Peter C., 150
Kemble, Lucian J., 222
Kewitsch, Georg, 76, 127, 160, 188, 192
Kirwan, Charles de, 155
Koppe, Max, 121
Kulikov, G. S., 212
L., L. Y., 130
L. E. H., 130
L. T. L., 130
Lalande, Joseph Jerome Le Francais
de, 43, 47, 50, 136
Lalende. See Lalande, Joseph
Jerome Le Francais de
Lancaster, Albert B. M., 193
Lardner, Dionysius, 54
Leight, Warren D., 207
Le Lorrain de Vallemont, abbe Pierre, 1
Leo XIII, Pope, 95, 180
Leser, Eugene, 152
Library of Congress, 201
Loch, John W., 139
Lodge, Sir Oliver J., 101, 143
Lofft, Capel, 51
Ludolf, Hiob, the younger, 21
Lycett, Andrew, 214
Lynn, William T., 156
M., E., 58, 129
M. S. F. A., 32
McCormack, Thomas J., 123
McDonald, George E., 83
Mackay, Andrew, 47
M'Knight, D. A., 105
Malachi, pseud., 102
Malden, H. E., 129
Mallemans de Messanges, Claude, 11
Marlay, C. Brinsley, 138
Martin, John F., 228
Maskelyne, Nevil, 30, 47
May, Phil, 140, 216
Maycock, Willoughby, 130
Middleton, Fred C., 229
Minton-Senhouse, Robert M., 137
Monnich, Bernhard F., 35
Moller, Daniel W., 26
N., C., 30-32
N., C. F., 130
N. G., 28-30
N. J., 32
Need, Richard, 225, 227
New York City, celebrations on
Dec. 31, 1900, 187, 196
Nispen, C. van, 22
Nispen, M. van, 18
O., R., 32
Only a layman, 134
Orme, Albert, 143
Owen, Arthur S., 101
P., H. B., 129
P., P. P. R., 46
P. H., 39
P. H. B., 129
P. P. R. P., 46
Palumbo, Peter Garth Palumbo, Baron,
Parmentier, Theodore, 169
Payne, William M., 152
Peckham, G. L., 105
Pierpoint, Robert, 138
Pietzker, Friedrich, 64, 123
Porro, Francesco, 114
Prince Consort, 102
Professor of Calculation and
Pullen, H. W., 129
Pye, Henry J., 49, 52
Pythagoras, pseud., 32
Quinn, Jim, 201
R., A., 32
R., R. E., 32
R. C., 32, 50
R. E. R., 32
R. G., 139
R. G. T., 137
R. O., 32
R. W., 32
Rabus, Petrus, 23
Rajna, Michele, 68
Rebeyrol, Yvonne, 219
Reductio ad Absurdum, 103
Reed, E. J., 129
Resol, A., 56
Richardson, Joseph, 129
Rickover, Hyman G., 209
Ridgway, Dick, 205
Ritchie, John, 125
Roberts, Chalmers M., 218
Rondelli, Geminiano, 24
S., A. A., 142
S., A. K., 134
S., B., 29, 32
S.-W., H. W., 138
Saint-Saens, Camille, 126
Sargeaunt, John, 130
Saunders, T. Bailey, 134
Scaletti, Carlo C., 20
Scaliger, pseud., 103
Schiller, Friedrich, 120, 144, 152
Schmid-Dresden, Otto, 37
A School boy, 38
Schram, Robert, 94
Schubring, Gustav, 115
Schurig, Richard, 86
Schwab, Gustav, 179
Schwartz, Hillel, 216
Scocchera, A., 69
A Secretary, 130
Sh., C., 31-32
Sharpe, J. W., 129
Sheridan, Richard Brinsley, 129
Smilowe, Jill, 232
Smith, Charles W., 214
Southey, Robert, 124
Stanley, William F., 135, 147, 154
Steiner, Rudolf, 89
Stephen, Herbert, 103, 132
Steward, Edward, 129
Straker, F. A., 139
Sullivan, Steve, 214
Sykes, Arthur A., 129
T., R. G., 137
Tennant, John, 101
Ternes, Alan P., 222
Tille, Alexander, 177
Trachet, Tim, 224
Turner, G. J., 132
24 Geo. II., c. 23 (Act of Parliament),
Ule, Willi, 168
U.S. Library of Congress, 201
U.S. Naval Observatory, 146, 203
Van Patten, E. H., 85
Verepius, pseud., 61
Vidler, Alexander R., 226
Vince, C. A., 132
W., G., 31
W., R., 32
Waite, C. B., 84
Walford, E., 57, 60
Waller, Berkeley C., 105
Weigel, Erhard, 2, 7
West, George E., 81
Westley, Thomas, 129
White, Bill, 209
White, Horatio S., 144
Whitmell, Charles T., 116
Whitney, Craig R., 223
Wilhelm II, German emperor, 88, 92,
95-96, 101, 128, 154, 165
Wilson, Henry, 138
Winterich, John T., 199
Winterwood, Geoffrey, 170
Wolff, Christian, Freiherr von, 159
Wood, Charles H., 105
World Millennium Ball, 205, 211
Yanney, Benjamin F., 85
Young, T. E., 139
Zeno, pseud., 138
Zero year, 36, 64, 86-87, 102, 123, 127,
135, 141, 153, 158, 168,
184-185, 192, 214, 227, 229