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Audio Preservation Bibliography

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Contents:
General Audio Preservation History of Recording
Sound Archives: Organization and Management Storage of Digital Files - Digital Libraries
Material Science and Media Stability Best Practices, Manuals and Standards
Collection Assessment Tools for Audio Collections Current Research
Education and Training Disaster Recovery
Appraisal, Cataloging and Collection Policies Audio Organizations and Archives
Conference Proceedings Standards
Copyright Journals and Newsletters
Technical - Audio Engineering Audio Preservation Websites
Preservation of Archival Materials Current Projects

General Audio Preservation

Association of Research Libraries. Proceedings from Sound Savings: Preserving Audio Collections, 2003. http://www.arl.org/preserv/sound_savings_proceedings/index.
Proceedings from Sound Savings: Preserving Audio Collections contains well-rounded advice for all sound archives. Informative papers outline how to survey a collection, recognize formats, and contract with vendors. The guidelines are balanced with presentations on the progress of the “Save Our Sounds” project and the activities of other institutions. Individual chapters from this publication are listed under their relevant headings.
Audio Engineering Society. Journal of the Audio Engineering Society, July/August 2001. Supplementary journal material. (Supplement devoted to archiving, restoration, and digital libraries.)
Carrier degradation, metadata, information retrieval, mass storage, restoration, and data migration are introduced and explained in this AES supplement. Articles by Elizabeth Cohen, Richard Hess, Mickey Hart, Henry Gladney, and James Fleming are featured.
Bertram, H. Neal and Edward F. Cuddihy. “Kinetics of the Humid Aging of Magnetic Recording Tape.” Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE) Transactions on Magnetics (Vol. 18, No. 5), September 1982.
An early guide for recommended, acceptable, and unacceptable storage conditions for magnetic tape. Bertram and Cuddihy conclude that “the best solution is to understand the various chemical processes in the tape system which lead to degradation, including hydrolysis, so that a reasonable long-term storage environment can be predicted.”
Bradley, Kevin. “Critical Choices, Critical Decisions: Sound Archiving and Changing Technology.” Proceedings of the Pacific and Regional Archive for Digital Sources in Endangered Cultures, 2004. http://ses.library.usyd.edu.au/handle/2123/1431.
The report traces format obsolescence and the many technological and paradigmatic shifts in sound archiving. A short history of recording and an explanation of digital preservation also are provided.
Brooks, Tim. Survey of Reissues of U.S. Recordings.  Washington, DC: Council on Library and Information Resources and Library of Congress, August 2004. http://www.clir.org/pubs/reports/reports.html.
Proper establishment and management of sound archives, for both institutions and private collectors, are crucial steps for the preservation of historical performances. Brooks stresses that only 14 percent of all copyrighted historical recordings have been reissued, highlighting the need to safeguard and manage these collections.
Brothers, Peter. “Basic Inspection Techniques to Sample the Condition of Magnetic Tape.” SpecBros., 2006. http://www.specsbros.com/whitepaper.html.
Brothers provides a short checklist of noninvasive activities to determine the condition of magnetic tape. This information is essential to understanding the physical properties of magnetic tape that govern their life expectancy.
Brylawski, Samuel. “Preservation of Digitally Recorded Sound.” In Building a National Strategy for Preservation: Issues in Digital Media Archiving. Washington, DC: Council on Library and information Resources and Library of Congress, 2002. http://www.clir.org/pubs/reports/pub106/sound.html.
Brylawski emphasizes the importance of a collaborative approach for the preservation of digitally produced recordings.
Brylawski, Samuel. “Review of Audio Collection Preservation Trends and Challenges.” Paper presented at Association of Research Libraries, Sound Savings Symposium, Austin, TX, July 2003. http://www.arl.org/preserv/sound_savings_proceedings/Review_Audio_Collections.shtml.
The preservation of performances and the conservation of original formats are only a few of the crucial activities of sound archives examined in this article from the Sound Savings symposium. Legal and technical collaborative efforts are vital to the preservation of historical recordings.
Casey, Mike. FACET: Format Characteristics and Preservation Problems. Bloomington, IN:  Indiana University, 2007. http://www.dlib.indiana.edu/projects/sounddirections/facet/facet_formats.pdf (PDF, 5.15 MB).
Valuable information for all audio preservation archivists, audio technicians, and other archive professionals is contained in this document. FACET (Field Audio Collection Evaluation Tool) provides format-specific information and associated preservation problems in great detail. High-quality photographs of formats are included.
Casey, Mike and Bruce Gordon. “Sound Directions: Best Practices for Audio Preservation.” In Sound Directions: Digital Preservation and Access for Global Audio Heritage. Bloomington, IN: Indiana University, 2007. http://www.dlib.indiana.edu/projects/sounddirections/papersPresent/index.shtml.
Complete and current practices for the preservation of audio in most formats are conveyed in detail in this document funded by the National Endowment for Humanities and created as a joint effort by the Indiana University archives of Traditional Music (ATM) and the Archive of World Music at Harvard University.
Cohen, Elizabeth, Virginia Danielson, and Anthony Seeger. Folk Heritage Collections in Crisis. Washington DC: Council on Library and Information Resources, 2001. http://www.clir.org/pubs/reports/pub96/contents.html.
Divided into three parts, this document clearly states the overdue need for the preservation of, access to, and rights management of audio collections. The three authors combined their talents at this conference to present the results of their survey of ethnographic recordings and to voice their concern for the state of all audio collections.
Edmondson, Ray, et. al. (members of AVAPIN). “A Philosophy of Audiovisual Archiving.” Paper presented at UNESCO, 2005. http://unesdoc.unesco.org/images/0011/001131/113127eo.pdf (PDF, 5MB).
Edmondson and members of the AudioVisual Archiving Philosophy Interest Network define the professional and ethical identity of audiovisual archivists. By codifying the profession, training and accreditation needs are brought to light.
Federal Agencies Guidelines Initiative. Library of Congress, 2009. http://www.digitizationguidelines.gov/audio-visual/.
The Audio-Visual Working Group of the Federal Agencies page states: “The goal for this working group is to identify, establish, and disseminate information about standards and practices for the digital reformatting of audio-visual materials by federal agencies.”
Fleischauer, Carl. “Audio and Video Preservation Reformatting: A Library of Congress Perspective.” Paper presented at the Preservation Conference: Digital Technology vs. Analog Technology, College Park, MD, March 27, 2003.
Fleischauer’s paper follows the change in formats for archival masters in many major institutions. Media obsolescence, failing carriers, and the need to provide access to historical recordings have accelerated the shift to reformatting as a preservation option.
Frost, Hannah. “Surveying Sound Recording Collections.”  Paper presented at Association of Research Libraries, Sound Savings Symposium, Austin, TX, July 2003. http://www.arl.org/preserv/sound_savings_proceedings/Surveying_sound-2.shtml.
Surveys are valuable tools to gather information about collections and the physical conditions of sound recordings and to comprehend the effects of storage environments. A proper survey can provide the data needed to write budgets, action plans, grants, and technological requisitions.
Hess, Richard. “Restoration Tips and Notes: Media Formats & Resources,” 2010. http://richardhess.com/notes/.
Hess keeps this informative blog up-to-date with new developments in the field of audio preservation. A full archive of past articles and a navigation bar make this portal user-friendly.
Hess, Richard. “Tape Degradation Factors and Predicting Tape Life.” Paper presented at the Audio Engineering Society Convention, San Francisco, CA, October 2006. http://www.aes.org/e-lib/browse.cfm?elib=13804.
Essential reading for all archivists caring for audio collections containing magnetic media. This document is also posted at http://richardhess.com/notes/.
Image Permanence Institute. “The Preservation of Magnetic Tape Collections: A Perspective.” IPI, 2006.
http://www.imagepermanenceinstitute.org/shtml_sub/NEHTapeFinalReport.pdf (PDF, 436 KB).
In this report, funded by the NEH, the Image Permanence Institute presents its findings on magnetic tape’s longevity, storage, and obsolescence as well as criteria for evaluating the condition of recorded tapes. Procedures for conducting a condition evaluation survey are provided.
Indiana University. “Meeting the Challenge of Media Preservation: Strategies and Solutions,” 2011.
http://www.indiana.edu/~medpres/documents/iu_mpi_report_public.pd (PDF, 12 KB)
Indiana University. “Media Preservation: The Media Preservation Initiative at Indiana University Bloomington."
http://mediapreservation.wordpress.com/
International Association of Sound and Audiovisual Archives, Task Force on Selection. Selection Criteria for the Transfer for Preservation Purposes of Analogue and Digital Audio Content to Data Formats. International Association of Sound and Audiovisual Archives, 2004.
The technical aspects of sound collections are defined in this IASA pamphlet to help archivists prioritize their collections for digitization. Considerations for broadcast and research archives are explained as well as the criteria used by national archives.
International Association of Sound Archives. The Safeguarding of the Audio Heritage: Ethics, Principles and Preservation Strategy. International Association of Sound and Audiovisual Archives, December 2005. http://www.iasa-web.org/downloads/publications/TC03_English.pdf (PDF, 125 KB).
 The IASA Technical Committee addresses the ethical consequences of preserving sound recordings within the framework of today’s technology. The importance of cooperation and the need for keeping employees current in the field are emphasized.
International Association of Sound and Audiovisual Archives. Guidelines on the Production and Preservation of Digital Audio Objects: Standards, Recommended Practices, and Strategies, second edition. Auckland Park, South Africa: International Association of Sound and Audiovisual Archives, IASA-TC04, 2009. http://www.iasa-web.org/audio-preservation-tc04.
This is an essential book for all sound archives planning a digitization project. The manual has information for preservation managers, reformatting technicians, and others involved with the process. Standards are clearly stated and explained.
Library of Congress. Cylinder, Disc & Tape Care in a Nutshell.http://www.loc.gov/preservation/care/record.html
Linehan, Andy, ed. Aural History: Essays on Recorded Sound. London: British Library, 2001.
The proceedings from the 32nd International Association of Sound and Audiovisual Archives conference, held jointly with the Association of Recorded Sound Collections, cover reports on the British National Sound Archives and The Century Speaks, a BBC Oral History project. Papers on forensic evidence in recordings and natural sounds are also included.
Nelson-Strauss, Brenda. “Preservation Policies and Priorities for Recorded Sound Collections.” Notes: Quarterly Journal of the Music Library Association (Vol. 48, No. 2), 1991. 
If a preservation plan for sound collections is to be created, priorities must be established. Nelson-Strauss guides preservation administrators through the process will well-defined priorities.
PRESTO – Preservation Technologies for European Broadcast Archives. “Key Links Systems Specification Document,” June 2001. http://presto.joanneum.at/Public/D32.pdf (PDF, 1 MB).
The Preservation Technologies for European Broadcast Archives web portal provides documents in a straightforward manner for those who are familiar with the concepts but lack technical expertise.
Schüller, Dietrich. “Ethics of Preservation, Restoration, and Reissue of Historical Sound Recordings,” Journal of the Audio Engineering Society (Vol. 39, No. 12), December 1991.
Schüller, Dietrich. “Preserving the Facts for the Future: Principles and Practices for the Transfer of Analog Audio Documents into the Digital Domain,” Journal of the Audio Engineering Society (Vol. 49, Nos. 7/8), July/August 2001.
Schüller’s articles outline and emphasize special needs with regard to the transfer of analog sound collections to the digital domain. His advice applies to archivists and engineers alike.
Seeger, Anthony, and Shubha Chaudhuri. “Archives for the Future: Global Perspectives for the 21st Century.” India: Seagull, 2001. http://www.seagullindia.com/archive/download.html.
These proceedings of a 2001 Ford Foundation–supported meeting, organized by the Archives and Research Centre for Ethnomusicology, are a unique mix addressing the challenges, objectives, ethics, and restoration of collections from around the world. Mock debates at the end of the proceedings reveal the different needs of archivists, administrators, artists, and researchers.
Smith, Abby, David Randal Allen, and Karen Allen. Survey of the State of Audio Collections in Academic Libraries. Washington, D.C.: Council on Library and Information Resources, August 2004. http://www.clir.org/PUBS/reports/pub128/contents.html.
This survey of academic collections has valuable information for decision makers planning for the preservation of audio collections. As the authors state, “the survey was designed to raise awareness within the larger research and funding communities of the value of audio collections and to encourage institutions with important audio holdings to seek support for their collections.”
Smith, Abby. Why Digitize? Washington, DC: Council on Library and Information Resources, February 1999. http://www.clir.org/pubs/reports/pub80-smith/pub80.html.
TAPE: Training for Audiovisual Preservation in Europe, 2010. http://www.tape-online.net/.
TAPE’s website provides a portal for all audiovisual archivists. TAPE publications include guidelines for preservation of research collections and workflows, while the website’s “links to literature” connect users to information about formats, preservation management, ethics, and storage of digital files.
Teruggi, Daniel. “Can We Save Our Audio-Visual Heritage?” Ariadne, April 2004.
http://www.ariadne.ac.uk/issue39/teruggi/.
Wilson, Andrew, Richard Wright, Malcolm Polfreman, Sheila Tanner, and Emma Beer. “Arts and Humanities Data Service Digital Moving Images and Sound (AHDS) Archiving Study.” AHDS, 2007. http://www.ahds.ac.uk/about/projects/archiving-studies/moving-images-sound-archiving-final.pdf (PDF, 487 KB).
Gives an overview of current research, initiatives, and issues concerning the preservation of digital sound. Serving as a guide to file formats, metadata standards, and organizational models for recorded sound, this report includes references and useful papers.
Wright, Richard. “Annual Report on Preservation for European Audiovisual Collections 2008.” PrestoSpace.
This annual report shows the status of audiovisual collections across the EC, relays current practices, and has predictions for life after PrestoSpace.
Wright, Richard, and Adrian Williams. “Archive Preservation and Exploitation Requirements.” PRESTO – Preservation Technologies for European Archives, 2001. http://presto.joanneum.ac.at/Public/D2.pdf (PDF 445 KB).
A recent survey revealed that European broadcast archives contained 20 million hours of audio. PRESTO uses the results of this survey to develop cost-effective strategies for the preservation of recordings.
Wright, Richard. “The Broadcast Wave Format,” IASA Journal (Vol. 17), June 2001.
The Broadcast Wave Format is emerging as the best standard for archiving digital recordings. This is an introduction to the format.
Zwaneveld, E. H. Archivists Need Input in Audio-Video Standards. New York: Electronic Engineering Times, 2000.
Zwaneveld, E.H. “Preservation Reformatting??? Audiovisual Standards and Beyond.”  Paper presented at U.S. National Archives and Records Administration, 18th Annual Preservation Conference, Washington, DC, March 27, 2003. http://www.archives.gov/preservation/conferences/papers-2003/zwaneveld.html.
Zwanevald gives his perspective on standards for audio and video material. All aspects and applications are explored.

Sound Archives: Organization and Management

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Bucknum, Mary Russell. “Sound Archives in the United States.” Fontes Artis Musica (Vol. 48, No. 4), October-December 2001: 381-390.
Bucknum provides an excellent overview and introduction to the inner workings of sound archives. The topics are presented in a clear concise form and cover collection development, cataloging, access, preservation and the storage of files.
Farrington, Jim. "Preventive Maintenance for Audio Discs and Tapes." Notes: Quarterly Journal of the Music Library Association (Vol. 48, No. 2), December 1991: 437-445.
Farrington, Jim. Audio and Video Equipment Basics for Libraries.Lanham, MD: Scarecow Press, 2006.
Griscom, Richard ed. Music Librarianship at the Turn of the Century. Lanham, MD: Scarecrow Press, Inc., 2000.
Harrison, H.P. (ed). Audiovisual Archives: A Practical Reader. Paris: General Information Programme and United Nations International Scientific Information System, United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization, 1997. http://www.unesco.org/webworld/ramp/html/r9704e/r9704e00.htm.
All facets of the management of AV archives are described from legal issues, ethical issues, collection development and management, oral history, documentation, storage, handling, technical preservation, equipment, disaster recovery to the education of AV professionals. Each chapter is written by a different subject specialist.  The articles on education are listed in the appropriate section of this bibliography.
Lance, David ed. Sound Archives: A Guide to Their Establishment and Development. International Association of Sound Archives, 1983.
The organization of sound archives is covered from the planning stages to providing access to the public.  Expert authors provide useful forms from their archives in each chapter of this IASA publication.
Schüller, Dietrich. Sound Recordings: Problems of Preservation.” In Managing Preservation for Libraries and Archives: Current Practices and Future Development , edited by John Feather. London: Ashgate Publishing Ltd., 2004.
Schüller’s chapter is a great introduction to the field for preservation administrators and managers. Schüller takes the reader through a wide array of topics ranging from the differences in mechanical carriers to Digital Mass Storage Systems.
Society for Ethnomusicology. A Manual for Documentation Fieldwork & Preservation for Ethnomusicologists. Bloomington, IN: Society for Ethnomusicology, Inc., 1994.
This manual of checklists and procedures provides a framework for ethnomusicologists to manage their projects from the planning stages to the deposit of recordings in archives.  Forms are provided to document and to cover the legal and ethical aspects of projects.

Material Science and Media Stability

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Adelstein, Peter Z. “International Standards on Preservation of Information Recording Materials.” JTS 2004 Preserving the AudioVisual Heritage-–Transition and Access. Toronto: Joint Technical Symposium, Unesco, 2004.
Bigourdan, Jean-Louis, et al. The Preservation of Magnetic Tape Collections: A Perspective. Rochester, New York: Image Permanence Institute, Rochester Institute of Technology, 2006. http://www.imagepermanenceinstitute.org/shtml_sub/NEHTapeFinalReport.pdf (PDF, 436 KB).
Boston, George. Survey of Endangered Audiovisual Carriers: Survey conducted by the International Association of Sound and Audiovisual Archives, with assistance from the International Council of Archives on behalf of the Information Society Division. Paris: United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization, 2003. http://portal.unesco.org/ci/en/files/13437/10680465001Survey_Report.pdf/Survey%2BReport.pdf (PDF, 166 KB).
Bradley, Kevin. Risks Associated with the Use of Recordable CDs and DVDs as Reliable Storage Media in Archival Collections – Strategies and Alternatives. Paris: UNESCO, 2006. http://portal.unesco.org/ci/en/files/22734/11571181531CD_DVD_for_UNESCO_final__2006.pdf/CD%2BDVD%2Bfor%2BUNESCO%2Bfinal%2B%2B2006.pdf (PDF, 187 KB).
Bradshaw R., and C. Schroeder. “Fifty Years of IBM Innovation with Information on Magnetic Tape.” IBM Journal of Research and Development, July 2003. 
Byers, Fred R. “Care and Handling of CDs and DVDs.” Washington, DC: Council on Library and Information Resources and National Institute of Standards and Technology, October 2003.
http://www.clir.org/pubs/reports/pub121/contents.html.
Hinterhofer, Otto, Konrad Binder, Leopold Krenner and Dietrich Schüller. “The Chemical Deterioration of Magnetic Tape and its Assessment by Physical and Chemical Testing”. The Proceedings of AES 104th Convention. AES. New York: Audio Engineering Society, May 1998.
Iraci, Joe. “The Relative Stabilities of Optical Disc Formats.” Restaurator: International Journal for the Preservation of Library and Archival Material. Munich: K.G. Saur/National Institute of Standards and Technology (Vol. 26, Number 2), June 20, 2005.
http://www.uni-muenster.de/Forum-Bestandserhaltung/downloads/iraci.pdf (PDF, 512 KB).
Manns, Basil and Chandru J. Shahani. Longevity of CD Media Research at the Library of Congress.
Washington D.C.: Library of Congress, 2003. http://www.loc.gov/preservation/resources/rt/studyofCDlongevity.pdf (PDF, 357 KB).
Media Stability Studies. Resources for Archivists, Records Managers, and Individuals Responsible for Storing Information,” National Media Lab, 2004.
National Library of Australia. “Australian Network for Information on Cellulose Acetatet,” 2002. http://pandora.nla.gov.au/pan/11779/20040524-0000/www.nla.gov.au/ntwkpubs/gw/60/p04a01.htmla
Pickett, A. G. and M.M. Lemcoe. “Preservation and Storage of Sound Recordings.” Washington, D.C: Library of Congress, 1959. Reprint, Association of Recorded Sound Collections, 1994.
Porck, Henk J. and Rene Teygeler. “Preservation Science Survey: An Overview of Recent Developments in Research on the Conservation of Selected Analog Library and Archival Materials.” Council on Library and Information Resources, December 2000.
Vos, Martin, Gary Ashton, John Van Bogart and Ron Ensminger, eds. “Heat & Moisture Diffusion in Magnetic Tape Packs.” National Media Labs, March 1994.
Van Bogart, J. “Magnetic Tape Storage and Handling: A Guide for Libraries and Archives.” National Media Laboratory and Council on Library and Information Resources, 1995.  http://www.clir.org/PUBS/reports/pub54/index.html.

Collection Assessment Tools for Audio Collections

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Visual & Playback Inspection Ratings System (ViPIRS) http://library.nyu.edu/preservation/movingimage/vipirshome.html.
This project was designed to develop a strategic methodology to assess the condition of a collection based on visual and playback inspection. The tool based on MS Access guides practitioners through the survey process. Funded by the Andrew W. Mellon Foundation.
Field Audio Collection Evaluation Tool (FACET) http://www.dlib.indiana.edu/projects/sounddirections/facet/index.shtml.
The Field Audio Collection Evaluation Tool (FACET), part of the Sound Directions project, is an open-source software device designed to aid in the prioritization of  audio collections. Information is provided to gather information on the following formats: wire recordings, lacquer discs, digital audiotape, aluminum discs, reel-to-reels (polyester, acetate, paper and PVC based) and audiocassette tapes.
Survey Instrument for Audio and Moving Image Collections http://www.columbia.edu/cu/lweb/services/preservation/audiosurvey.html.
This survey instrument takes archivists through a step-by-step process to assess the condition of their collections. By fine-tuning fields in a relational database, collections can be prioritized for digitization projects. An instruction manual is included. Funded by the Andrew W. Mellon Foundation.

Education and Training

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Association for Recorded Sound Collections (ARSC). Education and Training in Audiovisual Archiving and Preservation, 2004.  http://www.arsc-audio.org/etresources.html.
Gracy, Karen and Jean Ann Croft. “Quo Vadis, Preservation Education? A Study of Current Trends and Future Needs in Continuing Education Programs.” Library Resources and Technical Services (Vol. 51, No. 2), April 2007. http://www.sis.pitt.edu/~kgracy/Quo_Vadis_pt1.pdf (PDF, 207 KB).
Harrison, Helen P. Audiovisual Archives: A Practical Reader. Paris: UNESCO, March 1997. http://www.unesco.org/webworld/ramp/html/r9704e/r9704e00.htm.
Klaue, Wolfgang. “New Media Requires Specialized Archivists.” Harrison 13.1
Curriculum Development Working Party. “Training Needs of AV Archivists.” Harrison 13.2
Curriculum Development Working Party. “Organization and Harmonization of Education Programmes.” Harrison 13.3
Curriculum Development Working Party. “Recommended Standards for Training.” Harrison 13.4.
Technical Co-ordinating Committee. “Curriculum Development for Archive Technicians.” Harrison 13.5.
Harrison, Helen P. “Training for AudioVisual Archivists.” Harrison 13.6.
Kenney, Anne R., and Deirdre C. Stam. The State of Preservation Programs in American College and Research Libraries: Building a Common Understanding and Action Agenda. Council on Library and Information Resources, 2002. http://www.clir.org/pubs/reports/pub111/introsum.html.

Appraisal, Cataloging and Collection Policies

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Association of Recorded Sound Collections. “Rules for Archival Cataloging of Sound Recordings.” ARSC, 1997.
The AAA states that virtually every detail of cataloging historic sound recordings was examined in the preparation of this volume. The authors concluded that the final set of rules (based on AACRII) needs to be compatible with existing systems currently in use in sound archives.
Baldwin, David. “Toward an Appraisal Model for Audio Materials in Regional Archives & Historical Societies.” ARSC Journal (Vo. 35, No. 2), Fall 2004: 179–196.
National Film and Sound Archive. “Collection Policy and Statement of Curatorial Values.” September 2006. http://www.nfsa.gov.au/site_media/uploads/file/2011/05/03/NFSA-Library-Collection-Policy-2010.pdf

Technical – Audio Engineering

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Audio Engineering Society. “The Proceedings of the AES 20th International Conference: Archiving, Restoration and New Methods of Recording, Budapest, Hungary.” New York: AES, 2001. http://www.aes.org/publications/conferences/.
The AES proceedings of their conference devoted to archiving and restoration of audio recordings is crucial for all audio preservation libraries. The topics of carrier degradation, metadata and files, broadcasting systems, mass transfer and restoration are covered in depth.
Bradley, Kevin, ed.  “IASA TC-04 Second Edition. Guidelines on the Production and Preservation of Digital Audio Objects.” South Africa: International Association of Sound and Audiovisual Archives-IASA Technical Committee 4, 2009.
The IASA TC-04 is, perhaps, the one essential book for all sound archives planning a digitization project. This manual has information for preservation managers, reformatting technicians and all others involved with the process. Standards are clearly stated and explained in this volume.
Brock-Nannestad, George. More than Sound.Proceedings of the 118th Convention, Barcelona, Spain: May 2005.
Stotzer, Sylvain, Ottar Johnsen, Frederic Baptz, and Rolf Ingold. "Groove Extraction of Phonographic Records." In Document Analysis Systems VII: 7th International Workshop, DAS 2006, Nelson, New Zealand, February 13-15, 2006, Proceedings edited by Horst Bunke, A. Lawrence Spitz. New York: Springer, 2006.
Copeland, Peter.  “Manual of Analogue Audio Restoration Techniques.” British Library, 2006. http://www.bl.uk/reshelp/findhelprestype/sound/anaudio/analoguesoundrestoration.pdf (PDF, 2.25 MB).
Copeland worked on this manual until his passing in 2006.  This work, made freely available by his former employer, the British Library reflects his knowledge as he hoped it would help others in the field.
Hans, Nicolas, and Johan de Koster. Taking Care of Tomorrow Before it is Too Late: A Pragmatic Archiving Strategy. Proceedings of the 116th AES Convention, Berlin, Germany, May 2004.
Harada, Noboru, Takehire Moriya, and Yutaka, Kamamoto. An Audio Archiving Format Based on MPEG-4 Audio Lossless Coding. Proceedings of the 121st Convention, San Francisco, CA: October 2006.
Hess, Richard L., Tape Degradation Factors and Predicting Tape Life. AES Conference Proceedings, 2007.
Katz, Bob. “Mastering Audio: The Art and the Science.” Oxford: Focal Press, 2002.
Martin, Geoff. “Introduction to Sound Recording.” http://www.tonmeister.ca/main/textbook/index.html.
Martin’s on-line version allows readers to click on words for a definition of a word or concept.  “Introduction to Sound Recording” is a complete text and is updated annually.
Moylan, William. Understanding and Crafting the Mix: The Art of Recording. Oxford: Focal Press, 2007.
National Recording Preservation Board, Library of Congress. “Capturing Analog Sound for Digital Preservation: Report of a Roundtable Discussion of Best Practices for Transferring Analog Discs and Tapes.” Council on Library and Information Resources, March 2006. http://www.clir.org/pubs/reports/pub137/contents.html.
Pohlmann, Ken C. Principles of Digital Audio, 4th ed. New York: McGraw Hill, 2000.
Pohlmann, Ken C. Measurement and Evaluation of Analog-to-Digital Converters used in the Long-Term Preservation of Audio Recordings. Paper written for the roundtable discussion convened by the Library of Congress and Council on Library and Information Resources on behalf of the National Recording Preservation Board, Washington, DC: March 10-11, 2006. http://www.clir.org/activities/details/AD-Converters-Pohlmann.pdf (PDF, 257 KB).
A to D converters are the most important link in the audio reformatting chain. This publication explains attributes required to obtain the best quality when reformatting recordings.
Pymm, Bob. Digital Materials in Archives. The Digital Dawn: AV Archiving in Transition, 9th SEAPAVAA Conference & General Assembly, May 2-6, 2005.
Slattery, O. , R. Lu., J. Zheng, F.R. Byers and X. Tang. “Stability Comparison of Recordable Optical Discs: A Study of Error Rates in Harsh Conditions.” Journal of Research of the National Institute of Standards and Technology." Gaithersburg, MD: National Institute of Standards and Technology (Vol. 109, No. 5), 2004.

Preservation of Archival Materials: General texts with chapters on audio Materials

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Gorman, G.E., and Sydney J. Shep. Preservation Management for Libraries, Archives and Museums. London: Facet Publishing, 2006.
Bob Pymm’s chapter, Preservation of Audiovisual Media: Traditional to Interactive Formats highlights the distinction between passive preservation (correct storage) and active preservation (digitizing) based on many recent articles. Supported with several pages of references, this chapter provides excellent information for archives planning for the preservation of their audio material.
Feather, John. Managing Preservation for Libraries and Archives: Current Practice and Future Developments. Farham, UK: Ashgate Publishing, Ltd., 2004.
Dietrich Schuller’s chapter, Sound Recordings Problems of Preservation outlines the history, physical characteristics and problems of cylinders, course groove discs, instantaneous discs, vinyl, magnetic tape and optical discs. Schuller urges: “Audio preservation has become a specialist discipline which is faced with new problems and insights. Readers are, therefore, encouraged to take this chapter just as general introduction and to seek expert advice for their specific preservation problems, especially if unique heritage material has to be safeguarded.”
Harvey, Ross. Preserving Digital Materials. Munich: K.G. Saur, 2006.
The critical “selection for preservation” decision is well covered with many references from preservation initiatives and collaborations. Illustrated with a case study from the National Sound and Film Archive, this volume provides updated information and explores preservation from the extent of the “preservation problems” to solutions.

Conference Proceedings (expanded by chapter)

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Association of Research Libraries. “Sound Savings: Preserving Audio Collections,” 2003. http://www.arl.org/preserv/sound_savings_proceedings/index.shtml.
Aubert, M., and R. Billeaud. Image and Sound Archiving and Access, The Challenges of the 3rd Millennium: Proceedings of the Joint Technical Symposium. Centre National de la Cinématographie, Paris, 2000.
Audio Engineering Society. “The Proceedings of the AES 20th International Conference: Archiving, Restoration and New Methods of Recording, Budapest, Hungary.” New York: AES, 2001. http://www.aes.org/publications/conferences/.
Schüller, Dietrich. “Life Expectancy Testing of Magnetic Tapes – A Key to a Successful Strategy in Audio and Video Preservation.” AES 11–14.
Psohlavec, Stanislav. “Practical Experience with Long-Term CD-R Archiving.” AES 15–17.
Kunej, Drago. “Instability and Vulnerability of CD-R Carriersto Sunlight.” AES 18–25.
Herla, Siegbert. “Metadata – the Basis of Asset Management.”  AES 47–54.
Petäjä, Markku; Jouni Frilander, Pekka Gronow, Antti Järvinen. “Digital Audio Archiving in Public Broadcasting.” AES 71–82.
Houpert, Jörg. “Optimized Workstation for the Transfer of Large Collections.” AES 120–128.
Musialik, Christoph M.; Ulrich Hatje, Jean-Christophe Kummer and Peter Kuhnle. “An Integrated Solution for Digitization, Archiving, and Restoration of Large Audio Collections.” AES 129–137.
Cavaglieri, Stephano S.; Ottar Johnson, and Frédéric Bapst. “Optimal Retrieval and Storage of Analog Sound Recordings.” AES 151–156.
Brock-Nannestad, George. “The Attraction of Optical Replay of Mechanical Recordings.” AES 157–161.
Czyzewski, Andrzej. “The Internet Sound Restoration Service Based on the Perceptual Denoising Method.” AES 162–167.
Lechleitner, Frans; Bernard Berg, Markus Dorfer and Heinrich Pichler. “Reduction of Modulation Noise in Analog Full Track Recording using Multitrack Replay Techniques.” AES 171–174.
Audio Engineering Society. “The Proceedings of the AES 26th International Conference: Audio Forensics in the Digital Age,” AES, Denver, Colorado, July 7-9, 2005.
Audio Engineering Society. “The Proceedings of the AES 25th International Conference: Metadata for Audio, London, AES, June 17-19, 2004.
Conservation Center for Art and Historic Artifacts. “A Race Against Time: Preserving Our Audiovisual Media.” Philadelphia: CCAHA, November 14, 2005.
Harrison, H.P. (ed). “Audiovisual Archives: A Practical Reader.” Paris: UNESCO, March 1997. http://www.unesco.org/webworld/ramp/html/r9704e/r9704e00.htm.
Edmondson, Ray. “Nature of the AV Media,” Harrison 1.2.
Edmondson, Ray. “Worldwide and Paradigm of AV Archiving,” Harrison 1.3
Klaue, Wolfgang. “Audiovisual Records as Archival Material,” Harrison 1.4
Curriculum Development Party 1990. “General Principles of Audiovisual Archiving,” Harrison 1.5
Koch, Grace. “A Typology of Media Archives,” Harrison 1.6
Edmonndson, Ray et al. “The AV Archive: Definition and Typology,” 1.7.
Kofler, Birgit. “Legal Issues Facing Audiovisual Archives,” Harrison 1.8
Pinion, Catherine F. “Legal Issues in AVArchives An Introduction, Harrison 1.9
Edmondson, Ray. “Ethics,” Harrison 1.12
Boston, George. “Ethics and New Technology,” Harrison 1.13
Schuursma, Rolf. “Approaches to the National Organization of Sound Archives,” Harrison 2.1
Kula, Sam. “History and Organization of Moving Image Archives,” Harrison 2.2
Harrison, Helen P. “Records Management in Sound Archives,” Harrison 2.3
Hartford, Anne. “Guidelines for Establishing and Maintaining Television Programme Archives,” Harrison 2.4
Lance, David. “Oral History,” Harrison 3.1
Mazikana, Peter and William Moss. “Introduction: Oral Tradition and Oral History,” Harrison 3.2
Harrison, Helen P. “Archival Appraisal,” Harrison 4.1
Harrison, Helen P.. “Selection and Audiovisual collections,” Harrison 4.2
McMullen, Mary. “IASA Cataloguing for Audio-Visual Media Cataloging and Documentation Committee Publication Project,” Harrison 5.3
Harrison, Helen, P. “ Intellectual Control, 5.4
Harrison, Helen, P. “Towards Standards for AudioVisual Materials,” Harrison 5.5
Hubert, Rainer. “The Cataloguing of AV-Media,” 5.6
St. Laurent, Gilles et al. “The Care of Grooved Records,” Harrison 7.2
Gibson, Gerald D. “Magnetic Tape Deterioration: Recognition, Recovery and Prevention,”  7.3
Schüller, Dietrich. “Preservation of Audio and Video Material in Tropical countries,” Harrison 7.5
Schüller, Dietrich. “Data density versus data security: formats suitable for archival purposes,”  Harrison 7.6
Schüller, Dietrich. “Strategies for the Safeguarding of Audio and Video materials in the Long Term,”  Harrison 7.7
Schüller, Dietrich, Lloyd Stickells and William Storm. “Guide to Technical Equipment: Audio Archives,” Harrison 8.3
Doesburg, Cor L. “Costs of Storage in Sound Archives,” Harrison 10.1
Gibson, Gerald D. “Emergency Preparedness and Disaster Recovery in AudioVisual Collections,” Harrison 12.1
Klaue, Wolfgang. “New Media Requires Specialized Archivists,” Harrison 13.1
Curriculum Development Working Party. “Training Needs of AV Archivists,” Harrison 13.2
Curriculum Development Working Party. “Organization and Harmonization of Education Programmes,” Harrison 13.3
Curriculum Development Working Party. “Recommended Standards for Training,” Harrison 13.4.
Technical Co-ordinating Committee. “Curriculum Development for Archive Technicians,” Harrison 13.5.
Harrison, Helen P. “Training for AudioVisual Archivists,” Harrison 13.6.
Orbanz, Eva. Archiving the Audio-Visual Heritage: A Joint Technical Symposium, May 20–22, 1987.
Unlocking Audio: Sharing Experience of Mass Digitization, 2007.

Copyright

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Association of Research Librarians. Code of Best Practices in Fair Use for Academic and Research Libraries. Washington, DC: Association of Research Libraries; Center for Social Media, School of Communication, American University; Program on Information Justice and Intellectural Property, Washington College of Law, American University, January 2012. http://www.centerforsocialmedia.org/libraries.
Besek, June M. Copyright Issues Relevant to Digital Preservation and Dissemination of Pre-1972 Commercial Sound Recordings by Libraries and Archives. Washington, DC: Council on Library and Information Resources and Library of Congress, December 2005. http://www.clir.org/PUBS/reports/pub135/contents.html.
Besek, June M. Copyright and Related Issues Relevant to Digital Preservation and andDissemination of Unpublished Pre-1972 Sound Recordings by Libraries and Archives. Council on Library and Information Resources and Library of Congress, March 2009. http://www.clir.org/pubs/abstract/pub144abst.html.
Jaszi, Peter and Nick Lewis. Protection for Pre-1972 Sound Recordings under State Law and Its Impact on Use by Nonprofit Institutions: A 10-State Analysis. Council on Library and Information Resources and Library of Congress, December 2005. http://www.clir.org/pubs/abstract/pub146abst.html.
Prepared by the Program on Information Justice and Intellectual Property, Washington College of Law, American University Under the supervision of Peter Jaszi with the assistance of Nick Lewis.
Music Library Association. MLA: Copyright for Music Librarians. http://copyright.musiclibraryassoc.org/.
This resource from the Music Library Association outlines general copyright provisions, preservation, performance rights, as well as issues for composers and authors for AV materials in music libraries.
United States Copyright Office. From Basics to FAQ to Forms. http://www.copyright.gov/.
United States Copyright Office. Federal Copyright Protection for Pre-1972 Sound Recordings. http://www.copyright.gov/docs/sound/.
University of Texas. “Crash Course in Copyright.” http://copyright.lib.utexas.edu.
The University of Texas developed a crash course that outlines and helps to steer the reader through tough copyright dilemmas. This interactive site addresses fair use copyright management and licensing.

History of Recording

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Brooks, Tim. Lost Sounds: Blacks and the Birth of The Recording Industry, 1890-1919. Urbana, IL: University of Illinois Press, 2004.
Chanan, Michael. Repeated Takes: A Short History of Recording and Its Effects on Music. New York: Verso, 1995.
Day, Timothy. A Century of Recorded Music: Listening to Musical History.  New Haven, CT and London: Yale University Press, 2000.
Daniel, Eric D., C. Denis Mee, and Mark H. Clark, eds. Magnetic Recording: The First 100 Years. New York: IEEE Press, 1999.
Doyle, Peter. Echo and Reverb: Fabricating Space in Popular Music Recording, 1900-1960. Middletown, CT: Wesleyan University Press, 2005.
Eisenberg, Evan. The Recording Angel: Explorations in Phonography. New York: McGraw-Hill, 1987.
Frith, Simon, ed. Popular Music: Critical Concepts in Media and Cultural Studies. London: Routledge, 2004.
Gronow, Pekka, and Ilpo Saunio. An International History of the Recording Industry. London: Cassell, 1998.
Katz, Marc. Capturing Sound: How Technology Has Changed Music. Berkeley: University of California Press, 2004.
Kenney, William Howland. Recorded Music in American Life: The Phonograph and Popular Memory, 1890-1945. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1999.
A cultural history of recorded sound from the earliest years to the end of WWII. Aspects of recorded sound such as gender, race, economics and “hillbilly records” are explored.
Millard, Andre. America on Record: A History of Recorded Sound. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1995.
Morton, David. Off the Record: The Technology and Culture of Sound Recording in America. New Brunswick, NJ: Rutgers University Press, 2000.
Morton, David. Sound Recording: The Life Story of a Technology. Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 2004
Read, O., and W. L. Welch. From Tin Foil to Stereo: Evolution of the Phonograph. Indianapolis: Howard W. Sams & Co., 1959.
Steffen, David J. From Edison to Marconi: The First Thirty Years of Recorded Music. Jefferson, NC: McFarland, 2005.
Sterne, Jonathan. The Audible Past: Cultural Origins of Sound Reproduction. Durham, NC: Duke University Press, 2003.
Symes, Colin. Setting the Record Straight: A Material History of Classical Recording. Middletown, CT: Wesleyan University Press, 2004.

Storage of Digital files -  Digital Libraries

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Bradley, Kevin, Junran, Lei, and Chris Blackall.  Towards an Open Source Repository and Preservation System: Recommendations on the Implementation of an Open Source Digital Archival and Preservation System and on Related Software Development.  Paris, UNESCO, 2007.
Dunn, Jon W., and Constance A. Mayer. “Variations: A Digital Music Library System at Indiana University.” Proceedings of the Fourth ACM Conference on Digital Libraries, Berkeley, 1999.
Lazinger, Susan S. Digital Preservation and Metadata: History, Theory, Practice. Englewood, CO: Libraries Unlimited, 2001.
Library of Congress. Building a National Strategy for Preservation: Issues in Digital Media Archiving. Washington, DC: Council on Library and Information Resources, April 2002.  http://www.clir.org/pubs/abstract/pub106abst.html.
Pavuza, Franz, Andreas Rauber, Carl Rauch, and Stephan Strodl. “Evaluating Preservation Strategies for Audio and Video Files.” Proceedings of the DELOS Workshop on Digital Repositories: Interoperability and Common Services, Heraklion, Greece, May 11-13, 2005.
The authors created a decision support workflow for the long term preservation of digital AV files. The authors focused on “the elicitation of requirements, resulting in a total of about 350 criteria and the evaluation of different input formats for long-term preservation.”
Spence, John. “Dams & Digitization Preparedness.” Proceedings of the IASA Conference, Aahus, Denmark, 2002.
Because thousands of hours of recorded sound are digitized each year, digital asset management systems are a crucial part of every sound archive. Spence explains the need for and process and attributes of sound archives. 

Best Practices, Manuals and Standards

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Colorado Digitization Program, Digital Audio Working Group.  Digital Audio Best Practices, Version 2.1.  Aurora, CO: Bibliographical Center for Research (BCR), November 2007. http://chnm.gmu.edu/digitalhistory/links/cached/chapter3/link3.47a.CDPdigitalaudio.html.
Casey, Mike, and Bruce Gordon. Sound Directions: Best Practices for Audio Preservation.  Bloomington, IN: Digital Preservation and Access for Global Audio Heritage, 2007.
Complete and current practices for the preservation of audio in most formats are conveyed in detail in this document funded by the National Endowment for the Humanities and created as a joint effort by the Indiana University Archives of Traditional Music (ATM) and the Archive of World Music at Harvard University.
Edmondson, Ray. “Seapavaa Manual for AV Archives.”  Paper presented at UNESCO, 2002.
Fells, Nick, Pauline Donachy, and Catherine Owen. Creating Digital Audio Resources: A Guide to Good Practice. Oxford: Oxbow, 2002. http://www.ahds.ac.uk/creating/guides/audio-resources/GGP_Audio_Overview.htm.
Grammy Foundation. “Basic Methodology for Preserving, Transferring and Archiving Recorded Media,” 2009. http://www2.grammy.com/PDFGs/GRAMMY_Foundation/Methodology_2009_Final.pdf.
National Initiative for a Networked Cultural Heritage (NINCH). “The NINCH Guide to Good Practice in the Digital Representation and Management of Cultural Heritage Material,” 2002.  http://www.nyu.edu/its/humanities/ninchguide/VII/.
Paton, C.A., Stephanie E. Young, Harry P. Hopkins, and Robert B. Simmons.  “A Review and Discussion of Selected Acetate Disc Cleaning Methods: Anecdotal, Experimental and Investigative Findings.” ARSC Journal (Vol. 28, No. 1), 1997.
PrestoSpace. “Preservation Planning:  A Tutorial Guide.” http://digitalpreservation.ssl.co.uk/general/T7/T7-1.html (2006).
Seadle, Michael. “Sound Practice: A Report of the Best Practices for Digital Sound Meeting.” RLG DigiNews (Vol. 5, No. 2), 2001. http://webdoc.gwdg.de/edoc/aw/rlgdn/preserv/diginews/diginews5-2.html#feature3.
St. Laurent, Gilles. The Care and Handling of Recorded Sound Materials. Washington, DC: Commission on Preservation and Access, 1991; rev. 1996. http://cool.conservation-us.org/byauth//st-laurent/care.html.
Warren Jr., Richard. “Handling of Sound Recordings.” ARSC Journal (Vol. 25, No. 2), Fall 1994.
Williams, Jessica, Sandra Paske and Steven Dast. Audio Procedures and Workflow for the University of Wisconsin Digital Collections Center (UWDCC). Madison, WI: University of Wisconsin, April 21, 2004.

Current Research

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Fadeyev, Vitaliy, and Carl Haber. “Reconstruction of Mechanically Recorded Sound by Image Processing.” Journal of the American Engineering Society (Vo. 51, No. 12), December 2003.
Nascé, A.J., J.W. McBride, M. Hill, and P.J. Boltryk. “Signal Processing Methods for the Recovery of Audio From Early Acoustic Cylinder Recordings, Measured via Non-Contact Optical Sensor.”  Paper presented at AES 31st International Conference, London, June 25-27, 2007. http://www.aes.org/e-lib/browse.cfm?elib=13972.
Non-contact optical methods to reproduce audio from early or damaged sound carriers is explained as a means for sound archives to obtain a digital copy of recordings. Surface mapping for audio extraction will provide a method for future researchers to hear the sounds of the past.

Disaster Recovery

Brothers, Peter. Disaster Avoidance and Recovery of Magnetic Tapes Key Findings From a 20-Year Study.  Proceedings from JTS (Joint Technical Symposium) 2004 Preserving the AudioVisual Heritage: Transition and Access, Toronto, Canada, 2004.
University of Michigan, the Library of Congress, et.al. “Disaster Preparedness.” http://matrix.msu.edu/%7Edisaster/.

Audio Organizations and Archives

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Audio Engineering Society (AES). http://www.aes.org/.
AES Subcommittee on the Preservation and Restoration of Audio Recording. http://www.aes.org/standards/about/group-scopes.cfm.
Association of Moving Image Archivists (AMIA). Archiving Digital Audio. http://www.rydot.com/amia/.
Audio Engineering Society Historical Committee. http://www.aes.org/aeshc/.
Audio Engineering Society SC-03 Subcommittee on the Preservation and Restoration of Audio Recording:
SC-03-02 Working Group on Transfer Technologies
SC-03-04 Working Group on Storage and Handling of Media
SC-03-06 Working Group on Digital Library and Archive Systems
SC-03-06-A Metadata Harmonization
SC-03-06-B Transfers to Digital
SC-03-06-C Asset Management
SC-03-07 Working Group on Audio Metadata http://www.aes.org/standards/.
Austrian Academy of Sciences Phonogrammarchiv. http://www.phonogrammarchiv.at/wwwnew/index_e.htm.
Association of Recorded Sound Collections (ARSC). http://www.arsc-audio.org/.
Audio Preservation Bibliography and Web Reference. http://www.cool.conservation-us.org/bytopic//audio/.

International Committee for the Audiovisual and Image and Sound New Technologies (AVICOM). http://icom.museum/international/avicom.html.

The British Library Sound Archive. http://www.bl.uk/nsa.

CCAAA Co-ordinating Council of Audiovisual Archives. http://www.ccaaa.org/.

DELOS: Network of Excellence on Digital Libraries, Audio-Visual and Non-traditional Objects. http://www.delos.info/index.php?option=com_frontpage
National Park Service, Edison National Historic Site. http://www.nps.gov/edis/photosmultimedia/the-recording-archives.htm.
Hess, Richard. Restoration Tips & Notes: Media Formats & Resources. http://richardhess.com/notes/.
History of Recorded Sound Technology. http://www.recording-history.org.
International Conferences on Music Information Retrieval and Related Activities Conference proceedings (2000 – 2005). http://www.ismir.net/.
JTS 2004: Preserving the AudioVisual Heritage: Transition and Access. http://portal.unesco.org/ci/en/ev.php-URL_ID=14291&URL_DO=DO_TOPIC&URL_SECTION=201.html.
Laboratory of Distributed Multimedia Information Systems and Applications. http://www.ced.tuc.gr/.
Library of Congress Preservation of Sound Recordings FAQ. http://www.lcweb.loc.gov/preserv/care/record.html.
Library of Congress Recorded Sound Reference Center. http://www.loc.gov/rr/record/.
Mix Audio Archival Standards: Web Resources. http://mixonline.com/online_extras/.
National Digital Information Infrastructure and Preservation Program (NDIIPP). http://www.digitalpreservation.gov.
Optical Storage Technology Association. http://www.osta.org/.
Recording Technology History. http://www.nfsa.gov.au/the_collection/.
Screensound Australia National Film and Sound Archive. Sound Reproduction R & D Home Page. http://irene.lbl.gov/.
Syracuse University Belfer Audio Laboratory. http://libwww.syr.edu/information/belfer/.
United States Copyright Office. http://www.copyright.gov/.
SEE ALSO: http://www.loc.gov/rr/record/nrpb/nrpb-OTHERARCHIVES.html

Standards

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AES-6id-2006: AES information document for digital audio – Personal computer audio quality measurements. Measurements and definitions are included. http://www.aes.org/publications/standards/.
This document reflects the improvements since the 2000 document.
AES7-2000 (r2005): AES standard for the preservation and restoration of audio recording -- Method of measuring recorded fluxivity of magnetic sound records at medium wavelengths (Revision of AES7-1982). http://www.aes.org/publications/standards/.
AES11-2009, Synchronization of digital audio equipment. http://www.aes.org/standards/blog/.
AES-11id-2006: AES Information document for Preservation of Audio recordings – Extended term storage environment for multiple media archives.
Valuable document and chart outlining the requirements and standards (AES and ISO) for storing multiple AV formats in a single storage environment.
AES22-1997 (r2008): AES recommended practice for audio preservation and restoration -- Storage and handling -- Storage of polyester-base magnetic tape. http://www.aes.org/publications/standards/.
AES28-1997 (r2008): AES standard for audio preservation and restoration -- Method for estimating life expectancy of compact discs (CD-ROM), based on effects of temperature and relative humidity (includes Amendment 1-2001). http://www.aes.org/publications/standards/.
AES35-2000 (r2005): AES standard for audio preservation and restoration -- Method for estimating life expectancy of magneto-optical (M-O) disks, based on effects of temperature and relative humidity. http://www.aes.org/publications/standards/.
AES38-2000 (r2005): AES standard for audio preservation and restoration -- Life expectancy of information stored in recordable compact disc systems -- Method for estimating, based on effects of temperature and relative humidity. http://www.aes.org/publications/standards/.
AES41-2009 (r2005): AES standard for digital audio -- Recoding data set for audio bit-rate reduction. http://www.aes.org/publications/standards/.
AES 43-2000 (r2005): AES standard for forensic purposes –Criteria for the authentication of  analog audio tape recordings.http://www.aes.org/publications/standards/.
AES49-2005: AES standard for audio preservation and restoration -- Magnetic tape -- Care and handling practices for extended usage.http://www.aes.org/publications/standards/.
ANSI NPM IT9.21-1996 Life Expectancy of Compact Discs (CD-ROM) Method for Estimating (Life Expectancy) Based on Effects of Temperature and Relative Humidity.
ANSI/AIIM MS59:1996 Standard Recommended Practice for Media Error Monitoring and Reporting Techniques for Verification of the Information Stored in Optical Digital Data Disks.
ANSI/AIIM TR39-1996 Guidelines for the Use of Media Error Monitoring and Reporting Techniques for the Verification of Stored Data on Optical Digital Data Disks. 
ANSI/PIMA IT9.26-1997 Imaging Materials – Life Expectancy of Magneto-Optic (MO) Disks – Method for Estimation, Based on Effects of Temperature and Relative Humidity. http://www.iso.org/iso/iso_catalogue/catalogue_tc/catalogue_detail.htm?csnumber=44129.
ISO 18933 Standard on Magnetic Tape- Care and Handling practices for extended usage.   http://www.iso.org/iso/catalogue_detail.htm?csnumber=44128.
NISO Standards for Audio and Visual Material http://www.niso.org.

Journals and Newsletters

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Journal of the Audio Engineering Society. http://www.aes.org/journal/.
ARSC Journal. Association for Recorded Sound Collections . http://www.arsc-audio.org/journal.html.
ARSC Newsletter. Association for Recorded Sound Collections. http://www.arsc-audio.org/newsletter/index.html.
IASA Journal. International Association of Sound and Audio Visiulal Archives. http://www.iasa-web.org/iasa-journal.
IASA Information Bulletin. International Association of Sound and Audio Visual Archives. http://www.iasa-web.org/information-bulletin.
Society of American Archivists Performing Arts Roundtable Newsletter. http://www.archivists.org/saagroups/performart/newsletter/index.html.
Recorded Sound Roundtable Newsletter. Society of American Archivists. http://www2.archivists.org/groups/recorded-sound-roundtable .
CDSA: Latest News. Content Delivery and Storage Association. http://www.cdsaonline.org/category/latest-news/.
SEE ALSO: http://www.loc.gov/rr/record/nrpb/nrpb-PUBLICATIONS.html

 

Audio Preservation Web pages

McGill Audio Preservation Project http://coltrane.music.mcgill.ca/mapp/links.html.

Current Projects

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Sound Archive Project:  Southampton University Non-Contact Surface Scanning of Cylinders Research Project. http://www.sesnet.soton.ac.uk/archivesound/Home.html.
Non-contact methods to read grooves of early cylinders are used by the University of Southampton. The home page outlines their techniques used to extract sound from wax cylinders.
British Library Archival Sound Recordings Project. http://sounds.bl.uk/.
Department of Special Collections, Donald C. Davidson Library, University of California, Santa Barbara. Cylinder Preservation and Digitization Project. http://cylinders.library.ucsb.edu/.
Library of Congress Digital Audio-Visual Preservation Prototyping Projects. http://www.loc.gov/rr/mopic/avprot/.
Matrix: The Center for Humane Arts, Letters and Social Sciences Michigan State University. http://www2.matrix.msu.edu/.
Australian National Film and Sound Archive. http://www.nfsa.gov.au/.
Sound Directions: Digital Preservation and Access for Global Audio Heritage. http://dlib.indiana.edu/projects/sounddirections/index.shtml.
Sound Reproduction R&D Home Page. http://irene.lbl.gov/.
Particle physicists Carl Haber and Vitaliy Fadeyev describe their work to reconstruct audio from damaged mechanical recordings. Digital maps of the carrier’s surface created without direct contact can be used to recreate the audio. Haber and Fadeyev gave a paper at the AES conference in 2003:  “Reconstruction of Mechanically Recorded Sound by Image Processing.” It was later published:  Fadeyev, Vitaliy, and Carl Haber. “Reconstruction of Mechanically Recorded Sound by Image Processing.” Journal of the American Engineering Society (Vol. 51, Issue 12), December 2003.

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