14th Amendment to the U.S. Constitution
14th Amendment to the Constitution was ratified on July
9, 1868, and granted citizenship to “all persons born
or naturalized in the United States,” which included
former slaves recently freed. In addition, it forbids states
from denying any person "life, liberty or property, without
due process of law" or to "deny to any person within
its jurisdiction the equal protection of the laws.”
By directly mentioning the role of the states, the 14th Amendment
greatly expanded the protection of civil rights to all Americans
and is cited in more litigation than any other amendment.
Congress Web Site | External Web
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Century of Lawmaking for a New Nation
- June 8, 1866 - The
Senate passed the 14th Amendment
by a vote of 33 to 11.
13, 1866 - The House
of Representatives passed the 14th Amendment by a vote of 120 to 32.
- June 16, 1866 - The
text of the 14th Amendment can be found in the United States Statutes at Large, volume 14, page 358 (14 Stat. 358).
- June 22, 1866 - President Andrew Johnson submitted a message to Congress announcing that the
Fourteenth Amendment had been sent to the states for ratification. Johnson voiced his displeasure
with the amendment by stating that his actions should "be considered
as purely ministerial, and in no sense whatever committing the Executive to
an approval or a recommendation of the amendment to the State legislatures
or to the people."
- July 28, 1868 - Secretary
of State William Seward issued a proclamation certifying
the ratification of the 14th Amendment by the states.
Search in the 39th Congress to find additional legislative information on
the 14th Amendment.
American Perspectives: Pamphlets from the Daniel A.P.Murray
In 1873, the U.S. Supreme Court examined the 14th Amendment
in the Slaughterhouse Case. The dissenting
opinions can be read in this collection. The collection also includes
a speech from 1904 by Edward Morrell, a congressman from
Pennsylvania, entitled "Negro
Suffrage: Should the Fourteenth and Fifteenth Amendments
for Women: Selections from the National American Woman
Suffrage Association Collection, 1848-1921
In 1871, Sara
J. Spencer and Sarah E. Webster each brought cases
before the court in the District of Columbia arguing
that they were enfranchised by the Fourteenth Amendment.
This pamphlet outlines the arguments of their lawyers
and the decision of the Supreme Court of the District
of Columbia denying their claim.
Back in Time: 14th Amendment to the Constitution was ratified.
The Chronicling America site allows you to search and view millions of historic American newspaper pages from 1836-1922. Search this collection to find newspaper articles about the 14th Amendment.
A selection of articles on the 14th Amendment includes:
- "Passage of the Constitutional Amendment by the Senate," The Evening Telegraph. (Philadelphia [Pa.]), June 9, 1866.
- "The Constitutional Amendment Passed by the House," The Sun. (New York [N.Y.]), June 14, 1866.
- "The President on the Amendment," The Daily Phoenix. (Columbia, S.C.), June 24, 1866.
- "Reconstruction: Ratification of the Fourteenth Amendment," New-York Tribune. (New York [N.Y.]), July 20, 1868.
Constitution of the United States of America: Analysis and Interpretation
The Constitution of the United States of America: Analysis and Interpretation (popularly known as the Constitution Annotated) contains legal analysis and interpretation of the United States Constitution, based primarily on Supreme Court case law. This regularly updated resource is especially useful when researching the constitutional implications of a specific issue or topic.
American Odyssey: A Quest for Full Citizenship
This exhibition showcases the African American collections
of the Library of Congress. Displays more than 240 items,
including books, government documents, manuscripts, maps,
musical scores, plays, films, and recordings.
The Civil Rights Act of 1964: A Long Struggle for Freedom
This exhibition, which commemorates the fiftieth anniversary of the landmark Civil Rights Act of 1964, explores the events that shaped the civil rights movement, as well as the far-reaching impact the act had on a changing society.
Fourteenth Amendment and Citizenship
Law Library of Congress page on the Fourteenth Amendment and the history of the citizenship clause.
On July 28, 1868, Secretary of State William Seward issued
a proclamation certifying without reservation that the
Fourteenth Amendment was a part of the Constitution.
The Supreme Court ruled separate-but-equal facilities
constitutional on intrastate railroads. For fifty years,
the Plessy v. Ferguson decision upheld the principle
of racial segregation.
Due Process, and Equal Protection: The Creation of the Fourteenth
from Freedom: A Documentary History of Emancipation,
1861-1867, University of Maryland
Protection Clause of the 14th Amendment, Legal Information
Institute, Cornell Law School
Documents, 14th Amendment, National Archives and
Equality: Harper’s Weekly Reports on Black America,
Avins, Alfred, comp. The Reconstruction Amendments' Debates: The Legislative History and Contemporary Debates in Congress on the 13th, 14th, and 15th Amendments. Richmond: Virginia Commission on Constitutional Government, 1967. [Catalog
Berger, Raoul. The Fourteenth Amendment
and the Bill of Rights. Norman: University of Oklahoma Press, 1989. [Catalog
-----. Government by Judiciary:
The Transformation of the Fourteenth Amendment. Indianapolis: Liberty Fund,
Bond, James E. No Easy Walk to Freedom:
Reconstruction and the Ratification of the Fourteenth
Conn.: Praeger, 1997. [Catalog
Curtis, Michael Kent. No State Shall
Abridge: The Fourteenth Amendment and the Bill of Rights. Durham, N.C.: Duke University
Press, 1986. [Catalog
Garrett. Democracy Reborn: The Fourteenth
Amendment and the Fight for Equal Rights in Post-Civil War
America. New York: H. Holt, 2006. [Catalog
Flack, Horace Edgar. The Adoption
of the Fourteenth Amendment.
Buffalo, N.Y.: W.S. Hein, 2003. [Catalog
Hay, Jeff, ed. Amendment XIV: Citizenship For All. Farmington Hills, Mich.: Greenhaven Press, 2009. [Catalog
James, Joseph B. The Ratification
of the Fourteenth Amendment.
Macon, Ga.: Mercer University Press, 1984. [Catalog
Meyer, Howard N. The Amendment that
Refused to Die: Equality and Justice Deferred: The History
of the Fourteenth Amendment.
Lanham, Md.: Madison Books, 2000. [Catalog
Nelson, William E. The Fourteenth
Amendment: From Political Principle to Judicial Doctrine. Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard
University Press, 1988. [Catalog
Perry, Michael J. We the People:
The Fourteenth Amendment and the Supreme Court. New York: Oxford University Press,
Hudson, David L. Jr. The Fourteenth
Amendment: Equal Protection Under the Law. Berkeley Heights, N.J.: Enslow Publishers,