1861-1877: Civil War and Reconstruction
Abraham Lincoln's election led to secession and secession
to war. When the Union soldiers entered the South, thousands
of African Americans fled from their owners to Union camps.
Many "contrabands" greatly aided the war effort
with their labor.
After Lincoln's Emancipation Proclamation, which was effective
on January 1, 1863, black soldiers were officially allowed
to participate in the war. Both blacks and whites were outspoken
about questions of race, civil rights, and full equality
for the newly-freed population during the Civil War era.
Emancipation Proclamation in 1863 freed African Americans
in rebel states, and after the Civil War, the Thirteenth
Amendment emancipated all U.S. slaves wherever they were.
As a result, the mass of Southern blacks now faced the
difficulty Northern blacks had confronted--that of a free
by many hostile whites.
The African American Odyssey: A Quest for Full Citizenship
African American Mosaic
People, Places and Events
Martin Robinson Delany (1812-1885): Abolitionist, author, editor, physician, and Civil War veteran
- Martin Robinson Delany w/Frederick Douglass entry (SEARCH FOR "Delany" on this page).
Frederick Douglass (1817-1895):
Consultant to President Abraham Lincoln, advocating that
former slaves be armed for the North and that the war be
made a direct confrontation against slavery.
- Frederick Douglass: Online Resources (Web Guide)
Frederick Douglass (An
Frederick Douglass (America's Library Web site)
Paul Laurence Dunbar (1872-1906):
Achieved international acclaim as an author, best friend
of Orville Wright of the Wright Brothers who together,
published a newspaper, The Dayton Tattler
- Paul Laurence Dunbar: Online Resources (Web Guide)
Laurence Dunbar (Today in History: June 27)
Paul Laurence Dunbar Was Born June 27, 1872 (America's Library Web site)
Fisk School (1866): Fisk University,
incorporated as such on August 22, 1867
School/University (SCROLL TO SECOND ENTRY ON PAGE)
classes convened on January 9, 1866
Sojourner Truth (1797-1883):
Preacher, abolitionist, and women's rights advocate
- Sojourner Truth: Online Resources (Web Guide)
Truth (SCROLL TO SECOND ENTRY ON PAGE)
Howard University (1866): A
seminary and later as a liberal arts college was founded
November 20, 1866
University Founded (Today in History)
students entered in May 1867
James Weldon Johnson (1871-1938):
Authored the lyrics of "Lift Ev'ry Voice and Sing"
Weldon Johnson (SCROLL TO SECOND ENTRY ON PAGE)
James Weldon Johnson (America's Library Web site)
- Mary Church Terrell (1863-1954):
First president of the National Association of Colored
Church Terrell (Today in History, September 23)
Mary Church Terrell (America's Library Web site)