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The Flat Earth and its Advocates: A List of References

Blakeston, Oswell. England's latter-day flatearthists. (The story of a correspondence.) Life and letters, v. 62, July 1949: 9–24.
   AP4.L416, v. 62

Bramhall, William. Wilbur Glenn Voliva. In his The great American misfit; 26 bizarre personal histories. New York, C. N. Potter [1982] p. 71–73. port.
   CT9990.B7 1982

Carpenter, William. One hundred proofs that the earth is not a globe. [6th ed.] Baltimore, 1885. 39 p.
   QB638.C3 1885a

Cohen, Daniel. Is the earth flat or hollow? Science digest, v. 72, Nov. 1972: 62–66. col. illus.
   Q1.S383, v. 72

Collamore, R. G. S. His pronouncement: a layman's version, a layman's message. Philadelphia, Dorrance [1924] 157 p.

Cook, Frederick H. The terrestrial plane; or, The true figure of the earth. [London, 1908] 64 p.
   Held by the British Library under shelfmark 8563. b. 52.

Davenport, Walter. "They call me a flathead." Collier's, v. 79, May 14, 1927: 30–31. illus., ports.
   AP2.C65, v. 79
   "Wilbur Glenn Voliva, the boss of Zion City, knows the world is flat. He can prove it. He doesn't care what you think or what the newspapers say. He's still doing business at the old stand, and business couldn't be better."

DeFord, Charles S. A reparation: universal gravitation a universal fake. Fairfield, Wash., Ye Galleon Press [1992] 62 p. illus., port.
   QB283.D44 1992
   Reprint of the 3d ed. (New York, Fortean Society, 1931), with a new introduction by Robert J. Schadewald.
   "... an attempt to prove that the world is flat."

Edgell, William. Does the earth rotate? [London? 1927] 69 p. illus., port. NN

Flat city. In Odd and eccentric people. By the editors of Time-Life Books. Alexandria, Va., Time-Life Books [1992] (Library of curious and unusual facts) p. 13–l4. illus., port.
   CT9990.O33 1992
   About Wilbur Glenn Voliva.

Flat earth. New statesman and nation, new ser., v. 9, Jan. 12, 1935: 35–36.
   AP4.N64, s. 2, v. 9
   Signed Y. Y.
   On the views of Henry Edgell, "the most persistent modern advocate of the theory that the earth is flat," who had just died at the age of 73.

Gardner, Martin. Flat and hollow. In his Fads and fallacies in the name of science. [Rev. and expanded ed.] New York, Dover Publications [1957] p. 16–27.
   Q173.G35 1957
   The part of this chapter dealing with flat-earth proponents is about Voliva and the Christian Apostolic Church in Zion, Ill.

Gates, David, and Jennifer Smith. Keeping the flat-earth faith. Newsweek, v. 104, July 2, 1984: 12. port.
   AP2.N6772, v. 104
   On Charles K. Johnson and the International Flat Earth Research Society.

Gleason, Alex. Is the Bible from heaven? Is the earth a globe? 2d ed., rev. and enl. Buffalo, N.Y., Buffalo Electrotype and Engraving Co. [1893] xix, 402 p. illus., map, col. plates, ports.

Goudey, Henry J. Earth not a globe: scientifically, geometrically, philosophically demonstrated. Over 75 arguments and 30 diagrams. Boston, Mass., 1930. 145 p. illus., fold. map.

Gould, Stephen J. The persistently flat earth. Natural history, v. 103, Mar. 1994: 12, 14–19.
   QH1.N13, v. 103
   Investigates the relatively recent origin of the notion that scholars of the Middle Ages, with few exceptions, believed the earth was flat.

Hampden, John. The new manual of biblical cosmography; or, Outline of the general system of the universe. London, Beaumont [1877] 15 p. fold. illus.

The Infidel globe; or, Scientific witchcraft, the emblem of paganism and the refuge of the atheist. [London?] 1884. [4] p.
   YA 22866 Rare Bk. Coll.

Johnson, Gilbert. The book of light, a brief description of the earth, with a map showing its shape. The earth being flat instead of round, the sun is not stationary but moves. Greer, Mo., 1923. 48 p. fold. map.
   QB638.J6 1923
   First published in 1890 (7 p. QB638.J67).

Jones, Charles W. The flat earth. Thought, v. 9, Sept. 1934: 296–307.
   AP2.T333, v. 9
   Finds that educated persons in the Middle Ages knew that the earth is round.

Labbie, Edith. The world is flat. In Those eccentric Yankees. Edited by John Lovell. Introd. by Robert Taylor. Camden, Me., Yankee Books [1991] p. 10–13.
   CT9990.T58 1991
   About Joseph W. Holden (1816–1900) of Otisfield, Me.

Lindsay, Thomas. Astronomical myths—the flat earth. Popular astronomy, v. 6, Sept. 1898: 405–408.
   QB1.P8, v. 6

London. Zetetic Society. Chart and compass, sextant and sundial, latitudes and longitudes, plumbline and pendulum, globe or plane? A letter of remonstrance, respectfully addressed to the officers of the Naval and Mercantile Marine of England and America. [London, 1887] 8 p.
   Held by the British Library under shelfmark c. 19. (9.).

Macht, David I. Science and the Bible. Science, v. 114, Nov. 9, 1951: 505.
   Q1.S35, v. 114
   Letter commenting on Ray's observations on the shape of the earth as implied by Revelation 7:1.

McCready, William D. Isidore, the Antipodeans, and the shape of the earth. Isis, v. 87, Mar. 1996: 108–127. illus.
   Bibliographic footnotes.
   "That the sphericity of the earth was clearly established in the ancient world is beyond dispute. Apparently unknown to the Babylonians or Egyptians, it was a discovery of Greek astronomy and was generally accepted among natural philosophers by the time of Aristotle. It was the received view of educated Romans as well, including Pliny the Elder. Among Christian thinkers, however, its fortunes are not quite so clear. It was not without significance that the ancient Hebrews, whose views were reflected in Scripture, conceived the earth as a flat disk covered over by the dome of the heavens ... [Isidore's] grasp on the spherical nature of the earth was tenuous at best ..."

Michell, John. Loyalists of the flat earth. In his Eccentric lives and peculiar notions. San Diego, Harcourt Brace Jovanovich [1984] p. 21–32. illus., plates, ports.
   CT9990.M5 1984
   References (19): p. 234.
   The plates follow p. 32; no. [2]–[5] relate to the flat-earth supporters.

Moore, Patrick. Better and flatter earths. In his Can you speak Venusian? A guide to the independent thinkers. [Newton Abbot, David & Charles, 1972] p. 16–29. illus.
   QB52.M66 1972

Morse, Charles W. Unpopular truth against popular error in reference to the shape of the earth. Boston, C. J. F. Fletcher, Printer, 1913. 78 p. illus., port.

Proctor, Richard A. A challenge from the earth-flattening society. Knowledge, v. 4, Nov. 30, 1883: 336.
   Q1.K7, v. 4

Proctor, Richard A. The earth-flattener's challenge. Knowledge, v. 4, Dec. 14, 1883: 362.
   Q1.K7, v. 4

Proofs (so-called) of the world's rotundity, examined in the light of facts and common sense, by "Search Truth." [London, Zetetic Society, 1882?] 2 p. illus.
   YA 22774 Rare Bk. Coll.
   "... the world is as God made it, a circular and motionless plane, with the Sun, Moon, and Stars revolving at very moderate distances above it ..."

Quinlan, John E. The earth a plane. London [1906]
   Held by the British Library under shelfmark 8563. b.

Randi, James. Flat Earth Society. In his An encyclopedia of claims, frauds, and hoaxes of the occult and supernatural. James Randi's decidedly skeptical definitions of alternate realities. New York, St. Martin's Press [1995] p. 97–98.
   BF1407.R36 1995

Ray, Cyrus N. The rectangular earth. Science, v. 113, May 25, 1951: 610.
   Q1.S35, v. 113
   Letter calling attention to Revelation 7:1 which suggests that the earth's shape is that of a flat rectangle.

Really, is it flat? Moody Bible Institute monthly, v. 30, Sept. 1929: 6.
   BR1.M6, v. 30

[Rowbotham, Samuel B.] Zetetic astronomy. A description of several experiments which prove that the surface of the sea is a perfect plane, and that the earth is not a globe. Being the substance of a paper read before the Royal Astronomical Society on the evening of Dec. 8, 1848. By ‘Parallax' [pseud.] Birmingham, W. Cornish, 1849. 16 p. illus.

[Rowbotham, Samuel B.] Zetetic astronomy. Earth not a globe. An experimental inquiry into the true figure of the earth, proving it a plane, without orbital or axial motion, and the only known material world; its true position in the universe, comparatively recent formation, present chemical condition, and approaching destruction by fire, &c., &c. By "Parallax" [pseud.] The illus. by George Davey. 3d ed., rev. and enl. London, Day, 1881. 430 p. illus. CaBViP; CtY; ICJ

Russell, Jeffrey B. The flat error: the modern distortion of medieval geography. In Mediaevalia, a journal of medieval studies. v. 15; 1989. Binghamton, Center for Medieval and Early Renaissance Studies of the State University of New York, 1993. p. [337]–353.
   CB351.M38, v. 15
   "I first review the evidence that educated medieval people knew the shape of the planet, go on to show how and why the ‘Flat Error' developed, and end with some suggestions about the precarious nature of historical knowledge."

Schadewald, Robert J. The flat-out truth; earth orbits? Moon landings? A fraud! says this prophet. Science digest, v. 88, July 1980: 58–63. port.
   About Charles K. Johnson, president of the International Flat Earth Research Society.

Schadewald, Robert J. He knew earth is round, but his proof fell flat. Illus. by W. B. Park. Smithsonian, v. 9, Apr. 1978: 101–102, 104, 106–108, 110, 112–113. illus. (part col.)
   AS30.S6, v. 9
   "A renowned English naturalist [Alfred Russel Wallace] seeking to convince a nonbeliever, won argument, lost the money."

Scott, David W. Terra firma: the earth not a planet, proved from scripture, reason, and fact. London, Simpkin, Marshall, Hamilton, Kent, 1901. xvi, 288 p. illus., fold. map.
   CtY; MdBJ

Serland, F. S. Did the older ecclesiastical writers deny the sphericity of the earth? American Catholic quarterly review, v. 43, Apr. 1918: 340–343.
   AP2.A332, v. 43
   Points out "that Venerable Bede in the first half of the eighth century knew and taught the sphericity of the earth" and that this knowledge was not dependent on Islamic learning.

Shippey, Chester M. Answers to the common "proofs" that the earth is a globe. Leaves of healing, v. 66, May 10, 1930: 138–142, 184.
   BX7401.L3, v. 66

Shippey, Chester M. The true shape of the earth. Leaves of healing, v. 66, May 10, 1930: 158–160, 162–166, 168–173, 175.
   BX7401.L3, v. 66

Sifakis, Carl. Voliva, Wilbur Glenn (1870–1942): king of the flat earthers. In his American eccentrics. New York, Facts on File Publications [1984] p. 226–229. port.
   CT9990.S53 1984

Sisk, John P. The view from the edge; on the necessity of the flat earth. Harper's, v. 258, Mar. 1979: 127–129.
   AP2.H3, v. 258
   On the International Flat Earth Research Society.

Smith, Carl Albert. Is the earth a whirling globe? 2d ed., rev. and enl. Northampton [1918] 112 p.
   Held by the British Library under shelfmark 8562. aaa. 35.

Wallace, Alfred Russel. [Hampden and the flat earth] In his My life, a record of events and opinions. v. 2. New York, Dodd, Mead, 1905. p. 381–393. illus.
   QH31.W2A, v. 2

Wallace, Irving. In defense of the square peg. In his The square pegs; some Americans who dared to be different. New York, A. A. Knopf, 1957. p. 3–24.
   Discusses Wilbur Glenn Voliva on p. 3–8.

Where are they now? The flat earthers. Newsweek, v. 73, Jan. 13, 1969: 8. port.
   AP2.N6772, v. 73
   About the International Flat Earth Research Society, then based in Dover, England. The portrait is of Samuel Shenton, the society's general secretary.

White, Andrew D. The form of the earth. In his A history of the warfare of science with theology in Christendom. v. 1. New York, D. Appleton, 1896. p. 89–98.
   BL245.W5, v. 1

White, Arthur V. The shape of the earth; some proofs for the spherical shape of the earth given in astronomical and geographical text-books examined, and shown to be unsound. [Toronto?] University of Toronto Alumni Association, 1909. [12] p. illus.
   Reprinted from the University Monthly, Mar. 1909.

[Winship, Thomas] Zetetic cosmogony; or, Conclusive evidence that the world is not a rotating-revolving-globe, but a stationary plane circle. By Rectangle [pseud.] 2d ed., enl. Durban, Natal, T. L. Cullingworth, 1899. 192 p.
   First published in 1897 (46 p. QB638.W769).

Wise, Carl S. The Bible and the earth's shape. Science, v. 113, Feb. 2, 1951: 128.
   Q1.S35, v. 113
   Declares that "the Bible itself nowhere states that the earth is flat."

Woofson, H. Ossipoff. The flat earth and her moulder. Knowledge, v. 5, Mar. 28–Apr. 4, 1884: 213, 233.
   Q1.K7, v. 5
   The former secretary of the Zetetic Society "promises to show the nature of the deceptions practised by some at least among the advocates of the flat-earth theory."

May 1998

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