Science Reference Guides
The Flat Earth and its Advocates: A List of References
Blakeston, Oswell. England's latter-day flatearthists.
(The story of a correspondence.) Life and letters, v. 62, July
AP4.L416, v. 62
Bramhall, William. Wilbur Glenn Voliva. In his The
great American misfit; 26 bizarre personal histories. New York,
C. N. Potter  p. 7173. port.
Carpenter, William. One hundred proofs that the
earth is not a globe. [6th ed.] Baltimore, 1885. 39 p.
Cohen, Daniel. Is the earth flat or hollow? Science
digest, v. 72, Nov. 1972: 6266. col. illus.
Q1.S383, v. 72
Collamore, R. G. S. His pronouncement: a layman's
version, a layman's message. Philadelphia, Dorrance  157
Cook, Frederick H. The terrestrial plane; or, The
true figure of the earth. [London, 1908] 64 p.
Held by the British Library under shelfmark 8563. b. 52.
Davenport, Walter. "They call me a flathead." Collier's,
v. 79, May 14, 1927: 3031. illus., ports.
AP2.C65, v. 79
"Wilbur Glenn Voliva, the boss of Zion City, knows the world
is flat. He can prove it. He doesn't care what you think or what the newspapers
say. He's still doing business at the old stand, and business couldn't be better."
DeFord, Charles S. A reparation: universal gravitation
a universal fake. Fairfield, Wash., Ye Galleon Press  62
p. illus., port.
Reprint of the 3d ed. (New York, Fortean Society, 1931), with
a new introduction by Robert J. Schadewald.
"... an attempt to prove that the world is flat."
Edgell, William. Does the earth rotate? [London?
1927] 69 p. illus., port. NN
Flat city. In Odd and eccentric people.
By the editors of Time-Life Books. Alexandria, Va., Time-Life Books
 (Library of curious and unusual facts) p. 13l4. illus.,
About Wilbur Glenn Voliva.
Flat earth. New statesman and nation, new ser.,
v. 9, Jan. 12, 1935: 3536.
AP4.N64, s. 2, v. 9
Signed Y. Y.
On the views of Henry Edgell, "the most persistent modern advocate
of the theory that the earth is flat," who had just died at the age of 73.
Gardner, Martin. Flat and hollow. In his Fads
and fallacies in the name of science. [Rev. and expanded ed.] New
York, Dover Publications  p. 1627.
The part of this chapter dealing with flat-earth proponents
is about Voliva and the Christian Apostolic Church in Zion, Ill.
Gates, David, and Jennifer Smith. Keeping the flat-earth
faith. Newsweek, v. 104, July 2, 1984: 12. port.
AP2.N6772, v. 104
On Charles K. Johnson and the International Flat Earth Research
Gleason, Alex. Is the Bible from heaven? Is the
earth a globe? 2d ed., rev. and enl. Buffalo, N.Y., Buffalo Electrotype
and Engraving Co.  xix, 402 p. illus., map, col. plates,
Goudey, Henry J. Earth not a globe: scientifically,
geometrically, philosophically demonstrated. Over 75 arguments
and 30 diagrams. Boston, Mass., 1930. 145 p. illus., fold. map.
Gould, Stephen J. The persistently flat earth.
Natural history, v. 103, Mar. 1994: 12, 1419.
QH1.N13, v. 103
Investigates the relatively recent origin of the notion that
scholars of the Middle Ages, with few exceptions, believed the earth was flat.
Hampden, John. The new manual of biblical cosmography;
or, Outline of the general system of the universe. London, Beaumont
 15 p. fold. illus.
The Infidel globe; or, Scientific witchcraft, the
emblem of paganism and the refuge of the atheist. [London?] 1884.
YA 22866 Rare Bk. Coll.
Johnson, Gilbert. The book of light, a brief description
of the earth, with a map showing its shape. The earth being flat
instead of round, the sun is not stationary but moves. Greer, Mo.,
1923. 48 p. fold. map.
First published in 1890 (7 p. QB638.J67).
Jones, Charles W. The flat earth. Thought, v. 9,
Sept. 1934: 296307.
AP2.T333, v. 9
Finds that educated persons in the Middle Ages knew that the
earth is round.
Labbie, Edith. The world is flat. In Those
eccentric Yankees. Edited by John Lovell. Introd. by Robert Taylor.
Camden, Me., Yankee Books  p. 1013.
About Joseph W. Holden (18161900) of Otisfield, Me.
Lindsay, Thomas. Astronomical mythsthe flat earth.
Popular astronomy, v. 6, Sept. 1898: 405408.
QB1.P8, v. 6
London. Zetetic Society. Chart and compass, sextant
and sundial, latitudes and longitudes, plumbline and pendulum,
globe or plane? A letter of remonstrance, respectfully addressed
to the officers of the Naval and Mercantile Marine of England and
America. [London, 1887] 8 p.
Held by the British Library under shelfmark c. 19. (9.).
Macht, David I. Science and the Bible. Science,
v. 114, Nov. 9, 1951: 505.
Q1.S35, v. 114
Letter commenting on Ray's observations on the shape of the
earth as implied by Revelation 7:1.
McCready, William D. Isidore, the Antipodeans,
and the shape of the earth. Isis, v. 87, Mar. 1996: 108127. illus.
"That the sphericity of the earth was clearly established in
the ancient world is beyond dispute. Apparently unknown to the Babylonians or
Egyptians, it was a discovery of Greek astronomy and was generally accepted among
natural philosophers by the time of Aristotle. It was the received view of educated
Romans as well, including Pliny the Elder. Among Christian thinkers, however,
its fortunes are not quite so clear. It was not without significance that the
ancient Hebrews, whose views were reflected in Scripture, conceived the earth
as a flat disk covered over by the dome of the heavens ... [Isidore's] grasp
on the spherical nature of the earth was tenuous at best ..."
Michell, John. Loyalists of the flat earth. In
his Eccentric lives and peculiar notions. San Diego, Harcourt
Brace Jovanovich  p. 2132. illus., plates, ports.
References (19): p. 234.
The plates follow p. 32; no.  relate to the flat-earth
Moore, Patrick. Better and flatter earths. In
his Can you speak Venusian? A guide to the independent thinkers.
[Newton Abbot, David & Charles, 1972] p. 1629. illus.
Morse, Charles W. Unpopular truth against popular
error in reference to the shape of the earth. Boston, C. J. F.
Fletcher, Printer, 1913. 78 p. illus., port.
Proctor, Richard A. A challenge from the earth-flattening
society. Knowledge, v. 4, Nov. 30, 1883: 336.
Q1.K7, v. 4
Proctor, Richard A. The earth-flattener's challenge.
Knowledge, v. 4, Dec. 14, 1883: 362.
Q1.K7, v. 4
Proofs (so-called) of the world's rotundity, examined
in the light of facts and common sense, by "Search Truth." [London,
Zetetic Society, 1882?] 2 p. illus.
YA 22774 Rare Bk. Coll.
"... the world is as God made it, a circular and motionless
plane, with the Sun, Moon, and Stars revolving at very moderate distances above
Quinlan, John E. The earth a plane. London 
Held by the British Library under shelfmark 8563. b.
Randi, James. Flat Earth Society. In his An
encyclopedia of claims, frauds, and hoaxes of the occult and supernatural.
James Randi's decidedly skeptical definitions of alternate realities.
New York, St. Martin's Press  p. 9798.
Ray, Cyrus N. The rectangular earth. Science, v.
113, May 25, 1951: 610.
Q1.S35, v. 113
Letter calling attention to Revelation 7:1 which suggests that
the earth's shape is that of a flat rectangle.
Really, is it flat? Moody Bible Institute monthly,
v. 30, Sept. 1929: 6.
BR1.M6, v. 30
[Rowbotham, Samuel B.] Zetetic astronomy. A description
of several experiments which prove that the surface of the sea
is a perfect plane, and that the earth is not a globe. Being the
substance of a paper read before the Royal Astronomical Society
on the evening of Dec. 8, 1848. By Parallax' [pseud.] Birmingham,
W. Cornish, 1849. 16 p. illus.
[Rowbotham, Samuel B.] Zetetic astronomy. Earth
not a globe. An experimental inquiry into the true figure of the
earth, proving it a plane, without orbital or axial motion, and
the only known material world; its true position in the universe,
comparatively recent formation, present chemical condition, and
approaching destruction by fire, &c., &c. By "Parallax" [pseud.]
The illus. by George Davey. 3d ed., rev. and enl. London, Day,
1881. 430 p. illus. CaBViP; CtY; ICJ
Russell, Jeffrey B. The flat error: the modern
distortion of medieval geography. In Mediaevalia, a journal of
medieval studies. v. 15; 1989. Binghamton, Center for Medieval
and Early Renaissance Studies of the State University of New York,
1993. p. 353.
CB351.M38, v. 15
"I first review the evidence that educated medieval people
knew the shape of the planet, go on to show how and why the Flat Error' developed,
and end with some suggestions about the precarious nature of historical knowledge."
Schadewald, Robert J. The flat-out truth; earth
orbits? Moon landings? A fraud! says this prophet. Science digest,
v. 88, July 1980: 5863. port.
About Charles K. Johnson, president of the International Flat
Earth Research Society.
Schadewald, Robert J. He knew earth is round, but
his proof fell flat. Illus. by W. B. Park. Smithsonian, v. 9, Apr.
1978: 101102, 104, 106108, 110, 112113. illus. (part col.)
AS30.S6, v. 9
"A renowned English naturalist [Alfred Russel Wallace] seeking
to convince a nonbeliever, won argument, lost the money."
Scott, David W. Terra firma: the earth not a planet,
proved from scripture, reason, and fact. London, Simpkin, Marshall,
Hamilton, Kent, 1901. xvi, 288 p. illus., fold. map.
Serland, F. S. Did the older ecclesiastical writers
deny the sphericity of the earth? American Catholic quarterly review,
v. 43, Apr. 1918: 340343.
AP2.A332, v. 43
Points out "that Venerable Bede in the first half of the eighth
century knew and taught the sphericity of the earth" and that this knowledge
was not dependent on Islamic learning.
Shippey, Chester M. Answers to the common "proofs" that
the earth is a globe. Leaves of healing, v. 66, May 10, 1930: 138142,
BX7401.L3, v. 66
Shippey, Chester M. The true shape of the earth.
Leaves of healing, v. 66, May 10, 1930: 158160, 162166, 168173,
BX7401.L3, v. 66
Sifakis, Carl. Voliva, Wilbur Glenn (18701942):
king of the flat earthers. In his American eccentrics. New
York, Facts on File Publications  p. 226229. port.
Sisk, John P. The view from the edge; on the necessity
of the flat earth. Harper's, v. 258, Mar. 1979: 127129.
AP2.H3, v. 258
On the International Flat Earth Research Society.
Smith, Carl Albert. Is the earth a whirling globe?
2d ed., rev. and enl. Northampton  112 p.
Held by the British Library under shelfmark 8562. aaa. 35.
Wallace, Alfred Russel. [Hampden and the flat earth] In
his My life, a record of events and opinions. v. 2. New York,
Dodd, Mead, 1905. p. 381393. illus.
QH31.W2A, v. 2
Wallace, Irving. In defense of the square peg. In
his The square pegs; some Americans who dared to be different.
New York, A. A. Knopf, 1957. p. 324.
Discusses Wilbur Glenn Voliva on p. 38.
Where are they now? The flat earthers. Newsweek,
v. 73, Jan. 13, 1969: 8. port.
AP2.N6772, v. 73
About the International Flat Earth Research Society, then based
in Dover, England. The portrait is of Samuel Shenton, the society's general secretary.
White, Andrew D. The form of the earth. In his A
history of the warfare of science with theology in Christendom.
v. 1. New York, D. Appleton, 1896. p. 8998.
BL245.W5, v. 1
White, Arthur V. The shape of the earth; some proofs
for the spherical shape of the earth given in astronomical and
geographical text-books examined, and shown to be unsound. [Toronto?]
University of Toronto Alumni Association, 1909.  p. illus.
Reprinted from the University Monthly, Mar. 1909.
[Winship, Thomas] Zetetic cosmogony; or, Conclusive
evidence that the world is not a rotating-revolving-globe, but
a stationary plane circle. By Rectangle [pseud.] 2d ed., enl. Durban,
Natal, T. L. Cullingworth, 1899. 192 p.
First published in 1897 (46 p. QB638.W769).
Wise, Carl S. The Bible and the earth's shape.
Science, v. 113, Feb. 2, 1951: 128.
Q1.S35, v. 113
Declares that "the Bible itself nowhere states that the earth
Woofson, H. Ossipoff. The flat earth and her moulder.
Knowledge, v. 5, Mar. 28Apr. 4, 1884: 213, 233.
Q1.K7, v. 5
The former secretary of the Zetetic Society "promises to show
the nature of the deceptions practised by some at least among the advocates of
the flat-earth theory."