Audio Engineering Society.
, July/August 2001. Supplementary journal material. (Supplement devoted to archiving, restoration, and digital libraries.)
Carrier degradation, metadata, information retrieval, mass storage, restoration, and data migration are introduced and explained in this AES supplement. Articles by Elizabeth Cohen, Richard Hess, Mickey Hart, Henry Gladney, and James Fleming are featured.
Indiana University. “Meeting the Challenge of Media Preservation: Strategies and Solutions,” 2011.
(PDF, 12 KB)
International Association of Sound and Audiovisual Archives, Task Force on Selection. Selection Criteria for the Transfer for Preservation Purposes of Analogue and Digital Audio Content to Data Formats
. International Association of Sound and Audiovisual Archives, 2004.
The technical aspects of sound collections are defined in this IASA pamphlet to help archivists prioritize their collections for digitization. Considerations for broadcast and research archives are explained as well as the criteria used by national archives.
International Association of Sound Archives. The Safeguarding of the Audio Heritage: Ethics, Principles and Preservation Strategy
. International Association of Sound and Audiovisual Archives,
December 2005. http://www.iasa-web.org/downloads/publications/TC03_English.pdf
(PDF, 125 KB).
The IASA Technical Committee addresses the ethical consequences of preserving sound recordings within the framework of today’s technology. The importance of cooperation and the need for keeping employees current in the field are emphasized.
International Association of Sound and Audiovisual Archives. Guidelines on the Production and Preservation of Digital Audio Objects: Standards, Recommended Practices, and Strategies
, second edition. Auckland Park, South Africa: International Association of Sound and Audiovisual Archives, IASA-TC04, 2009.
This is an essential book for all sound archives planning a digitization project. The manual has information for preservation managers, reformatting technicians, and others involved with the process. Standards are clearly stated and explained.
Library of Congress. Cylinder, Disc & Tape Care in a Nutshell.http://www.loc.gov/preservation/care/record.html
Linehan, Andy, ed. Aural History: Essays on Recorded Sound
. London: British Library, 2001.
The proceedings from the 32nd International Association of Sound and Audiovisual Archives conference, held jointly with the Association of Recorded Sound Collections, cover reports on the British National Sound Archives and The Century Speaks, a BBC Oral History project. Papers on forensic evidence in recordings and natural sounds are also included.
Nelson-Strauss, Brenda. “Preservation Policies and Priorities for Recorded Sound Collections.” Notes: Quarterly Journal of the Music Library Association
(Vol. 48, No. 2), 1991.
If a preservation plan for sound collections is to be created, priorities must be established. Nelson-Strauss guides preservation administrators through the process will well-defined priorities.
PRESTO – Preservation Technologies for European Broadcast Archives. “Key Links Systems Specification Document,” June 2001. http://presto.joanneum.at/Public/D32.pdf
(PDF, 1 MB).
The Preservation Technologies for European Broadcast Archives web portal provides documents in a straightforward manner for those who are familiar with the concepts but lack technical expertise.
Schüller, Dietrich. “Ethics of Preservation, Restoration, and Reissue of Historical Sound Recordings,” Journal of the Audio Engineering Society (Vol. 39, No. 12), December 1991.
Schüller, Dietrich. “Preserving the Facts for the Future: Principles and Practices for the Transfer of Analog Audio Documents into the Digital Domain,” Journal of the Audio Engineering Society
(Vol. 49, Nos. 7/8), July/August 2001.
Schüller’s articles outline and emphasize special needs with regard to the transfer of analog sound collections to the digital domain. His advice applies to archivists and engineers alike.
Seeger, Anthony, and Shubha Chaudhuri. “Archives for the Future: Global Perspectives for the 21st Century.” India: Seagull, 2001. http://www.seagullindia.com/archive/download.html
These proceedings of a 2001 Ford Foundation–supported meeting, organized by the Archives and Research Centre for Ethnomusicology, are a unique mix addressing the challenges, objectives, ethics, and restoration of collections from around the world. Mock debates at the end of the proceedings reveal the different needs of archivists, administrators, artists, and researchers.
Smith, Abby, David Randal Allen, and Karen Allen. Survey of the State of Audio Collections in Academic Libraries.
Washington, D.C.: Council on Library and Information Resources,
August 2004. http://www.clir.org/PUBS/reports/pub128/contents.html
This survey of academic collections has valuable information for decision makers planning for the preservation of audio collections. As the authors state, “the survey was designed to raise awareness within the larger research and funding communities of the value of audio collections and to encourage institutions with important audio holdings to seek support for their collections.”
TAPE: Training for Audiovisual Preservation in Europe, 2010. http://www.tape-online.net/
TAPE’s website provides a portal for all audiovisual archivists. TAPE publications include guidelines for preservation of research collections and workflows, while the website’s “links to literature” connect users to information about formats, preservation management, ethics, and storage of digital files.
Wilson, Andrew, Richard Wright, Malcolm Polfreman, Sheila Tanner, and Emma Beer.
“Arts and Humanities Data Service Digital Moving Images and Sound (AHDS) Archiving Study.” AHDS, 2007. http://www.ahds.ac.uk/about/projects/archiving-studies/moving-images-sound-archiving-final.pdf
(PDF, 487 KB).
Gives an overview of current research, initiatives, and issues concerning the preservation of digital sound. Serving as a guide to file formats, metadata standards, and organizational models for recorded sound, this report includes references and useful papers.
Wright, Richard. “Annual Report on Preservation for European Audiovisual Collections 2008.” PrestoSpace.
This annual report shows the status of audiovisual collections across the EC, relays current practices, and has predictions for life after PrestoSpace.
Wright, Richard, and Adrian Williams. “Archive Preservation and Exploitation Requirements.” PRESTO – Preservation Technologies for European Archives, 2001.
(PDF 445 KB).
A recent survey revealed that European broadcast archives contained 20 million hours of audio. PRESTO uses the results of this survey to develop cost-effective strategies for the preservation of recordings.
Wright, Richard. “The Broadcast Wave Format,” IASA Journal
(Vol. 17), June 2001.
The Broadcast Wave Format is emerging as the best standard for archiving digital recordings. This is an introduction to the format.
Zwaneveld, E. H. Archivists Need Input in Audio-Video Standards. New York: Electronic Engineering Times, 2000.
Zwaneveld, E.H. “Preservation Reformatting??? Audiovisual Standards and Beyond.” Paper presented at U.S. National Archives and Records Administration, 18th Annual Preservation Conference, Washington, DC, March 27, 2003.
Zwanevald gives his perspective on standards for audio and video material. All aspects and applications are explored.
Sound Archives: Organization and Management
Bucknum, Mary Russell. “Sound Archives in the United States.” Fontes Artis Musica
(Vol. 48, No. 4), October-December 2001: 381-390.
Bucknum provides an excellent overview and introduction to the inner workings of sound archives. The topics are presented in a clear concise form and cover collection development, cataloging, access, preservation and the storage of files.
Farrington, Jim. "Preventive Maintenance for Audio Discs and Tapes." Notes: Quarterly Journal of the Music Library Association
(Vol. 48, No. 2), December 1991: 437-445.
Farrington, Jim. Audio and Video Equipment Basics for Libraries.Lanham, MD: Scarecow Press, 2006.
Griscom, Richard ed. Music Librarianship at the Turn of the Century. Lanham, MD: Scarecrow Press, Inc., 2000.
Harrison, H.P. (ed). Audiovisual Archives: A Practical Reader
. Paris: General Information Programme and United Nations International Scientific Information System, United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization, 1997. http://www.unesco.org/webworld/ramp/html/r9704e/r9704e00.htm
All facets of the management of AV archives are described from legal issues, ethical issues, collection development and management, oral history, documentation, storage, handling, technical preservation, equipment, disaster recovery to the education of AV professionals. Each chapter is written by a different subject specialist. The articles on education are listed in the appropriate section of this bibliography.
Lance, David ed. Sound Archives: A Guide to Their Establishment and Development
. International Association of Sound Archives, 1983.
The organization of sound archives is covered from the planning stages to providing access to the public. Expert authors provide useful forms from their archives in each chapter of this IASA publication.
Schüller, Dietrich. “
Sound Recordings: Problems of Preservation.” In Managing Preservation for Libraries and Archives: Current Practices and Future Development ,
edited by John Feather. London: Ashgate Publishing Ltd., 2004.
Schüller’s chapter is a great introduction to the field for preservation administrators and managers. Schüller takes the reader through a wide array of topics ranging from the differences in mechanical carriers to Digital Mass Storage Systems.
Society for Ethnomusicology. A Manual for Documentation Fieldwork & Preservation for Ethnomusicologists.
Bloomington, IN: Society for Ethnomusicology, Inc., 1994.
This manual of checklists and procedures provides a framework for ethnomusicologists to manage their projects from the planning stages to the deposit of recordings in archives. Forms are provided to document and to cover the legal and ethical aspects of projects.
Material Science and Media Stability
Adelstein, Peter Z. “International Standards on Preservation of Information Recording Materials.” JTS 2004 Preserving the AudioVisual Heritage-–Transition and Access.
Toronto: Joint Technical Symposium, Unesco, 2004.
Bradshaw R., and C. Schroeder. “Fifty Years of IBM Innovation with Information on
Magnetic Tape.” IBM Journal of Research and Development, July 2003.
Hinterhofer, Otto, Konrad Binder, Leopold Krenner and Dietrich Schüller. “The Chemical Deterioration of Magnetic Tape and its Assessment by Physical and Chemical Testing”. The Proceedings of AES 104th Convention. AES. New York: Audio Engineering Society, May 1998.
Media Stability Studies. “Resources for Archivists, Records Managers, and Individuals Responsible for Storing Information,” National Media Lab, 2004.
Pickett, A. G. and M.M. Lemcoe. “Preservation and Storage of Sound Recordings.” Washington, D.C: Library of Congress, 1959. Reprint, Association of Recorded Sound Collections, 1994.
Porck, Henk J. and Rene Teygeler. “Preservation Science Survey: An Overview of Recent Developments in Research on the Conservation of Selected Analog Library and Archival Materials.” Council on Library and Information Resources, December 2000.
Vos, Martin, Gary Ashton, John Van Bogart and Ron Ensminger, eds. “Heat & Moisture Diffusion in Magnetic Tape Packs.” National Media Labs, March 1994.
Collection Assessment Tools for Audio Collections
This project was designed to develop a strategic methodology to assess the condition of a collection based on visual and playback inspection. The tool based on MS Access guides practitioners through the survey process. Funded by the Andrew W. Mellon Foundation.
The Field Audio Collection Evaluation Tool (FACET), part of the Sound Directions project, is an open-source software device designed to aid in the prioritization of audio collections. Information is provided to gather information on the following formats: wire recordings, lacquer discs, digital audiotape, aluminum discs, reel-to-reels (polyester, acetate, paper and PVC based) and audiocassette tapes.
Survey Instrument for Audio and Moving Image Collections
This survey instrument takes archivists through a step-by-step process to assess the condition of their collections. By fine-tuning fields in a relational database, collections can be prioritized for digitization projects. An instruction manual is included. Funded by the Andrew W. Mellon Foundation.
Gracy, Karen and Jean Ann Croft. “Quo Vadis, Preservation Education?
A Study of Current Trends and Future Needs in Continuing Education Programs.” Library Resources and Technical Services
(Vol. 51, No. 2), April 2007. http://www.sis.pitt.edu/~kgracy/Quo_Vadis_pt1.pdf
(PDF, 207 KB).
Harrison, Helen P. Audiovisual Archives: A Practical Reader
. Paris: UNESCO, March 1997. http://www.unesco.org/webworld/ramp/html/r9704e/r9704e00.htm
Klaue, Wolfgang. “New Media Requires Specialized Archivists.” Harrison 13.1
Curriculum Development Working Party. “Training Needs of AV Archivists.” Harrison 13.2
Curriculum Development Working Party. “Organization and Harmonization of Education Programmes.” Harrison 13.3
Curriculum Development Working Party. “Recommended Standards for Training.” Harrison 13.4.
Technical Co-ordinating Committee. “Curriculum Development for Archive Technicians.” Harrison 13.5.
Harrison, Helen P. “Training for AudioVisual Archivists.” Harrison 13.6.
Kenney, Anne R., and Deirdre C. Stam. The State of Preservation Programs in American College and Research Libraries: Building a Common Understanding and Action Agenda
. Council on Library and Information Resources, 2002. http://www.clir.org/pubs/reports/pub111/introsum.html
Appraisal, Cataloging and Collection Policies
Association of Recorded Sound Collections. “Rules for Archival Cataloging of Sound Recordings.” ARSC, 1997.
The AAA states that virtually every detail of cataloging historic sound recordings was examined in the preparation of this volume. The authors concluded that the final set of rules (based on AACRII) needs to be compatible with existing systems currently in use in sound archives.
Baldwin, David. “Toward an Appraisal Model for Audio Materials in Regional
Archives & Historical Societies.” ARSC Journal (Vo. 35, No. 2), Fall 2004: 179–196.
Technical – Audio Engineering
Audio Engineering Society. “The Proceedings of the AES 20th International Conference: Archiving, Restoration and New Methods of Recording, Budapest, Hungary.” New York: AES, 2001. http://www.aes.org/publications/conferences/
The AES proceedings of their conference devoted to archiving and restoration of audio recordings is crucial for all audio preservation libraries. The topics of carrier degradation, metadata and files, broadcasting systems, mass transfer and restoration are covered in depth.
Bradley, Kevin, ed. “IASA TC-04 Second Edition.
Guidelines on the Production and Preservation of Digital Audio Objects.” South Africa: International Association of Sound and Audiovisual Archives-IASA Technical Committee 4, 2009.
The IASA TC-04 is, perhaps, the one essential book for all sound archives planning a digitization project. This manual has information for preservation managers, reformatting technicians and all others involved with the process. Standards are clearly stated and explained in this volume.
Brock-Nannestad, George. More than Sound.Proceedings of the 118th Convention, Barcelona, Spain: May 2005.
Stotzer, Sylvain, Ottar Johnsen, Frederic Baptz, and Rolf Ingold. "Groove Extraction of Phonographic Records." In Document Analysis Systems VII: 7th International Workshop, DAS 2006, Nelson, New Zealand, February 13-15, 2006, Proceedings edited by Horst Bunke, A. Lawrence Spitz. New York: Springer, 2006.
Hans, Nicolas, and Johan de Koster. Taking Care of Tomorrow Before it is Too Late: A Pragmatic Archiving Strategy. Proceedings of the 116th AES Convention, Berlin, Germany, May 2004.
Harada, Noboru, Takehire Moriya, and Yutaka, Kamamoto. An Audio Archiving Format Based on MPEG-4 Audio Lossless Coding. Proceedings of the 121st Convention, San Francisco, CA: October 2006.
Hess, Richard L., Tape Degradation Factors and Predicting Tape Life. AES Conference Proceedings, 2007.
Katz, Bob. “Mastering Audio: The Art and the Science.” Oxford: Focal Press, 2002.
Martin, Geoff. “Introduction to Sound Recording.” http://www.tonmeister.ca/main/textbook/index.html
Martin’s on-line version allows readers to click on words for a definition of a word or concept. “Introduction to Sound Recording” is a complete text and is updated annually.
Moylan, William. Understanding and Crafting the Mix: The Art of Recording. Oxford: Focal Press, 2007.
National Recording Preservation Board, Library of Congress. “Capturing Analog Sound for Digital Preservation: Report of a Roundtable Discussion of Best Practices for Transferring Analog Discs and Tapes.” Council on Library and Information Resources, March 2006. http://www.clir.org/pubs/reports/pub137/contents.html
Pohlmann, Ken C. Principles of Digital Audio, 4th ed. New York: McGraw Hill, 2000.
Pohlmann, Ken C. Measurement and Evaluation of Analog-to-Digital Converters used in the Long-Term Preservation of Audio Recordings.
Paper written for the roundtable discussion convened by the Library of Congress and Council on Library and Information Resources on behalf of the National Recording Preservation Board, Washington, DC: March 10-11, 2006. http://www.clir.org/activities/details/AD-Converters-Pohlmann.pdf
(PDF, 257 KB).
A to D converters are the most important link in the audio reformatting chain. This publication explains attributes required to obtain the best quality when reformatting recordings.
Pymm, Bob. Digital Materials in Archives. The Digital Dawn: AV Archiving in Transition, 9th SEAPAVAA Conference & General Assembly, May 2-6, 2005.
Slattery, O. , R. Lu., J. Zheng, F.R. Byers and X. Tang. “Stability Comparison of Recordable Optical Discs: A Study of Error Rates in Harsh Conditions.” Journal of Research of the National Institute of Standards and Technology." Gaithersburg, MD: National Institute of Standards and Technology (Vol. 109, No. 5), 2004.
Preservation of Archival Materials: General texts with chapters on audio Materials
Gorman, G.E., and Sydney J. Shep. Preservation Management for Libraries, Archives and Museums.
London: Facet Publishing, 2006.
Bob Pymm’s chapter, Preservation of Audiovisual Media: Traditional to Interactive Formats highlights the distinction between passive preservation (correct storage) and active preservation (digitizing) based on many recent articles. Supported with several pages of references, this chapter provides excellent information for archives planning for the preservation of their audio material.
Feather, John. Managing Preservation for Libraries and Archives: Current Practice and Future Developments
. Farham, UK: Ashgate Publishing, Ltd., 2004.
Dietrich Schuller’s chapter, Sound Recordings Problems of Preservation outlines the history, physical characteristics and problems of cylinders, course groove discs, instantaneous discs, vinyl, magnetic tape and optical discs. Schuller urges: “Audio preservation has become a specialist discipline which is faced with new problems and insights. Readers are, therefore, encouraged to take this chapter just as general introduction and to seek expert advice for their specific preservation problems, especially if unique heritage material has to be safeguarded.”
Harvey, Ross. Preserving Digital Materials
. Munich: K.G. Saur, 2006.
The critical “selection for preservation” decision is well covered with many references from preservation initiatives and collaborations. Illustrated with a case study from the National Sound and Film Archive, this volume provides updated information and explores preservation from the extent of the “preservation problems” to solutions.
Conference Proceedings (expanded by chapter)
Aubert, M., and R. Billeaud. Image and Sound Archiving and Access, The Challenges of the 3rd Millennium: Proceedings of the Joint Technical Symposium. Centre National de la Cinématographie, Paris, 2000.
Audio Engineering Society. “The Proceedings of the AES 20th International Conference: Archiving, Restoration and New Methods of Recording, Budapest, Hungary.” New York: AES, 2001. http://www.aes.org/publications/conferences/
Schüller, Dietrich. “Life Expectancy Testing of Magnetic Tapes – A Key to a Successful Strategy in Audio and Video Preservation.” AES 11–14.
Psohlavec, Stanislav. “Practical Experience with Long-Term CD-R Archiving.” AES 15–17.
Kunej, Drago. “Instability and Vulnerability of CD-R Carriersto Sunlight.” AES 18–25.
Herla, Siegbert. “Metadata – the Basis of Asset Management.” AES 47–54.
Petäjä, Markku; Jouni Frilander, Pekka Gronow, Antti Järvinen. “Digital Audio Archiving in Public Broadcasting.” AES 71–82.
Houpert, Jörg. “Optimized Workstation for the Transfer of Large Collections.” AES 120–128.
Musialik, Christoph M.; Ulrich Hatje, Jean-Christophe Kummer and Peter Kuhnle. “An Integrated Solution for Digitization, Archiving, and Restoration of Large Audio Collections.” AES 129–137.
Cavaglieri, Stephano S.; Ottar Johnson, and Frédéric Bapst. “Optimal Retrieval and Storage of Analog Sound Recordings.” AES 151–156.
Brock-Nannestad, George. “The Attraction of Optical Replay of Mechanical Recordings.” AES 157–161.
Czyzewski, Andrzej. “The Internet Sound Restoration Service Based on the Perceptual Denoising Method.” AES 162–167.
Lechleitner, Frans; Bernard Berg, Markus Dorfer and Heinrich Pichler. “Reduction of Modulation Noise in Analog Full Track Recording using Multitrack Replay Techniques.” AES 171–174.
Audio Engineering Society. “The Proceedings of the AES 26th International Conference: Audio Forensics in the Digital Age,” AES, Denver, Colorado, July 7-9, 2005.
Audio Engineering Society. “The Proceedings of the AES 25th International Conference: Metadata for Audio, London,” AES, June 17-19, 2004.
Conservation Center for Art and Historic Artifacts. “A Race Against Time: Preserving Our Audiovisual Media.” Philadelphia: CCAHA, November 14, 2005.
Harrison, H.P. (ed). “Audiovisual Archives: A Practical Reader.” Paris: UNESCO, March 1997. http://www.unesco.org/webworld/ramp/html/r9704e/r9704e00.htm
Edmondson, Ray. “Nature of the AV Media,” Harrison 1.2.
Edmondson, Ray. “Worldwide and Paradigm of AV Archiving,” Harrison 1.3
Klaue, Wolfgang. “Audiovisual Records as Archival Material,” Harrison 1.4
Curriculum Development Party 1990. “General Principles of Audiovisual Archiving,” Harrison 1.5
Koch, Grace. “A Typology of Media Archives,” Harrison 1.6
Edmonndson, Ray et al. “The AV Archive: Definition and Typology,” 1.7.
Kofler, Birgit. “Legal Issues Facing Audiovisual Archives,” Harrison 1.8
Pinion, Catherine F. “Legal Issues in AVArchives An Introduction, Harrison 1.9
Edmondson, Ray. “Ethics,” Harrison 1.12
Boston, George. “Ethics and New Technology,” Harrison 1.13
Schuursma, Rolf. “Approaches to the National Organization of Sound Archives,” Harrison 2.1
Kula, Sam. “History and Organization of Moving Image Archives,” Harrison 2.2
Harrison, Helen P. “Records Management in Sound Archives,” Harrison 2.3
Hartford, Anne. “Guidelines for Establishing and Maintaining Television Programme Archives,” Harrison 2.4
Lance, David. “Oral History,” Harrison 3.1
Mazikana, Peter and William Moss. “Introduction: Oral Tradition and Oral History,” Harrison 3.2
Harrison, Helen P. “Archival Appraisal,” Harrison 4.1
Harrison, Helen P.. “Selection and Audiovisual collections,” Harrison 4.2
McMullen, Mary. “IASA Cataloguing for Audio-Visual Media Cataloging and Documentation Committee Publication Project,” Harrison 5.3
Harrison, Helen, P. “ Intellectual Control, 5.4
Harrison, Helen, P. “Towards Standards for AudioVisual Materials,” Harrison 5.5
Hubert, Rainer. “The Cataloguing of AV-Media,” 5.6
St. Laurent, Gilles et al. “The Care of Grooved Records,” Harrison 7.2
Gibson, Gerald D. “Magnetic Tape Deterioration: Recognition, Recovery and Prevention,” 7.3
Schüller, Dietrich. “Preservation of Audio and Video Material in Tropical countries,” Harrison 7.5
Schüller, Dietrich. “Data density versus data security: formats suitable for archival purposes,” Harrison 7.6
Schüller, Dietrich. “Strategies for the Safeguarding of Audio and Video materials in the Long Term,” Harrison 7.7
Schüller, Dietrich, Lloyd Stickells and William Storm. “Guide to Technical Equipment: Audio Archives,” Harrison 8.3
Doesburg, Cor L. “Costs of Storage in Sound Archives,” Harrison 10.1
Gibson, Gerald D. “Emergency Preparedness and Disaster Recovery in AudioVisual Collections,” Harrison 12.1
Klaue, Wolfgang. “New Media Requires Specialized Archivists,” Harrison 13.1
Curriculum Development Working Party. “Training Needs of AV Archivists,” Harrison 13.2
Curriculum Development Working Party. “Organization and Harmonization of Education Programmes,” Harrison 13.3
Curriculum Development Working Party. “Recommended Standards for Training,” Harrison 13.4.
Technical Co-ordinating Committee. “Curriculum Development for Archive Technicians,” Harrison 13.5.
Harrison, Helen P. “Training for AudioVisual Archivists,” Harrison 13.6.
Orbanz, Eva. Archiving the Audio-Visual Heritage: A Joint Technical Symposium, May 20–22, 1987.
Unlocking Audio: Sharing Experience of Mass Digitization, 2007.
Association of Research Librarians. Code of Best Practices in Fair Use for Academic and Research Libraries
. Washington, DC: Association of Research Libraries; Center for Social Media, School of Communication, American University; Program on Information Justice and Intellectural Property, Washington College of Law, American University, January 2012. http://www.centerforsocialmedia.org/libraries.
Besek, June M. Copyright Issues Relevant to Digital Preservation and Dissemination of Pre-1972 Commercial Sound Recordings by Libraries and Archives
. Washington, DC: Council on Library and Information Resources and Library of Congress, December 2005. http://www.clir.org/PUBS/reports/pub135/contents.html.
Besek, June M. Copyright and Related Issues Relevant to Digital Preservation and andDissemination of Unpublished Pre-1972 Sound Recordings by Libraries and Archives
. Council on Library and Information Resources and Library of Congress, March 2009. http://www.clir.org/pubs/abstract/pub144abst.html
Jaszi, Peter and Nick Lewis. Protection for Pre-1972 Sound Recordings under State Law and Its Impact on Use by Nonprofit Institutions: A 10-State Analysis
. Council on Library and Information Resources and Library of Congress, December 2005. http://www.clir.org/pubs/abstract/pub146abst.html
Prepared by the Program on Information Justice and Intellectual Property, Washington College of Law, American University Under the supervision of Peter Jaszi with the assistance of Nick Lewis.
Music Library Association. MLA: Copyright for Music Librarians. http://copyright.musiclibraryassoc.org/
This resource from the Music Library Association outlines general copyright provisions, preservation, performance rights, as well as issues for composers and authors for AV materials in music libraries.
University of Texas. “Crash Course in Copyright.”
The University of Texas developed a crash course that outlines and helps to steer
the reader through tough copyright dilemmas. This interactive site addresses fair use copyright management and licensing.
Brooks, Tim. Lost Sounds: Blacks and the Birth of The Recording Industry, 1890-1919. Urbana, IL: University of Illinois Press, 2004.
Chanan, Michael. Repeated Takes: A Short History of Recording and Its Effects on Music. New York: Verso, 1995.
Day, Timothy. A Century of Recorded Music: Listening to Musical History. New Haven, CT and London: Yale University Press, 2000.
Daniel, Eric D., C. Denis Mee, and Mark H. Clark, eds. Magnetic Recording: The First 100 Years. New York: IEEE Press, 1999.
Doyle, Peter. Echo and Reverb: Fabricating Space in Popular Music Recording, 1900-1960. Middletown, CT: Wesleyan University Press, 2005.
Eisenberg, Evan. The Recording Angel: Explorations in Phonography. New York: McGraw-Hill, 1987.
Frith, Simon, ed. Popular Music: Critical Concepts in Media and Cultural Studies. London: Routledge, 2004.
Gronow, Pekka, and Ilpo Saunio. An International History of the Recording Industry. London: Cassell, 1998.
Katz, Marc. Capturing Sound: How Technology Has Changed Music. Berkeley: University of California Press, 2004.
Kenney, William Howland. Recorded Music in American Life: The Phonograph and Popular Memory, 1890-1945
. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1999.
A cultural history of recorded sound from the earliest years to the end of WWII. Aspects of recorded sound such as gender, race, economics and “hillbilly records” are explored.
Millard, Andre. America on Record: A History of Recorded Sound. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1995.
Morton, David. Off the Record: The Technology and Culture of Sound Recording in America. New Brunswick, NJ: Rutgers University Press, 2000.
Morton, David. Sound Recording: The Life Story of a Technology. Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 2004
Read, O., and W. L. Welch. From Tin Foil to Stereo: Evolution of the Phonograph. Indianapolis: Howard W. Sams & Co., 1959.
Steffen, David J. From Edison to Marconi: The First Thirty Years of Recorded Music. Jefferson, NC: McFarland, 2005.
Sterne, Jonathan. The Audible Past: Cultural Origins of Sound Reproduction. Durham, NC: Duke University Press, 2003.
Symes, Colin. Setting the Record Straight: A Material History of Classical Recording. Middletown, CT: Wesleyan University Press, 2004.
Storage of Digital files - Digital Libraries
Bradley, Kevin, Junran, Lei, and Chris Blackall. Towards an Open Source Repository and Preservation System: Recommendations on the Implementation of an
Open Source Digital Archival and Preservation System and on Related Software Development. Paris, UNESCO, 2007.
Dunn, Jon W., and Constance A. Mayer. “Variations: A Digital Music Library System at Indiana University.” Proceedings of the Fourth ACM Conference on Digital Libraries, Berkeley, 1999.
Lazinger, Susan S. Digital Preservation and Metadata: History, Theory, Practice. Englewood, CO: Libraries Unlimited, 2001.
Pavuza, Franz, Andreas Rauber, Carl Rauch, and Stephan Strodl. “Evaluating Preservation Strategies for Audio and Video Files.” Proceedings of the DELOS Workshop on Digital Repositories: Interoperability and Common Services, Heraklion, Greece, May 11-13, 2005.
The authors created a decision support workflow for the long term preservation of digital AV files. The authors focused on “the elicitation of requirements, resulting in a total of about 350 criteria and the evaluation of different input formats for long-term preservation.”
Spence, John. “Dams & Digitization Preparedness.” Proceedings of the IASA Conference, Aahus, Denmark, 2002.
Because thousands of hours of recorded sound are digitized each year, digital asset management systems are a crucial part of every sound archive. Spence explains the need for and process and attributes of sound archives.
Best Practices, Manuals and Standards
Casey, Mike, and Bruce Gordon. Sound Directions: Best Practices for Audio Preservation
. Bloomington, IN: Digital Preservation and Access for Global Audio Heritage, 2007.
Complete and current practices for the preservation of audio in most formats are conveyed in detail in this document funded by the National Endowment for the Humanities and created as a joint effort by the Indiana University Archives of Traditional Music (ATM) and the Archive of World Music at Harvard University.
Edmondson, Ray. “Seapavaa Manual for AV Archives.” Paper presented at UNESCO, 2002.
Paton, C.A., Stephanie E. Young, Harry P. Hopkins, and Robert B. Simmons. “A Review and Discussion of Selected Acetate Disc Cleaning Methods: Anecdotal, Experimental and Investigative Findings.” ARSC Journal (Vol. 28, No. 1), 1997.
Warren Jr., Richard. “Handling of Sound Recordings.” ARSC Journal (Vol. 25, No. 2), Fall 1994.
Williams, Jessica, Sandra Paske and Steven Dast. Audio Procedures and Workflow for the University of Wisconsin Digital Collections Center (UWDCC). Madison, WI: University of Wisconsin, April 21, 2004.
Fadeyev, Vitaliy, and Carl Haber. “Reconstruction of Mechanically Recorded Sound by Image Processing.” Journal of the American Engineering Society (Vo. 51, No. 12), December 2003.
Nascé, A.J., J.W. McBride, M. Hill, and P.J. Boltryk. “Signal Processing Methods for the Recovery of Audio From Early Acoustic Cylinder Recordings, Measured via Non-Contact Optical Sensor.” Paper presented at AES 31st International Conference, London, June 25-27, 2007.
Non-contact optical methods to reproduce audio from early or damaged sound carriers is explained as a means for sound archives to obtain a digital copy of recordings. Surface mapping for audio extraction will provide a method for future researchers to hear the sounds of the past.
Brothers, Peter. Disaster Avoidance and Recovery of Magnetic Tapes Key Findings From a 20-Year Study. Proceedings from JTS (Joint Technical Symposium) 2004 Preserving the AudioVisual Heritage: Transition and Access, Toronto, Canada, 2004.
Audio Organizations and Archives
Audio Engineering Society SC-03 Subcommittee on the Preservation and Restoration of Audio Recording:
SC-03-02 Working Group on Transfer Technologies
SC-03-04 Working Group on Storage and Handling of Media
SC-03-06 Working Group on Digital Library and Archive Systems
SC-03-06-A Metadata Harmonization
SC-03-06-B Transfers to Digital
SC-03-06-C Asset Management
International Conferences on Music Information Retrieval and Related Activities Conference proceedings (2000 – 2005). http://www.ismir.net/
SEE ALSO: http://www.loc.gov/rr/record/nrpb/nrpb-OTHERARCHIVES.html
Screensound Australia National Film and Sound Archive.
Sound Reproduction R & D Home Page. http://irene.lbl.gov/
AES-6id-2006: AES information document for digital audio – Personal computer audio quality measurements. Measurements and definitions are included. http://www.aes.org/publications/standards/
This document reflects the improvements since the 2000 document.
AES7-2000 (r2005): AES standard for the preservation and restoration of audio recording -- Method of measuring recorded fluxivity of magnetic sound records at medium wavelengths (Revision of AES7-1982).
AES-11id-2006: AES Information document for Preservation of Audio recordings – Extended term storage environment for multiple media archives.
Valuable document and chart outlining the requirements and standards (AES and ISO) for storing multiple AV formats in a single storage environment.
AES28-1997 (r2008): AES standard for audio preservation and restoration -- Method for estimating life expectancy of compact discs (CD-ROM), based on effects of temperature and relative humidity (includes Amendment 1-2001). http://www.aes.org/publications/standards/
AES35-2000 (r2005): AES standard for audio preservation and restoration -- Method for estimating life expectancy of magneto-optical (M-O) disks, based on effects of temperature and relative humidity.
AES38-2000 (r2005): AES standard for audio preservation and restoration -- Life expectancy of information stored in recordable compact disc systems -- Method for estimating, based on effects of temperature and relative humidity.
ANSI NPM IT9.21-1996 Life Expectancy of Compact Discs (CD-ROM) Method for Estimating (Life Expectancy) Based on Effects of Temperature and Relative Humidity.
ANSI/AIIM MS59:1996 Standard Recommended Practice for Media Error Monitoring and Reporting Techniques for Verification of the Information Stored in Optical Digital Data Disks.
ANSI/AIIM TR39-1996 Guidelines for the Use of Media Error Monitoring and Reporting Techniques for the Verification of Stored Data on Optical Digital Data Disks.
SEE ALSO: http://www.loc.gov/rr/record/nrpb/nrpb-PUBLICATIONS.html
Audio Preservation Web pages
Sound Archive Project: Southampton University Non-Contact Surface Scanning of Cylinders Research Project.
Non-contact methods to read grooves of early cylinders are used by the University
of Southampton. The home page outlines their techniques used to extract sound from wax cylinders.
Department of Special Collections, Donald C. Davidson Library, University of California, Santa Barbara. Cylinder Preservation and Digitization Project. http://cylinders.library.ucsb.edu/
Sound Reproduction R&D Home Page.
Particle physicists Carl Haber and Vitaliy Fadeyev describe their work to reconstruct audio from damaged mechanical recordings. Digital maps of
the carrier’s surface created without direct contact can be used to
recreate the audio. Haber and Fadeyev gave a paper at the AES conference in 2003: “Reconstruction of Mechanically Recorded Sound by Image Processing.” It was later published: Fadeyev, Vitaliy, and Carl Haber. “Reconstruction of Mechanically Recorded Sound by Image Processing.” Journal of the American Engineering Society (Vol. 51, Issue 12), December 2003.
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