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Food Thrift: Scraps from the Past
Constance Carter

Meet Constance Carter, Head, Science Reference Section, Science, Technology & Business Division, Library of Congress.

Constance Carter, Head of the Science Reference Section, Library of Congress, describes the resourceful ways American housewives found to feed their families during hard times of the past.

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Library of Congress Web Sites of Interest

American Women: A Gateway to the Library of Congress Resources for the Study of Women’s History and Culture in the United States
http://memory.loc.gov/ammem/awhhtml/index.html
            In index, see housekeeping, cookery, and domestic life.

Library of Congress Online Catalog
http://catalog.loc.gov/
            To search for materials on thrift, select Basic Search, then Expert Search.  Helpful
            Search phrases are “thrift and cookery,” “canning and preserving,” wheatless, meatless,
            “food and thrift.”

Prosperity and Thrift: The Coolidge Era and the Consumer Economy, 1921-1923
http://memory.loc.gov/ammem/coolhtml/coolhome.html

Other Web Sites of Interest

Feeding America: The Historic American Cookbook Project
http://digital.lib.msu.edu/projects/cookbooks/ External Link

Hearth: A Core Electronic Collection of Books and Journals in Home Economics and Related Disciplines Published Between 1850 and 1950
http://hearth.library.cornell.edu/ External Link
            From the Mann Library, Cornell University.

North American Women’s Letters and Diaries: Colonial to 1950
http://www.alexanderstreet2.com/nwldlive/ External Link
            Includes the immediate experiences of 1,325 women and 150 pages of diaries and letters.

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Other Materials of Interest

Print Sources on Thrift in the Home: Primary Sources

Alcott, William Andrus.  The Young-Housekeeper, or Thoughts on Food and Cookery.  2nd stereotype ed.  Boston: G. W. Light, 1838.
LC call number: TX145.A35
http://lccn.loc.gov/07035679

Allen, Ida Cogswell Bailey.  Solving the High Cost of Eating: A Cookbook to Live by.  New York: Farrar, c1952.
LC call number: TX715.A44246
http://lccn.loc.gov/52006979

Benson, Oscar Herman.  Home Canning and Food Thrift.  Albany: New York (State), Department of Farms and Markets, 1920.  (Bulletin, no. 130) 
LC call number: S95.A18, no. 130.
http://lccn.loc.gov/agr20001805

Bitting, A. W., and K. G. Bitting.  Canning and How to use Canned Foods.  Washington: National Canning Association, c1916.
LC call number: TX603.B57
http://lccn.loc.gov/16011997

Child, Lydia Maria Francis.  The American Frugal Housewife.  16th ed.  Boston: Carter, Hendee & Co., 1835.
LC call number: TX147.C53 1835
http://lccn.loc.gov/07026052

-----.  The Frugal Housewife.  Boston: March & Capen, and Carter & Hendee, 1829.
LC call number: TX147.C53 1829 RBK
http://lccn.loc.gov/43019104

Clarke, Ida Clyde Gallagher.  American Women and the World War.  New York, London: D. Appleton and Company, 1918. 
LC call number: D639.W7C5
http://lccn.loc.gov/18004728
Available online at http://hdl.loc.gov/loc.gdc/scd0001.00008439515

Clay-Clopton, Virginia.  A Belle of the Fifties: Memoirs of Mrs. Clay, of Alabama.  New York: Doubleday, Page & Company, 1905.
LC call number: F213.C63 Ft. Meade
http://lccn.loc.gov/13024517
Available online at http://hdl.loc.gov/loc.gdc/scd0001.00019715590

Confederate Receipt Book: A Compilation of Over One Hundred Receipts, Adapted to the Times.
Richmond, Va.: West & Johnston, 1863. 
LC call number: TX153.C7 RBK
http://lccn.loc.gov/04020450

Corson, Juliet.  Fifteen Cent Dinners for Families of Six.  NewYork: The Author, 1877.
LC call number: TX715.C835
http://lccn.loc.gov/08018950
Available online at http://lcweb2.loc.gov/cgi-bin/ampage?collId=gdc3&fileName=scd0001_20020806004fipage.db

-----.  Twenty-five Cent Dinners for Families of Six.  17th ed.  New York: O. Judd Co., 1885.
LC call number: TX715.C847
http://lccn.loc.gov/ca10002227

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Creswell, Mary E., and Ola Powell.  Home Canning of Fruits and Vegetables, As Taught to Canning Club Members in Southern States.  Washington: Govt. Print. Off., 1917. (Farmers Bulletin, United States, Dept. of Agriculture, 853)
LC call number: S21.A6, no. 853
http://lccn.loc.gov/agr17000704

Doddridge, Amelia.  Liberty Recipes.  Cincinnati: Stewart & Kidd Company, 1918.
LC call number: TX715.D64 SciRR Desk
http://lccn.loc.gov/18018169 

Dodge, David.  “Domestic Economy in the Confederacy.”  Atlantic Monthly 58, no. 346 (Aug. 1886): 229-43.
LC call number: PN4900.A7A4
http://lccn.loc.gov/05022829
Available online in the volume at http://digital.library.cornell.edu/cgi/t/text/text-idx?c=atla;idno=atla0058-2

Drying Fruits and Vegetables in the Home—with Recipes for Cooking.  Washington: U.S. Dept. of Agriculture, 1917.  (Farmers’ Bulletin, 841)
LC call number: S21.A6, no. 841
http://lccn.loc.gov/agr16000325

Franks, Thetta Quay.  Efficiency in the Household: A Book for Every Woman.  Garden City, N.Y.: Doubleday, Page & Co., 1915. 
LC call number: TX728.F8
http://lccn.loc.gov/15002276

-----. The Margin of Happiness, the Reward of Thrift. New York and London: G. P. Putnam’s Sons, 1917.
LC call number: TX145.F67
http://lccn.loc.gov/17018488

Food Thrift: Suggestions, Menus, Recipes with Substitutes.  Boston:  Dept. of University Extension, Massachusetts Board of Education, 1917. (Bulletin, v. 2, no. 5, Sept. 1917.  Whole no. 11.)
LC call number: LC6252.M4A3
http://lccn.loc.gov/e17000653

Goodfellow, Mrs.  Mrs. Goodfellow’s Cookery As It Should Be: A New Manual of the Dining Room and Kitchen.  Philadelphia: T. B. Peterson & Brothers, 1865.
LC call number: TX715.G651 SciRR Desk
http://lccn.loc.gov/08023694

Goudiss, C. Houston, and Alberta M. Goudiss. Foods That Will Win the War, and How to Cook Them.  New York: World Syndicate Company, c1918.
LC call number: TX357.G6
http://lccn.loc.gov/18005661

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Hague, Parthenia Antoinette.  A Blockaded Family: Life in Southern Alabama During the Civil War.  Boston and New York: Houghton, Mifflin and Co., 1888.
LC call number: Microfilm 8534 E
http://lccn.loc.gov/02017890

Handy, Amy L.  War Food: Practical and Economical Methods of Keeping Vegetables, Fruits and Meats.  Boston and New York: Houghton Mifflin Company, 1917.
LC call number: TX601.H2
http://lccn.loc.gov/17021110

Herrick, Christine Terhune.  Liberal Living Upon Narrow Means.  Boston, New York: Houghton Mifflin and Company, 1890.
LC call number: TX715.H563
http://lccn.loc.gov/12036060

Hill, Janet McKenzie.  Canning, Preserving and Jelly Making.  Boston: Little, Brown, and Company, 1915.
LC call number: TX601.H6
http://lccn.loc.gov/15018844

-----.  War Time Recipes.  Cincinnati:  Proctor and Gamble Company, c1918.
LC call number: TX715.H678 SciRR
http://lccn.loc.gov/18018682

Howland, E. A.  The New England Economical Housekeeper, and Family Receipt Book.  Worcester: S. A. Howland, 1845.
LC call number: TX715.H863 1845 SciRR
http://lccn.loc.gov/27021834

Hughes, Dora Morrell.  Thrift in the Household.  Boston: Lothrop, Lee & Shepard Co., 1918.
LC call number: TX145.H88
http://lccn.loc.gov/18009464

Hurn, Ethel Alice.  Wisconsin Women in the War Between the States.  Madison: Wisconsin History Commission, 1911.  (Wisconsin History Commission. Original Papers, no. 6.)
LC call number: E537.4.W8, no. 6
http://lccn.loc.gov/11015204

Kinghorne, J. W.  Preserving Eggs.  Washington: U.S. Dept. of Agriculture, 1920.  (Farmers Bulletin, 1109.)
LC call number: S21.A6, no. 1109
http://lccn.loc.gov/agr16000325

Knight, Mrs. S.G.  Tit-bits or, How to Prepare a Nice Dish at a Moderate Expense.  Boston: Crosby and Nichols; New York: O. S. Felt, 1864.
LC call number: TX715.K689 SciRR
http://lccn.loc.gov/08022856

Lusk, Graham.  Food in War Time.  Philadelphia, London: W. B. Saunders Company, 1918.
LC call number: TX357.L8
http://lccn.loc.gov/18003809

Morton, Lillian.  Thrift Cook Book for the Economical Housewife: Proven Recipes of Delicious Foods Helping to Conserve Wheat, Sugar, Beef, and Other Expensive Materials, and Still Supply Attractive and Healthful Meals at Home.  Chicago: Shrewsbury Publishing Co., c1918.
LC call number: TX715.M9 SciRR
http://lccn.loc.gov/19002724

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Murphy, Bessie R., comp.  Legumes: Dried Beans, Peas, Lentils for Breakfast, Dinner, Supper.  Chicago, New York: Rand, McNally and Co., c1920.
LC call number: http://hdl.loc.gov/loc.gdc/scd0001.00144846850
http://lccn.loc.gov/20007744

Murphy, Margot.  Wartime Meals, How to Plan Them, How to Buy Them, How to Cook Them.  New York: Greenberg, 1942.
LC call number: TX357.M88
http://lccn.loc.gov/42019084

National War Garden Commission.  Home Drying Manual for Vegetables and Fruits.  Washington: National Emergency Food Garden Commission, c1917.
LC call number: TX609.N3
http://lccn.loc.gov/17021360

Neil, Marion Harris.  Canning, Preserving and Pickling.  Philadelphia: D. McKay, c1914.
LC call number TX601.N5
http://lccn.loc.gov/2006462631

-----.  The Thrift Cook Book.  Philadelphia: D. McKay, c1919.
LC call number TX715.N396 SciRR
http://lccn.loc.gov/19019145

“Our Women in the War.” The Lives They Lived, the Deaths They Died.  Charleston, S.C.: The News and Courier Book Presses, 1885.
LC call number: Microfilm 8548 E
http://lccn.loc.gov/05041680

Paul, Sara T. The Economical Cook Book.  Philadelphia: The International Press, c1905.
LC call number: TX715.P327
http://lccn.loc.gov/05032505

Porcher, Francis Peyre.  Resources of the Southern Fields and Forests, Medical, Economical, and Agricultural.  New ed.  Charleston: Walker, Evans & Cogswell, Printers, 1869.
LC call number: SB108.U6S76 1869
http://lccn.loc.gov/11013842
Available online at http://hdl.loc.gov/loc.gdc/scd0001.00027632087

Richardson, Anna Steese Sausser.  Adventures in Thrift.  Indianapolis: The Bobbs-Merrill Co., c1916.      
LC call number: TX356.R5
http://lccn.loc.gov/16007927

Rorer, Sara Tyson (Heston).  Canning and Preserving.  Philadelphia: Arnold and Company, 1887.
LC call number: TX601.R78
http://lccn.loc.gov/07028887

Smith, Coral B.  New Dishes from Left-Overs.  New York: Frederick A. Stokes Company, 1933.
LC call number: TX715.S6515
http://lccn.loc.gov/33031242

United Daughters of the Confederacy. South Carolina Division.  South Carolina Women in the Confederacy:  Records Collected by Mrs. A. T. Smythe, Miss M. B. Poppenheim and Mrs. Thomas Taylor.  Ed. and pub. by Mrs. Thomas Taylor, Chairman, Mrs. Smythe, Mrs. August Kohn, Miss Poppenheim, Miss Martha B. Washington, State Committee, Daughters of the Confederacy.  Columbia, S.C.: The State Company, 1903-7.
LC call number:  E577.U58
http://lccn.loc.gov/03021011

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United States. Dept. of Agriculture.  Report of the Commissioner of Agriculture, 1886.  Washington: Govt. Print. Off., 1887.
LC call number: S21.A2, 1886
http://lccn.loc.gov/agr09000985

Walker, C. Irvine, comp.  The Women of the Southern Confederacy During the War 1861-5: Original Historic Incidents of Their Heroism, Suffering and Devotion.  Published in “Our Women in the War” supplements to leading newspapers in Tennessee and Mississippi, together with Arkansas memorial, clipped from original publications and arranged under direction of Gen’l C. Irvine Walker ... under whose general supervision, aiding the work for the memorials to the women of the confederacy, the various supplements were published.  Charleston, S.C.: n.p.,  1908.
LC call number:  E487.W852 fol.
http://lccn.loc.gov/08027836

-----, comp.  The Women of the Southern Confederacy During the War 1861-5: Original Historic Incidents of their Heroism, Suffering and Devotion. Published in “Our Women in the War” supplements to leading newspapers in Virginia, North Carolina, South Carolina, Georgia, Florida and Alabama, clipped from original publications and arranged under direction of Gen’l C. Irvine Walker ... under whose general supervision, aiding the work for the memorials to the women of the confederacy, the various supplements were published.  Charleston, S.C.: n.p., 1906?
LC call number:  E487.W85 fol.
http://lccn.loc.gov/08006276

Watkins, John Elfreth.  “Our Daily Bread: What the Government Chemists are Learning About our Food Faults.”  Reader: An Illustrated Monthly Magazine 6 (June 1905): 61-68.
LC call number: AP2.R25
http://lccn.loc.gov/05026875

Wilson, Mary Elizabeth Lyles, Mrs. W. H. Wilson, and Mollie Huggins.  Good Things to Eat.  Nashville, Tenn., Dallas, Tex.: Publishing House of the M. E. Church, Smith & Lamar, Agents, 1909.
LC call number: TX715.W7515
http://lccn.loc.gov/09027411

Wright, Julia McNair.  The Complete Home.  Philadelphia, Cincinnati, Ohio, etc.: J. C. McCurdy & Co., 1879.
LC call number: HQ734.W95
http://lccn.loc.gov/09004012

Print Sources on Thrift in the Home: Secondary Sources and Modern Examples

Bentley, Amy.  Eating for Victory: Food Rationing and the Politics of Domesticity.  Urbana: University of Illinois Press, c1998.
LC call number: D810.W7B45 1998
http://lccn.loc.gov/97045471

Burroughs, Frances M.  “The Confederate Receipt Book: A Study of Food Substitution in the American Civil War.”  South Carolina Historical Magazine 93 (1992): 31-50.
LC call number: F266.S55
http://lccn.loc.gov/05032201

Chambers, Trish.  Civil War Women: Their Roles and Legacies.  Bloomington, Ind.: AuthorHouse, 2005.
LC call number: E628.C46 2005
http://lccn.loc.gov/2005900910

Currie, Stephen. Women of the Civil War.  San Diego: Lucent Books, c2003.
LC call number: E628.C87 2003
http://lccn.loc.gov/2002004108

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Davis, William C.  A Taste for War: the Culinary History of the Blue and the Gray.  Mechanicsburg, Pa.: Stackpole Books, c2003.
LC call number: E468.9.D285 2003
http://lccn.loc.gov/2003003849

Eighmey, Rae Katherine.  Food Will Win the War: Minnesota Crops, Cooks, and Conservation during World War I.  St Paul: Minnesota Historical Society, 2010.
LC call number: TX357.E45 2010
http://lccn.loc.gov/2009003173

Lawson, Laura J.  City Bountiful: A Century of Community Gardening in America.  Berkeley: University of California Press, c2005.
LC call number: SB457.3.L49 2005 <SciRR>
http://lccn.loc.gov/2004010999

Pilato, Denise E.  The Retrieval of a Legacy: Nineteenth-Century American Women Inventors.
Westport, Conn.: Prager, 2000.
LC call number: T36.P55 2000 <SciRR>
http://lccn.loc.gov/99055017

Rumble, Victoria R.  Soup Through the Ages: A Culinary History with Period Recipes.  Jefferson, N.C.: McFarland & Co., Inc., c2009.
LC call number: TX757.R86 2009
http://lccn.loc.gov/2009011893

Shephard, Sue.  Pickled, Potted, and Canned: How the Art and Science of Food Preserving Changed the World. New York: Simon & Schuster, 2006. 
LC call number: TX601.S47 2006 <SciRR>
http://lccn.loc.gov/2006287095

Simkins, Francis Butler, and James Welch Patton. Women of the Confederacy.  Richmond, New York: Garrett and Massie, Inc., c1936.
LC call number: E628.S56
http://lccn.loc.gov/36024924

Solomon, Steve.  Gardening When it Counts: Growing Food in Hard Times.  Gabriola Island,
BC: New Society Publishers, c2005.
LC call number: SB321.S64 2005
http://lccn.loc.gov/2007310496

Spaulding, Lily May, and John Spaulding, eds. Civil War Recipes: Receipts from the Pages of Godey’s Lady’s Book. Lexington: University Press of Kentucky, c1999.
LC call number: TX715.C57427 1999
http://lccn.loc.gov/98034445

Sperling, John G.  Great Depressions: 1837-1844, 1893-1898, 1929-1939.  Chicago: Scott, Foresman, 1966.
LC call number: HB3743.S6
http://lccn.loc.gov/65026546

Wolf, Ray, ed.  Eating Better for Less: A Guide to Managing your Personal Food Supply.  Emmaus, Pa.: Rodale Press, c1978.
LC call number: TX601.E37
http://lccn.loc.gov/77026011

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Periodicals

Atlantic Monthly.  LC call number: AP2.A8  http://lccn.loc.gov/05022829
Cooking Club Magazine.  LC call number: TX1.C8 http://lccn.loc.gov/ca08003543
Delineator.  LC call number: TT500.D3  http://lccn.loc.gov/48040320
Farmer’s Wife.  LC call number: S1.F72  http://lccn.loc.gov/56049142
Forecast for Home Economists. LC call number: TX1.F7  http://lccn.loc.gov/53037516
Good Housekeeping.  LC call number: TX1.G7  http://lccn.loc.gov/81644319, http://lccn.loc.gov/82640543, http://lccn.loc.gov/82640544
The Household.  LC call number: TX1.H78 http://lccn.loc.gov/60030021
Hunt’s Merchants’ Magazine and Commercial Review. LC call number: HF1.M5 http://lccn.loc.gov/05023610
Ladies’ Home Journal.  LC call number: Microfilm 05422 (1884-1907); 06262 (1908- )  http://lccn.loc.gov/sf89099013, http://lccn.loc.gov/sf89099012, http://lccn.loc.gov/sf87091431, http://lccn.loc.gov/sn94096110, http://lccn.loc.gov/sf87091432
Table Talk.  LC call number: TX1.T3  http://lccn.loc.gov/ca09000284
Thrift Magazine.  LC call number: HG7931.A1T4  http://lccn.loc.gov/unk83017853
To-day’s Housewife.  LC call number: TX1.T6  http://lccn.loc.gov/06031027
United States. Committee on Public Information.  Official U. S. Bulletin.  LC call number:     D570.A2A3  http://lccn.loc.gov/17026398
United States. Dept. of Agriculture.  Food Thrift Series.  LC call number: TX341.U6  http://lccn.loc.gov/agr17000479
Woman’s Weekly.  LC call number: AP2.W734  http://lccn.loc.gov/19012546
Woman’s World.  LC call number: AP2.W74  http://lccn.loc.gov/ca09001183, http://lccn.loc.gov/sn98047790

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