Thesaurus for Graphic Materials II: Genre and Physical Characteristic Terms (TGM II)

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Many reference sources were consulted to select terms and compile the definitions. The selection listed here is limited to sources that cover several processes or common formats. Most have illustrations and also contain additional citations to pursue for more extensive study of particular material is desired. The asterisk (*) indicates thesauri authorized for use in MARC field 655.


ALA Glossary of Library and Information Science, ed. by Heartsill Young. Chicago: American Library Association, 1983.

*Art & Architecture Thesaurus. 2nd ed. New York: Oxford University Press, on behalf of the Getty Art History Information Program, 1994. 5 vols. Also available online

*Association of College and Research Libraries, Rare Books and Manuscripts Section, Standards Committee or Bibliographic Standards Committee. Chicago: Association of College and Research Libraries.

-----. Binding Terms: A Thesaurus for Use in Rare Book and Special Collections Cataloguing. 1988.

-----. Genre Terms: A Thesaurus for Use in Rare Book and Special Collections Cataloguing. 2nd ed. 1991.

-----. Paper Terms: A Thesaurus for Use in Rare Book and Special Collections Cataloguing. 1990.

-----. Printing and Publishing Evidence: Thesauri for Use in Rare Book and Special Collections Cataloguing. 1986.

-----. Provenance Evidence: A Thesaurus for Use in Rare Book and Special Collections Cataloguing. 1988.

-----. Type Evidence: A Thesaurus for Use in Rare Book and Special Collections Cataloguing. 1990.

Betz, Elisabeth W., comp. Graphic Materials: Rules for Describing Original Items and Historical Collections. Washington, DC: Library of Congress, 1982. Also available online, with updated examples,

Chenhall, Robert G. The Revised Nomenclature for Museum Cataloging: A Revised and Expanded Version of Robert G. Chenhall's System for Classifying Man-made Objects. Nashville, TN: AASLH Press, 1988.

International Organization for Standardization. Documentation and Information Vocabulary, Part 3: Iconic Documents. ISO 5127-3, 1988.

* Library of Congress. Library of Congress Subject Headings. 26th ed. 5 vols. Washington, DC: Library of Congress, Cataloging Distribution Service, 2003. Also available online as part of "Authorities,"

Merriam Webster Online,

National Information Standards Organization. Guidelines for the Construction, Format, and Management of Monolingual Thesauri. Bethesda, Md.: NISO Press, 1994. (NISO Z39.19 1994)

Petersen, Toni, and Patricia A. Barnett. Guide to Indexing and Cataloging with the Art and Architecture Thesaurus. New York: Oxford University Press, 1994.

Taxonomy Warehouse. Copyright 1995-2003 by Synapse,

Visual Resources Association. Cataloguing Cultural Objects. 2004,

Webster's Third New International Dictionary of the English Language, Unabridged. Springfield, MA: Merriam, 1961.


Ehrenberg, Ralph E. Archives & Manuscripts: Maps and Architectural Drawings. Chicago: Society of American Archivists, 1982. (SAA Basic Manual Series)

Encyclopedia of Architecture: Design, Engineering & Construction. New York: Wiley, 1988-1989.

Hamburger, Susan. Architectural Records: Arrangement, Description, and Preservation. Mid-Atlantic Regional Archives Conference, 2003. (Technical Leaflet Series, no. 11). Includes glossary, p. 36-40.

Harris, Cyril, ed. Dictionary of Architecture and Construction. 2nd ed. New York: McGraw-Hill, 1993.

Kissel, Eléonore & Erin Vigneau. Architectural Photoreproductions: A Manual for Identification and Care. Newcastle, DE: Oak Knoll Press and The New York Botanical Garden, 1999.

Luzadder, Warren J. Fundamentals of Engineering Drawing, With an Introduction to Interactive Computer Graphics for Design and Production. 11th ed. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall, 1993.

Roberts, Michael J. Construction Industry Thesaurus. 2nd ed. London: Property Services Agency, Department of the Environment, 1976.

Sturgis, Russell. A Dictionary of Architecture and Building. New York: Macmillan, 1901-1902. 3 vols.

Weidhaas, Ernest R. Architectural Drafting and Design. 6th ed. Boston: Allyn and Bacon, 1989.


Barnicoat, John. Posters: A Concise History. London: Thames and Hudson, 1985.

Bly, Robert W. Create the Perfect Sales Piece. New York: Wiley, 1985.

Burdick, Jefferson. The American Card Catalog: The Standard Guide on All Collected Cards and Their Values. East Stroudsburg, PA: Kistler Printing, 1960.

Ephemera Society of America. Bibliography,

Ephemerist. London: Ephemera Society, 1975- .

Howard, Marian B. Those Fascinating Paper Dolls. Unabridged, corrected edition. New York: Dover, 1981.

Henry Francis du Pont Winterthur Museum. Trade Catalogues at Winterthur ... 1750 to 1980, comp. by E. Richard McKinstry. New York: Garland Pub., 1984.

Hyde, Ralph. Panoramania!: The Art and Entertainment of the "All-embracing" View. London : Trefoil in association with Barbican Art Gallery, 1988.

Lent, John A., comp. Animation, Caricature, and Gag and Political Cartoons in the United States and Canada: An International Bibliography. Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1994.

Lent, John A., comp.Comic Books and Comic Strips in the United States: An International Bibliography. Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1994.

Lewis, John. Collecting Printed Ephemera. London: Studio Vista, 1976.

McCulloch, Lou W. Paper Americana: A Collector's Guide. San Diego: Barnes, 1980.

Range, Thomas E. The Book of Postcard Collecting. New York: Dutton, 1980.

Rickards, Maurice. The Encyclopedia of Ephemera: A Guide to the Fragmentary Documents of Everyday Life for the Collector, Curator, and Historian. New York: Routledge, 2000.

Rickards, Maurice. This Is Ephemera: Collecting Printed Throwaways. Brattleboro, VT: Gossamer Press, 1977.

Rickards, Maurice. Collecting Printed Ephemera. New York: Abbeville Press, 1988.

Weill, Alain. The Poster: A Worldwide Survey and History. Boston: G.K. Hall, 1985.

Whitehouse, P.B. Railway Relics and Regalia. London; New York: Hamlyn for Country Life, 1975.

World Encyclopedia of Cartoons, ed. by Maurice Horn. New York: Gale Research, 1980. 2 vols.


Baldwin, Gordon. Looking at Photographs: A Guide to Technical Terms. Malibu, CA: J. Paul Getty Museum in association with British Museum Press, 1991.

Coe, Brian. Cameras. New York: Crown Publishers, 1978.

Coe, Brian. Colour Photography: The First Hundred Years, 1840-1940. London: Ash & Grant, 1978.

Coe, Brian, and Mark Haworth-Booth. A Guide to Early Photographic Processes. London: Victoria and Albert Museum, 1983.

Darrah, William C. Cartes de Visite in Nineteenth Century Photography. Gettysburg, PA: Darrah, 1981.

Darrah, William C. The World of Stereographs. Gettysburg, PA: Darrah, 1977.

Eskind, Andrew H. and Deborah Bassel. "International Museum of Photography at George Eastman House Conventions for Cataloging Photographs." Image 21 (December 1978): 1-31.

Fischer, Monique. A Short Guide to Film-base Photographic Materials: Identification, Care, and Duplication. Andover, MA: Northeast Document Conservation Center, updated 2003. Also available online,

Gill, Arthur T. Photographic Processes, a Glossary and a Chart for Recognition. London: Museums Association, 1978.

Haller, Margaret. Collecting Old Photographs. New York: Arco, 1978.

Hendricks, Klaus B. Preservation and Restoration of Photographic Materials in Archives and Libraries: A RAMP Study. Paris: UNESCO, 1984.

International Center of Photography. ICP Encyclopedia of Photography. New York: Crown, 1984.

Jones, Bernard E., ed. Cassell's Cyclopedia of Photography. London, New York: Cassell, 1911.

Krainik, Clifford, and Michele Krainik. Union Cases: A Collector's Guide to the Art of America's First Plastics.
Grantsburg, WI: Centennial Photo Service, c1988

Library of Congress, Preservation Directorate. Care, Handling, and Storage of Photographs. 2003, (Originally published by the IFLA Core Programme Preservation and Conservation International Federation of Library Associations and Institutions, 1992.)

McCulloch, Lou W. Card Photographs. Exton, PA: Schiffer, 1981.

Northeast Document Conservation Center, "Care of Photographs," Lesson 7 in "Preservation 101: An Internet Course on Paper Preservation," 2002, (Covers history and identification.)

Pitts, Terence, and Sharon Denton. CREATE: A Procedure Manual for Cataloging Photographs. 2nd ed. Tucson, AZ: Center for Creative Photography, 1984.

Redsicker, David R. The Practical Methodology of Forensic Photography. New York: Elsevier, 1991.

Reilly, James. The Albumen & Salted Paper Book. Rochester, NY: Light Impressions, 1980.

Reilly, James. Care and Identification of 19th-Century Photographic Prints. Rochester, NY: Eastman Kodak, 1986.

Rinhart, Floyd and Marion. The American Daguerreotype. Athens, GA: University of Georgia Press, 1981.

Rosenblum, Naomi. A World History of Photography. 3d ed. New York: Abbeville Press, 1997.

Stroebel, Leslie, and Richard Zakia, eds. Focal Encyclopedia of Photography. 3rd ed. Boston: Focal Press, 1993.

Welling, William B. Collector's Guide to Nineteenth-Century Photographs. New York: Macmillan, 1976.

Wikipedia. Timeline of Photography Technology,

Wilhelm, Henry, with Carol Brower. The Permanence and Care of Color Photographs: Traditional and Digital Color Prints, Color Negatives, Slides, and Motion Pictures. Grinnell, A: Preservation Publishing Co., 1993.

Witkin, Lee D. and Barbara London. The Photograph Collector's Guide. Boston: New York Graphic Society, 1979.

Wood, John, ed. The Daguerreotype: A Sesquicentennial Celebration. Iowa City: University of Iowa Press, 1989.

Woodbury, Walter E. The Encyclopaedic Dictionary of Photography. New York: Scovill & Adams, 1898. Reprint. New York: Arno Press, 1979.


Béguin, André. A Technical Dictionary of Print Making, trans. by Allen J. Grieco. Brussells, Belgium: Béguin, 1981-1982. 2 vols., A-L.

Bookman's Glossary, ed. by Jean Peters. 6th ed. New York: Bowker, 1983.

Brenni, Vito J. Book Illustration and Decoration: A Guide to Research. Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1980.

Bridson, David R., and Donald E. Wendel. Printmaking in the Service of Botany. Pittsburgh, PA: Hunt Institute for Botanical Documentation, 1986.

Brunner, Felix. A Handbook of Graphic Reproduction Processes ... [English version: Dennis Qu. Stephenson] 4th ed. Teufen, Switzerland: Arthur Niggli, 1972.

Clarke, Carl D. Illustration: Its Technique and Application to the Sciences. Baltimore, MD: John D. Lucas Company, 1940.

Dyson, Anthony. Pictures to Print: The Nineteenth-century Engraving Trade. London : Farrand Press ; Williamsburg, Va. : Distributed in North America by Book Press, c1984.

Ebert, John and Katherine. Old American Prints for Collectors. New York: Scribner, 1974.

Gascoigne, Bamber. How to Identify Prints: A Complete Guide to Manual and Mechanical Processes from Woodcut to Ink Jet. [London]: Thames and Hudson, 1986.

Glaister, Geoffrey A. Encyclopaedia of the Book. 2nd ed. New Castle, DE: Oak Knoll Press, 1996.

Goldman, Paul. Looking at Prints, Drawings and Watercolours: A Guide to Technical Terms. London: British Museum Publications in association with the J. Paul Getty Museum, 1988.

Griffiths, Antony. Prints and Printmaking. An Introduction to the History and Techniques. London: British Museum, 1996.

Jürgens, Martin. Digital Print Identification Web Site, 2001.

Marzio, Peter C. The Democratic Art: Pictures for a 19th-Century America: Chromolithography 1840-1900. Boston: Godine, 1979.

Mayer, Ralph. The Harper Collins Dictionary of Art Terms and Techniques. 2nd ed. New York: Harper Perennial, 1992.

Mintz, Patricia B. Dictionary of Graphic Arts Terms. New York: Van Nostrand Reinhold, 1981.

Nadeau, Luis. Encyclopedia of Printing, Photographic and Photomechanical Processes. Fredericton, N.B.: L. Nadeau, 1997.

Pankow, David. Tempting the palette: A Survey of Color Printing Processes. Rochester, NY: Digital Publishing Center, 1997.

Philadelphia Print Shop. Reference Library, 2002, (Includes a dictionary of printmaking terms, a glossary of printmaking nomenclature, and a discussion of print processes.)

Quick, John. Artists' and Illustrators' Encyclopedia. 2nd ed. New York: McGraw-Hill, 1977.

Reps, John W. Views and Viewmakers of Urban America. Columbia, MO: University of Missouri Press, 1984.

Saff, Donald and Deli Sacilotto. Printmaking: History and Process. New York: Holt, Rinehart and Winston, 1978.

Twyman, Michael. The British Library Guide to Printing: History and Techniques. London: British Library, 1998

Woods, Robert. Printing and Production for Promotional Materials. New York: Van Nostrand Reinhold Company, 1987.

Zigrosser, Carl and Christa M. Gaehde. A Guide to the Collecting and Care of Original Prints. New York: Crown, 1965.

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