Skip Navigation Links  The Library of Congress >> Researchers
Moving Image Research Center (Motion Picture, Broadcasting, and Recorded Sound Division
  Home >> Reading Room >> Genre-form Guide

THE MOVING IMAGE GENRE-FORM GUIDE

Moving Image Genre list


Contents | Introduction | Examples | Bibliography | Forms

Appendices: Experimental | Animation | Advertising


Genre Terms


Genres

Abstract see Experimental; Animation (form)

Action-adventure see such genres as Adventure, Ancient world, Animal, Aviation, Caper, Crime, Disaster, Espionage, Fantasy, Gangster, Jungle, Martial arts, Mystery, Police, Prehistoric, Prison, Science fiction, Singing cowboy, Sports, Survival, Thriller, War, Western, Yukon

Actuality

Nonfiction work made prior to 1910, usually of a very short length, that demonstrates the capacity of moving pictures to advance over still photography by recording a world in motion. The typical content of actualities were scenes of everyday life, people, and events, usually authentic but sometimes manipulated.

Note: Not necessary to also use Documentary, since that is implied by the term Actuality.

Examples: L'ARRIVEE D'UN TRAIN EN GARE DE LA CIOTAT / TRAIN ARRIVING IN THE STATION; ELECTROCUTING AN ELEPHANT; NEW YORK CITY "GHETTO" FISH MARKET; PRESIDENT MCKINLEY TAKING THE OATH; LA SORTIE DES USINES LUMIERE / WORKERS LEAVING THE LUMIERE FACTORY

Adaptation

Fiction or nonfiction work taken from a work already existing in another medium, such as a book, short story, comic strip, radio program, or play. This involves such questions as fidelity to the original text and the manner in which the adaptation has condensed or abridged aspects of the original work (or, on rare occasions, expanded it) to the standard length of a movie or television program.

Note: Do not include work derived from non-written sources, such as Greek and Roman mythology (HERCULES; JASON AND THE ARGONAUTS); for such work see also Fantasy. Use only for specific works adapted to film or television, not for original exploits written for the screen that utilize characters but not plots created in another medium, such as most of the Charlie Chan or Perry Mason series, or the many Frankenstein sequels. Do not include works which were also written for the first time in prose form for promotional purposes at the time of the work's release in such editions as movie tie-in paperbacks or photoplay editions.

Feature examples: ANNA KARENINA (with Romance; Historical); BARRY LYNDON (with Historical); THE BRIG (1964) (with Experimental); CAMELOT (with Musical; Romance; Adventure); CHIMES AT MIDNIGHT / FALSTAFF (with Historical); THE DIARY OF ANNE FRANK (with Biographical; War); HAMLET; HENRY V (with Biographical); THE LAST TYCOON (with Show business; Historical); MAN OF LA MANCHA (with Musical; Parody; Historical); OTHELLO (with Romance; Historical); THE RAVEN (with Horror); THE RAZOR'S EDGE; ROMEO AND JULIET (with Romance; Historical); WAR AND PEACE (with Historical)

TV examples: GULLIVER'S TRAVELS (with Fantasy); SHIRLEY TEMPLE'S STORYBOOK

Adult see Erotic; Pornography

Adventure

Fictional work set in a historical period, from the middle ages through the 19th century, typically dramatizing the exploits of actual historical figures or incidents, including kings and battles, rebellion, piracy and the Spanish Main, travel, exploration, and the creation of empires. Larger ideological issues are mythicized and conflicts personalized over historical accuracy. Adventure usually involves a courageous, altruistic and patriotic hero willing to fight for his beliefs, who becomes involved in a struggle for freedom by overcoming oppression and helping to create a more just society.

Used for Swashbuckler.

Note: Not necessary to also use Historical, since that is implied by Adventure. If work includes supernatural or magic, use Fantasy. Other genres often confused with Adventure include Ancient world, Animal, Aviation, Crime, Thriller, Science fiction, Survival, and War; for a comprehensive list, examine the see references under Action-adventure.

Examples: THE ADVENTURES OF ROBIN HOOD; AGUIRRE DER ZORN GOTTES / AGUIRRE--THE WRATH OF GOD; AROUND THE WORLD IN 80 DAYS (with Adaptation; Comedy); BEAU GESTE (with Adaptation); CAPTAIN BLOOD (with Adaptation); CAPTAIN FROM CASTILE (with Adaptation); CAPTAIN HORATIO HORNBLOWER; ELEPHANT BOY (with Adaptation); GUNGA DIN (with Adaptation); KING OF THE KHYBER RIFLES (with Adaptation); LANCELOT DU LAC; LORD JIM (with Adaptation); MUTINY ON THE BOUNTY; OMAR KHAYYAM; THE PRISONER OF ZENDA (with Adaptation); THE SEA WOLF (with Adaptation); THE THREE MUSKETEERS (with Adaptation); TREASURE ISLAND (with Adaptation); WHITE SHADOWS OVER THE SOUTH SEAS (with Adaptation)

TV examples: THE BUCCANEERS (1956-57); THE LAST PLACE ON EARTH (with Adaptation); ROBIN HOOD (1955-58); SEARCH FOR THE NILE; 77TH BENGAL LANCERS; SHARPE'S RIFLES (with Adaptation); THE SWAMP FOX; ZORRO

Adventure (Nonfiction)

Nonfiction work on the exploration of untamed lands and remote regions and the challenges of living in such areas, often surviving against harsh natural surroundings and the clashing of the explorer, usually from the West, with the cultural traditions of the indigenous people. Utilizing a realist tradition, such work may nonetheless be narrativized in a pseudo- documentary fashion, presenting a story of representative characters and incidents in a locale, rather than actual individuals or events. Includes the films of such adventurers as Frank Buck, collecting wild animals for zoos (BRING 'EM BACK ALIVE; WILD CARGO; FANG AND CLAW), Martin and Osa Johnson (SIMBA--THE KING OF THE BEASTS; CONGORILLA; I MARRIED ADVENTURE), and scientific explorer Thor Heyerdahl (KON- TIKI; THE RA EXPEDITIONS); along with many lesser, exploitation-oriented works, such as INGAGI.

Used for Expedition; Exploration.

Note: Not necessary to also use Documentary, since that is implied by the term Adventure (Nonfiction).

Feature examples: CHANG; PAUL J. RAINEY'S AFRICAN HUNT; SCOTT'S LAST VOYAGE / 90 DEGREES SOUTH--WITH SCOTT TO THE ANTARCTIC [Herbert Ponting]; THE SECRET LAND; THE SILENT WORLD; TABU; TO THE ROOF OF THE WORLD; WITH BYRD AT THE SOUTH POLE; WITH WILLIAMSON BENEATH THE SEA

TV examples: ADVENTURE CALLS; BOLD JOURNEY; EXPEDITION; HIGH ROAD TO ADVENTURE; I SEARCH FOR ADVENTURE; PASSPORT TO ADVENTURE

African American see Ethnic

American Indian see Ethnic

Ancient world

Fictional work usually set during Roman times, or occasionally during another early civilization, such as that of Greece or Egypt. Most often the work emphasizes the opulence, cruelty, and decadence of ancient political and cultural life.

Note: Many of the stories are loosely derived from the Bible or depict the life of Christ as an element, and so can also have the genre heading Religious. Not necessary to also use Historical, since that is implied by Ancient world.

Feature examples: BEN-HUR (with Religious; Adaptation); CLEOPATRA (with Biographical); THE EGYPTIAN (with Adaptation); THE FALL OF THE ROMAN EMPIRE / LA CAIDA DEL IMPERIO ROMANO / LA CADUTA DELL'IMPERIO ROMANO; LAND OF THE PHARAOHS; QUO VADIS (with Religious; Adaptation); THE ROBE (with Religious; Adaptation); SAMSON AND DELILAH (with Religious; Romance; Adaptation); THE SIGN OF THE CROSS (with Religious); SPARTACUS (with Biographical); THE TEN COMMANDMENTS (1956) (with Religious; Adaptation); THE 300 SPARTANS

TV examples: I, CLAUDIUS (with Biographical; Adaptation); MASADA; MOSES THE LAWGIVER (with Religious; Adaptation)

Animal

Fictional work concentrating on the exploits of an animal, as part of the wild, or who may participate in the lives of humans in a remarkable way (FLIPPER), or emphasizing the loving role the animal serves within a family (LASSIE). Includes also stories of persons whose lives center on working with animals; become dedicated to wildlife conservation; or learn the importance of coexisting with their surrounding environment.

Note: For non-fiction work, use Nature.

Film examples: BABE; BAMBI (with the form Animation); BENJI; BORN FREE (with Adaptation); THE CAT FROM OUTER SPACE (with Science fiction); CLARENCE THE CROSS-EYED LION; DOCTOR DOOLITTLE (with Musical; Adaptation); FREE WILLY; GORILLAS IN THE MIST (with Biographical); THE INCREDIBLE JOURNEY (with Children's); HATARI!; NEVER CRY WOLF (with Adaptation); OLD YELLER (with Adaptation); RESCUED BY ROVER; RHUBARB (with Comedy; Sports); THE YEARLING (with Adaptation)

TV examples: ALL CREATURES GREAT AND SMALL (with Adaptation); DAKTARI; GENTLE BEN; MR. ED (with Fantasy); MY FRIEND FLICKA (with Adaptation)

Anthropological see Documentary; Ethnographic

Art

Nonfiction work focusing on artists and arts such as painting, sculpture, architecture, photography, and ceramics. Types of films, programs, and video on art include biographical profiles of individual artists; histories of particular arts, schools of art, or movements; documentation of museum exhibitions or collections; and educational or even instructional work on artistic processes and techniques.

Note: Not necessary to also use Documentary, since that is implied by the term Art.

Do not use for avant-garde or so-called classic and foreign "art films." For work on the performing arts, see Dance, Music, Opera, Operetta, and Variety.

Film examples: LE MYSTERE PICASSO (with Biographical (Nonfiction)); OF TIME, TOMBS AND TREASURES: PAINTERS PAINTING; THE TREASURES OF TUTANKHAMUN (with Sponsored)

TV examples: AMERICA BY DESIGN; CIVILISATION (with Educational); THE LOUVRE: A GOLDEN PRISON

Video examples: ON ASSIGNMENT: A VIDEO SERIES FOR PHOTOGRAPHERS (with Instructional); OUTDOOR SCULPTURE AND ITS CARE: PRESERVING THE HIRSHHORN MUSEUM'S COLLECTION (with Instructional)

Avant-garde see Experimental

Aviation

Fictional work centering on both military and civilian characters who have an overriding love of flying, with an ardent dedication to such tasks as the air mail, test flying, or airplane racing. Flying becomes the guiding force in all aspects of their career and personal life, even at the cost of loss of romantic love, or probable death in a plane crash. Pilots often share a unique combination of rivalry and respect, and one or more of their number is usually killed during the narrative, bringing about a reawakening to new values in a fellow flyer's life.

Feature examples: AIR MAIL; FLIGHT FOR FREEDOM (with Women); GOD IS MY CO-PILOT (with War; Adaptation); THE GREAT WALDO PEPPER; NO HIGHWAY IN THE SKY; ONLY ANGELS HAVE WINGS; THE TARNISHED ANGELS (with Romance); TEST PILOT; THOSE MAGNIFICENT MEN IN THEIR FLYING MACHINES (with Comedy)

Serial examples: THE AIRMAIL MYSTERY; CAPTAIN MIDNIGHT; THE MYSTERIOUS PILOT; TAILSPIN TOMMY

TV examples: BAA BAA BLACK SHEEP (with War); PIECE OF CAKE (with War; Adaptation); RIPCORD; TUSKEGEE AIRMEN (with War)

Award ceremony see Television special (form)

Backstage see Show business

Biblical see Religious; Ancient World

Biographical

Fictional work dramatizing the life (or portion thereof) of an actual historical figure (often including their family and/or associates), and told with varying degrees of accuracy.

Note: If the emphasis is on larger events or several prominent historical individuals, rather than an individual or family, use Historical. Not necessary to use Historical with Biographical, since Historical is implied by the term Biographical.

Feature examples: ABE LINCOLN IN ILLINOIS (with Adaptation); AMADEUS (with Musical; Adaptation); BUGSY (with Gangster); EL CID (with Adventure); GIVE 'EM HELL, HARRY! (with Political; the form Performance); THE GLEN MILLER STORY (with Musical); JUAREZ (with Political); LADY JANE; THE LAST EMPEROR; LAWRENCE OF ARABIA (with War); THE LIFE OF EMILE ZOLA (with Social problem); MALCOLM X (1992) (with Ethnic); MARIE ANTOINETTE; OHM KRUGER / UNCLE KRUGER (with Propaganda); PATTON (with War); SILKWOOD (with Social problem); STARS AND STRIPES FOREVER (with Musical); SUNRISE AT CAMPOBELLO (with Disability; Political; Adaptation); VIVA ZAPATA

TV examples: THE KAREN CARPENTER STORY (with Social problem); THE KENNEDYS OF MASSACHUSETTS; PETER THE GREAT; PROFILES IN COURAGE; SHAKA ZULU

Biographical (Nonfiction)

Nonfiction work documenting the life and career (or portion thereof) of an individual or small group of related persons such as a family.

Note: Not necessary to also use Documentary, since that is implied by the term Biographical (Nonfiction).

Film examples: ALBERT SCHWEITZER; THE AMERICAN FILM INSTITUTE SALUTE TO BARBARA STANWYCK; ANGELA DAVIS: PORTRAIT OF A REVOLUTIONARY (with Ethnic (Nonfiction)); THE ELEANOR ROOSEVELT STORY; FUEGO DE TIERRA (with Experimental); THE GREAT WALLENDAS; JOHN F. KENNEDY: YEARS OF LIGHTNING, DAY OF DRUMS (with Sponsored); KING: A FILMED RECORD ... MONTGOMERY TO MEMPHIS (with Ethnic (Nonfiction)); THE LIFE AND TIMES OF KLAUS BARBIE; MILLHOUSE: A WHITE COMEDY (with Parody); PAUL ROBESON--TRIBUTE TO AN ARTIST (with Ethnic (Nonfiction)); REMBRANDT: A SELF-PORTRAIT (with Art); ROBERT FROST--A LOVER'S QUARREL WITH THE WORLD; A STRAVINSKY PORTRAIT (with Music)

TV examples: BIOGRAPHY; THE ORIGINALS: WOMEN IN ART; PROFILES IN COURAGE; THE REBELS: MONTGOMERY CLIFT

Video examples: GABRIEL GARCIA MARQUEZ: LA MAGIA DE LO REAL / MAGIC AND REALITY; HITLER: A CAREER

Black see Ethnic

Black comedy see Dark comedy

Buddy

Fictional work focusing primarily on the camaraderie between two individuals, usually two men or two women. Often their relationship develops as they are thrown together while traveling or as professional partners. Although perhaps starting out as strangers, or even enemies, a bond usually comes to exist between the pair as they become friends or at least allies.

Note: Do not use Buddy for work in which a character simply has a "sidekick," or a friendship is one of many subsidiary plot elements, but only when it is dominant. Because this genre traditionally uses another plot formula as its background, the term Buddy would most often be used in conjunction with other genres (such as BUTCH CASSIDY AND THE SUNDANCE KID (with Western), LETHAL WEAPON (with Police), or THELMA AND LOUISE (with Road)).

Feature examples: BOOM TOWN; JULIA (with War); MANPOWER; MIDNIGHT COWBOY; PARDNERS (with Comedy; Western); ROAD TO ZANZIBAR (with Comedy)

Burlesque see Erotic; Performance (form)

Campaign see Public affairs

Caper

Fictional work concentrating on the planning and eventual execution of a single major crime, such as a robbery of a bank vault or museum, requiring meticulous preparation and perfect organization and timing. The task is usually undertaken by a diverse gang to bring together the skills and specializations required, and they often have uneasy personal relations. Suspense derives from the question of whether or how the plans will succeed or fail (by accident or a factor overlooked), what will become of the loot, and whether some or all of the criminals will escape.

Related terms: Thriller; Crime.

Feature examples: THE ASPHALT JUNGLE; GAMBIT; HOW TO STEAL A MILLION (with Comedy); THE KILLING (with Film Noir); THE LAVENDER HILL MOB (with Comedy); RESERVOIR DOGS (with Police); RIFIFI; THE STING (with Buddy); TOPKAPI

Cartoon see Animation (with the form Short)

Chase

Short, early work, generally made before 1912, in which an incident, often the result of a misunderstanding, results in someone, who may or may not be guilty of a misdeed, being chased. An outraged, motley, steadily-growing group pursues the individual from one location to another until finally an event brings the chase to a sudden end. The conclusion may range from the capture of the pursued to a comical catastrophe for the pursuers.

Examples: THE ALMIGHTY DOLLAR; CHEVAL EMBALLE / THE RUNAWAY HORSE; A DARING DAYLIGHT BURGLARY (with Crime); DESPERATE POACHING AFFRAY; GLUED; HIS ONLY PAIR OF TROUSERS (with Crime; Comedy); JACK THE KISSER; THE MANIAC CHASE; LE MARIAGE DE VICTORINE / HOW BRIDGET'S LOVER ESCAPED; MIND YOUR OWN BUSINESS (with Family); PERSONAL (with Romance; Comedy); THE POLICEMAN'S LITTLE RUN (with Comedy); STOP THIEF!; WIFE WANTED (with Romance; Comedy)

Chicano see Ethnic

Children's

Work whose view of the world or narrative presentation indicate they are aimed predominantly at a young, preteen audience. Frequently children, or older individuals or animals, presented in a child-like manner, are the primary protagonists, with adults either absent or relatively remote or menacing secondary characters.

Note: This genre refers largely to the intended audience, rather than a specific narrative formula, and may frequently be noted in combination with a more specifically formulaic genre.

Related terms: Family; Youth.

Feature examples: BABES IN TOYLAND (with Musical; Fantasy; Adaptation); CHARLOTTE'S WEB (with Animal; Adaptation); DUMBO (with the form Animation); THE MONKEY'S UNCLE (with Slapstick comedy); PECK'S BAD BOY; PETER PAN (with Fantasy; Adaptation); WILLY WONKA AND THE CHOCOLATE FACTORY (with Adaptation)

TV examples: BARNEY; CAPTAIN KANGAROO; THE HOWDY-DOODY SHOW; GUMBY (with the form Animation); THE MICKEY MOUSE CLUB (with Variety); MIGHTY MORPHIN POWER RANGERS (with Science fiction); ROMPER ROOM

Cinéma vérité see Documentary

Circus see Show business; Performance (form)

College

Fictional work that depicts life in colleges and universities, most often concentrating on athletics, socializing, fraternity or sorority life, or student escapades. This genre was most common during the 1920s and 1930s when higher education was less widespread and seemed more unusual to audiences.

Feature examples: ANIMAL HOUSE (with Slapstick comedy); COLLEGE (1927) (with Comedy); THE FRESHMAN (with Comedy); FRATERNITY ROW; THE HALF-BACK (with Sports); HIGHER LEARNING (with Social problem; Ethnic); HORSE FEATHERS (with Comedy); MOST PRECIOUS THING IN LIFE (with Maternal melodrama); HOUSE PARTY (with Comedy; Ethnic); REVENGE OF THE NERDS (with Comedy); SCHOOL DAZE (with Ethnic); START CHEERING (with Comedy); A YANK AT OXFORD

TV examples: THE PAPER CHASE (with Legal)

Combat see War

Comedy

Work in which the overall intent is to amuse, although the humor may have a serious, even pessimistic side. Although many works in different genres may contain humorous moments, a work is considered to be a comedy when the intent and the expression of the plot itself is humorous or when the tone of the entire work is overwhelmingly comic.

Used for Comedy-drama; Farce.

Note: For more specific types of comedy, see also Dark comedy, Parody, Screwball comedy, Slapstick comedy, and Sophisticated comedy; do not use different types of comedy in conjunction with one another. For romantic comedy, use Screwball comedy, Sophisticated comedy, or Comedy in conjunction with Romance. Most fictional television comedy would go under Situation comedy, or if it centers on a family, Domestic comedy. Comedy television shows that consist of a series of comic sketches would use Comedy and Variety (SATURDAY NIGHT LIVE; IN LIVING COLOR). For work which shows the performance of a comedian, usually delivered in a monologue fashion, and without separate comedic skits, use Comedy in conjunction with the form Performance, such as the Television specials BILL COSBY--HIMSELF (with the form Performance) or THE MARK RUSSELL COMEDY SPECIAL (with the form Performance).

Film examples: THE BANK DICK; THE BLUES BROTHERS (with Musical); BUCK BENNY RIDES AGAIN (with Western); CITY LIGHTS; THE COCOANUTS; CROCODILE DUNDEE; HOLD ME WHILE I'M NAKED (1966) (with Experimental); HONEY, I SHRUNK THE KIDS (with Family; Science fiction); MISTER ROBERTS (with War); MY FAVORITE BLONDE; MY LITTLE CHICKADEE (with Western); NINE TO FIVE; PILLOW TALK (with Romance); RICHARD PRYOR--HERE AND NOW (with the form Performance); SOME LIKE IT HOT (with Gangster); SOMMARNATTENS LEENDE / SMILES OF A SUMMER NIGHT (with Romance)

Comedy-drama see Comedy

Coming-of-age see Youth

Commentary see Public affairs; Sports (Nonfiction)

Concert see Music (with the form Performance)

Contest see Game; Television special (form)

Costume see Adventure; Ancient world; Biographical; Historical; War; Western

Courtroom see Legal

Crime

Fictional work depicting a narrative descent into the underworld of syndicates, criminals, and their lawless activities, such as the drug trade, or bootlegging during the Prohibition era. The plot turns on such questions as how a criminal will be caught or who stole the object of value.

Note: Some crime work has the flavor of adventure in the use of exotic locales and the search for wealth, but the primary activity leads to crime and involves criminals as antagonists (VALLEY OF THE KINGS; MARA MARU; BOY ON A DOLPHIN; BEYOND MOMBASA; THE DEEP; SPHINX; ROMANCING THE STONE; the television series SEA HUNT). Use more specific types of the crime formula when possible, such as Caper, Film Noir, Gangster, Mystery, Police, or Thriller, if one of those aspects is the primary situation or character. For true crime, use Reality-based.

Feature examples: THE AMAZING DOCTOR CLITTERHOUSE; CRIME AND PUNISHMENT (with Adaptation); DEATH WISH; DIE HARD WITH A VENGEANCE (with Buddy); THE GRIFTERS (with Adaptation); KIND HEARTS AND CORONETS (with Comedy); KING OF GAMBLERS (1937); THE LADYKILLERS (with Comedy); LEM HAWKINS' CONFESSION / BRAND OF CAIN (with Ethnic; Social problem); THE PHENIX CITY STORY; PRIZZI'S HONOR (with Dark comedy; Adaptation); PULP FICTION (with Dark comedy); RAFFLES (with Adaptation); THE SHADOW (with Fantasy; Adaptation); TRAFFIC IN SOULS (with Social problem; Exploitation); WISDOM; WITNESS

TV examples: BATMAN (with Science fiction; Parody); CRIME STORY; GANGBUSTERS; THE GREEN HORNET; THE UNTOUCHABLES

Crime (Nonfiction) see Reality-based

Dance

Nonfiction work primarily concerned with dance, dancers, and choreography, including types of dance such as ballet, jazz, modern, ballroom, tap, folk, ethnic, and vaudeville. Dance work may be biographical, ethnographic, educational, or instructional in nature.

Note: Not necessary to also use Documentary, since that is implied by the term Dance. For work documenting single or multiple dance performances, concerts, or events, use Dance in conjunction with the form Performance. For variety programs and films in which dance is featured substantially, use Dance with Variety. Provide access for specific types of dance presented through subject headings.

Film examples: ANNABELLE'S BUTTERLY DANCE (with the form Performance); BLACK TIGHTS (with the form Performance); BOLSHOI BALLET TOURS AMERICA; BUTOH (with Ethnographic); DANCE IN THE SUN (with Experimental); DANCERS IN SCHOOL; THE DANCING FLEECE (with Sponsored); FATIMA'S DANSE DU VENTRE (with the form Performance); HE MAKES ME FEEL LIKE DANCIN' (with Biographical (Nonfiction)); INDIA'S DANCE QUEENS; NINE VARIATIONS ON A DANCE THEME (with Experimental); PLISETSKAYA DANCES; RITUAL IN TRANSFIGURED TIME (with Experimental); SOUTH AFRICA NATIVE DANCES (with Ethnographic; the form Performance); A STUDY IN CHOREOGRAPHY FOR CAMERA (1945) (with Experimental)

TV examples: DANCE IN AMERICA (with the form Performance); AN EVENING WITH THE ALVIN AILEY AMERICAN DANCE THEATER (with the form Performance); THE DANNY KAYE SHOW (with Music; Variety); THE NUTCRACKER (with the form Performance); A TIME TO DANCE

Video examples: CHARLES WEIDMAN, ON HIS OWN (with Biographical (Nonfiction)); HOW TO SALSA (with Instructional); SCAPE-MATES (with Experimental)

Dark comedy

Fictional work which treats serious and often tragic subjects, such as illness, war, or death, in a comic fashion.

Used for Black comedy.

Feature examples: DR. STRANGELOVE (with Political); EATING RAOUL; THE GRADUATE (with Romance); THE GREAT DICTATOR (with Political); THE LOVED ONE; M*A*S*H (with War); MONSIEUR VERDOUX (with Crime); THE PRODUCERS (with Show business); LE ROMAN D'UN TRICHEUR / THE STORY OF A CHEAT; THE RUSSIANS ARE COMING, THE RUSSIANS ARE COMING (with Social problem); SEVEN BEAUTIES (with War); TO BE OR NOT TO BE (with War); THE TROUBLE WITH HARRY (with Mystery)

Debates see Public affairs

Detective see Film Noir; Mystery; Police

Direct cinema see Documentary

Disability

Fictional work depicting an individual suffering from a physical or psychological handicap, or coping with a disease or similar affliction. The personal and social consequences of the disability are examined, both as it impacts the victim as well as those around them. The plot relates how they recover or overcome the handicap, or attempt but fail to do so, facing death with equanimity.

Used for Disease.

Note: Themes such as alcoholism and drug addiction are classified with Social problem. Often Disability stories are based on the actual life of an individual, but only necessary to include the term Biographical if the person also won notice in another field, such as Sports or Show business figures.

Feature examples: BANG THE DRUM SLOWLY (with Sports); BRIGHT VICTORY; CHILDREN OF A LESSER GOD (with Romance); COMING HOME (with War); JOHNNY BELINDA; THE MEN (with War); THE MIRACLE WORKER (with Biographical); MY LEFT FOOT; THE OTHER SIDE OF THE MOUNTAIN; PHILADELPHIA (with Social problem); PRIDE OF THE MARINES (with War); WATERDANCE

TV examples: BRIAN'S SONG (with Sports; Biographical); THE FOUR DIAMONDS (with Fantasy); GO TOWARD THE LIGHT; NOBODY'S CHILD; THE PATRICIA NEAL STORY (with Biographical); THE RYAN WHITE STORY; WITHOUT WARNING: THE JAMES BRADY STORY (with Biographical)

Disaster

Fictional work depicting a large-scale natural or man-made calamity, such as an airplane crash or a wreck at sea, that isolates a group of people in imminent danger. They must devise at least part of their method of escape (sometimes outside assistance awaits) with only minimal materials at hand. Principle source of tension is in the question of how the extraordinary measures necessary for a rescue will be implemented and which of the varied and often self-destructive characters will have the inner resources to endure the ordeal.

Related term: Survival.

Feature examples: AIRPORT (with Aviation); ABANDON SHIP!; EARTHQUAKE; THE HURRICANE; KRAKATOA--EAST OF JAVA (with Historical); A NIGHT TO REMEMBER (with Historical); THE POSEIDON ADVENTURE; SAN FRANCISCO (with Historical); THE TOWERING INFERNO

TV examples: THE BIG ONE: THE GREAT LOS ANGELES EARTHQUAKE; FIRE! TRAPPED ON THE 37TH FLOOR

Discussion see Interview; Public affairs; Sports (Nonfiction)

Disease see Disability

Docudrama see Historical

Documentary

Nonfiction work defined by documentary pioneer John Grierson as the creative treatment of actuality. Grounded in some aspect of real life, documentaries may vary from a very deliberate account of facts to an extremely interpretive rendering of a subject, advocating a particular viewpoint on a political, social, or historical issue. In Documentary, actuality should still be dominant over the creative treatment, which, while often staged for the camera, should not go so far as to be dramatized for emotional impact and belong to such genres as Historical fiction or Propaganda. Documentaries may include re-enactments, such as showing the movements of armies, or brief scenes of individuals and dialogue, but do not include films that merely use a realistic technique in telling a fictional story.

Used for Cin‚ma v‚rit‚; Direct cinema.

Note: For other, more specific nonfiction terms, see also Actuality, Adventure

(Nonfiction), Art, Biographical (Nonfiction), Dance, Educational, Ethnic (Nonfiction), Ethnographic, Home shopping, Industrial, Instructional, Interview, Magazine, Medical (Nonfiction), Music, Nature, News, Propaganda, Public access, Public affairs, Reality-based, Religion, Social guidance, Speculation, Sponsored, Sports (Nonfiction), Talk, Training, Travelogue, War (Nonfiction). For uncut footage recording an event, such as a scientific experiment, a congressional hearing, or funeral of a famous individual, use Unedited.

Examples: BERKELEY IN THE SIXTIES; BEST BOY; CITY OUT OF WILDERNESS; COSAS DE MI VIDA (with Experimental); F FOR FAKE (with Parody); FOR ALL MANKIND; HARLAN COUNTY, U.S.A.; THE JOHNSTOWN FLOOD; MAN OF ARAN; THE MURDER OF FRED HAMPTON (with Experimental); NANOOK OF THE NORTH (with Ethnic (Nonfiction)); NIGHT MAIL; NUIT ET BROUILLARD / NIGHT AND FOG; ON COMPANY BUSINESS (with Experimental); THE PANAMA DECEPTION; THE PLOW THAT BROKE THE PLAINS (with Sponsored); POINT OF ORDER; PRIMARY; ROGER & ME; A THIN BLUE LINE; THE TIES THAT BIND (1984) (with Experimental)

TV examples: THE AMERICAN EXPERIENCE; THE CIVIL WAR (1991); FRONTLINE; HARVEST OF SHAME; NOVA; THE SELLING OF THE PENTAGON; WIDE WIDE WORLD

Domestic see Family

Domestic comedy

Fictional work for television, normally running a half hour in length, which finds humor in domestic situations and promotes traditional "family-type values." The setting is normally in the home, and the show revolves around the everyday problems of family life which are typically resolved by the show's end. The program usually features a middle-class family, more often than not in a suburban setting. Typical plots center on problems arising from school, work, or inter-family relationships which the father or mother figure solve by dispensing good advice to their children or to each other.

Related terms: Situation comedy; Family.

Examples: THE BRADY BUNCH; THE COSBY SHOW; THE DONNA REED SHOW; FAMILY AFFAIR; FAMILY TIES; FATHER KNOWS BEST; THE LIFE OF RILEY; MY THREE SONS

Drama see such genres as Ancient world, Animal, Aviation, Biographical, Buddy, College, Disability, Espionage, Ethnic, Exploitation, Fallen woman, Family, Film noir, Historical, Journalism, Juvenile delinquency, Legal, Maternal melodrama, Medical, Melodrama, Military, Political, Propaganda, Religious, Road, Romance, Show business, Soap opera, Social problem, Sports, Survival, War, Women, Youth

Editorial see Public affairs

Educational

Largely nontheatrical work intended for teaching and related informational purposes. Educational work includes classroom films and videos, historical recreations and dramatizations primarily intended to educate rather than entertain, and video or television broadcasting courses; they may be sponsored as well. Historically prolific producers of educational films include Eastman Kodak, Encyclopaedia Britannica, Coronet, and PBS.

Note: Not necessary to also use Documentary, since that is implied by the term Educational.

Related terms: Educational, Industrial, Instructional, Social guidance, and Training.

Film examples: CHRONICLES OF AMERICA; HEMO THE MAGNIFICENT (with Sponsored); THE LIVING CELL

TV examples: DISCOVERY; PSYCHOLOGY I; SESAME STREET (with Children's); YOU ARE THERE

Video examples: HAVE A HEALTHY BABY; VIDEO MATH TUTOR SERIES

Empire see Adventure; Adventure (Nonfiction); Historical; Romance

Epic see Biographical; Historical; Religious; War

Erotic

Sexually oriented material that is not of an explicit nature.

Related term: Pornography.

Feature examples: EMMANUELLE; EXTASY / SYMPHONIE DER LIEBE / ECSTASY (1933); FLESH GORDON (with Science fiction); FUSES (1967) (with Experimental); HENRY AND JUNE (with Biographical; Romance); THE LOVER; 9 1/2 WEEKS; THE STORY OF O; WR--MISTERISTE ORGANIZMA / WR--THE MYSTERIES OF THE ORGANISM (with Documentary); WILD ORCHID

TV examples: DELTA OF VENUS (with Adaptation); RED SHOE DIARIES

Video examples: BEHIND THE SCENES WITH PENTHOUSE; CHIPPENDALES; NUDE YOGA; THE PINK PIMPERNEL (with Experimental); PLAYBOY PLAYMATE WORKOUT (with Instructional); PLAYBOY VIDEO MAGAZINE

Espionage

Fictional work depicting spies and secret agents seeking to uncover or maintain secrets from each other and for one country or for the benefit of another. Living a masquerade, spies are usually cynical, amoral, deceitful, alienated, and ready to betray another person or cause, although these are often seen as merely the means to achieve a patriotic goal. Although the secrets often have a military application, the setting can be either during wartime or in the Cold War.

Used for Spy.

Feature examples: DR. NO (with Adaptation); FIVE FINGERS (with War); FOREIGN CORRESPONDENT (with War); FROM RUSSIA WITH LOVE (with Adaptation); THE HOUSE ON 92ND STREET (with War); JOURNEY INTO FEAR (with Adaptation); MATA HARI (with Historical); MINISTRY OF FEAR (with War); NEVER SAY NEVER AGAIN (with Adaptation); NORTH BY NORTHWEST; NOTORIOUS; SABOTEUR; SECRET AGENT (with Adaptation); THE SPY WHO CAME IN FROM THE COLD (with Adaptation); THE STRANGER; THE THIRTY-NINE STEPS (with Adaptation); TRUE LIES

TV examples: THE AVENGERS; GET SMART (with Parody); I SPY; THE MAN FROM U.N.C.L.E.; MISSION: IMPOSSIBLE; REILLY--ACE OF SPIES (with Historical); THE SANDBAGGERS; SMILEY'S PEOPLE (with Adaptation); TINKER, TAILOR, SOLDIER, SPY (with Adaptation)

Ethnic

Fictional work typically made for viewing by ethnic audiences most prominently African American, Yiddish, and Latino. Similar work has also been made in much smaller quantities for such groups as Ukrainian, Armenian, Italian, Greek, Polish, Japanese, Chinese, Vietnamese, and Native Americans. Although many of these films have inherent crossover appeal, some ethnic work has strived to go beyond its own members and reach a wide audience. Fictional narratives typically present situations unique to the specific group, and are often based on classical ethnic plays and stories, or feature performers who are stars within their community, but may not be as well known to a broader public. Ethnic work is often made and distributed outside the commercial mainstream. The designation of this genre term does not necessarily connote the veracity of the portrayals, but rather, indicates the main focus of the subject matter.

Used for fictional African American; American Indian; Black; Chicano; Hispanic; Jewish; Latino; Native American; Race movies; Yiddish.

Note: To trace images of different races and ethnic groups, use the appropriate subject headings.

Feature examples: ARSHIN MAL ALAN; THE BALLAD OF GREGORIO CORTEZ (with Biographical); THE BIRTH OF A RACE; CARMEN JONES (with Musical; Adaptation); CHICANA; THE COLOR PURPLE (with Melodrama; Adaptation); COSSACKS IN EXILE; DAUGHTERS OF THE DUST (with Family); DER DIBUK / DER DIBEK / THE DYBBUK (with Adaptation); EAT A BOWL OF TEA (with Romance; Melodrama); HALLELUJAH; IN THE LAND OF THE WAR CANOES: KWAKIUTL INDIAN LIFE ON THE NORTHWEST COAT / IN THE LAND OF THE HEADHUNTERS; LADY SINGS THE BLUES (with Biographical; Musical); THE LEARNING TREE; LJUBAV I STRAST / LOVE AND PASSION; NAVAJO; EL NORTE; SHE'S GOTTA HAVE IT; SUPERFLY (with Crime); SWEET SWEETBACK'S BAADASSSSS SONG; WINDWALKER; WITHIN OUR GATES (with Social problem); YIDDISH KING LEAR (with Adaptation)

TV examples: A DIFFERENT WORLD (with College; Situation comedy); GOOD TIMES (with Situation comedy); MI HERMANO (with Soap opera); THE MYSTIC WARRIOR; SANFORD AND SON (with Domestic comedy); SHAFT (with Mystery); THE WOMEN OF BREWSTER PLACE

Ethnic (Nonfiction)

Nonfiction work that focuses on issues and individuals relating to the American ethnic experience.

Note: Not necessary to also use Documentary, since that is implied by the term Ethnic (Nonfiction).

Examples: ADAM CLAYTON POWELL (with Biographical (Nonfiction)); AGUEDA MARTINEZ (with Biographical (Nonfiction)); BLACK MEN--UNCERTAIN FUTURES; BROKEN TREATY AT BATTLE MOUNTAIN; ETHNIC NOTIONS (with Experimental); THE HARLEM GLOBETROTTERS--SIX DECADES OF MAGIC (with Sports (Nonfiction)); INCIDENT AT OGLALA; ISHI: THE LAST YAHI (with Biographical); LIBERATORS--FIGHTING ON TWO FRONTS IN WORLD WAR II (with War (Nonfiction)); MYTHS AND THE MOUNDBUILDERS; OUR SACRED LAND; REFLECCIONES; UNZERE KINDER / OUR CHILDREN; THE VANISHING RACE; YO SOY CHICANO / I AM CHICANO

Ethnographic

Nonfiction work documenting specific cultures or types of peoples, including field footage by cultural anthropologists or researchers and edited, analytical work seeking to understand the beliefs, customs, and social systems of various cultures or ethnic groups.

Note: Do not use for general histories or analyses of man. For superficial appearances of cultures in work focusing on travel and places, use Travelogue. Not necessary to also use Documentary, since that is implied by the term Ethnographic.

Film examples: THE AX FIGHT; DANCE OF THE TISKIOUINE FROM THE GUIDMIOUA TRIBE; GRASS; THE HOLY GHOST PEOPLE; MOANA; NAKED SPACES: LIVING IS ROUND (1985) (with Experimental); NANOOK OF THE NORTH; NETSILIK ESKIMO SERIES; THE NUER; SONG OF CEYLON

TV examples: AN AMERICAN FAMILY; BUSHMEN OF THE KALAHARI

Video examples: META MAYAN II (with Experimental); ITAM HAKIM HOPIIT (with Experimental)

Exercise see Instructional

Expedition see Adventure (Nonfiction)

Experimental

Work that seeks to expand traditional form, structure, and content, usually subjective in approach. Largely non-commercial, experimental work is often made by a single filmmaker or a small group.

Used for Avant-garde.

Note: A list of subdivisions is offered in Appendix A for the use of specialized collections.

Examples: AUTUMN FIRE; DANSE MACABRE; THE FALL OF THE HOUSE OF USHER (1928) (with Adaptation); THE HEARTS OF AGE; JAMMIN' THE BLUES; THE LIFE AND DEATH OF 9413--A HOLLYWOOD EXTRA (with Show business); LIVES OF PERFORMERS; MESHES OF THE AFTERNOON; MOTHLIGHT; A MOVIE; RED SHIFT; SCORPIO RISING; TRIBULATION 99

Exploitation

Fictional or loosely nonfictional work which offered subject matter that was taboo in mainstream cinema. Such work was frequently presented under the guise of preachy expos‚s, sex education, morality plays, and pseudo-documentaries. Standard topics included the dangers of premarital sex, the vice racket, nudist cults, or the dangers of narcotics. The work was made to exploit a subject for quick profit, and usually produced on a low budget by a small company. By pandering to an audience's curiosity or prurient interest, such work is on the borderline of censorship restrictions and recognizable for its emphasis on sensational aspects with little interest in artistic or social merit.

Related terms: Erotic and Pornography.

Feature examples: BECAUSE OF EVE; THE BURNING QUESTION / TELL YOUR CHILDREN / REEFER MADNESS; CHILD BRIDE; CITY OF MISSING GIRLS; CRUSADE AGAINST RACKETS (with Crime); ESCORT GIRL; GUILTY PARENTS; HIGH SCHOOL GIRL (with Youth); MAD YOUTH (with Youth); MOM AND DAD; NO GREATER SIN (with Medical); SECRETS OF A MODEL; TEST TUBE BABIES; WHAT PRICE INNOCENCE?; WILD WEED; YOUTH AFLAME

Exploration see Adventure (Nonfiction)

Factual see such genres as Actuality; Adventure (Nonfiction); Art; Biographical (Nonfiction); Dance; Educational; Ethnic (Nonfiction); Ethnographic; Industrial; Instructional; Interview; Magazine; Medical (Nonfiction); Music; Nature; News; Propaganda; Public affairs; Reality-based; Social guidance; Sponsored; Sports (Nonfiction); Talk; Training; Travelogue; War (Nonfiction)

Fairy tale see Fantasy

Fallen woman

Fictional type of melodrama centered around a woman who commits adultery or has premarital sex, causing her to leave the security of her family. This results either in her becoming an outcast and declining to a humiliating life on the street, or using men to gain wealth through becoming a courtesan, "kept woman" or "gold digger." Class differences may help to make a woman susceptible to such a fate (TESS), although, on occasion, she may be redeemed by true love. Such work was generally made before 1950 or depicts the pre-1950 era and its mores, using a historical setting.

Related terms: Family; Historical; Maternal melodrama; Melodrama; Women.

Feature examples: ANNA KARENINA (with Historical; Adaptation); BABY FACE; BACK STREET; CAMILLE (with Historical; Adaptation); FORBIDDEN (1932); GENTLEMEN PREFER BLONDES (with Adaptation); THE GREEKS HAD A WORD FOR THEM (with Comedy); I'M NO ANGEL (with Comedy); KITTY FOYLE (with Adaptation); MADAME BOVARY (with Historical; Adaptation); MOLL FLANDERS (with Historical; Adaptation); NANA (with Historical; Adaptation); OF HUMAN BONDAGE (with Adaptation); RAIN (with Adaptation); RED DUST; RED HEADED WOMAN (with Comedy); SADIE THOMPSON (with Adaptation); THE SCARLET LETTER (with Historical; Adaptation); SUSAN LENOX: HER FALL AND RISE (with Adaptation); WATERLOO BRIDGE

Family

Fictional work depicting inter-family relations between parents, offspring, siblings, and in- laws, relating how the family endures or dissolves through such emotions as love, jealousy, rivalry, and hatred.

Used for Domestic.

Note: The term Family refers to the theme, not necessarily the intended audience. If the emphasis is on an individual woman's experience, use Women; for Television series, see also Soap opera. For television comedies centered on the family, use Domestic comedy.

Related terms: Fallen woman and Maternal melodrama.

Feature examples: AUTUMN SONATA; CAT ON A HOT TIN ROOF (with Adaptation); FATHER OF THE BRIDE; THE GOOD EARTH; HANNAH AND HER SISTERS (with Comedy; Romance); HOME FROM THE HILL; KRAMER VS. KRAMER; LIFE WITH FATHER; LONG DAY'S JOURNEY INTO NIGHT (with Adaptation); THE MAGNIFICENT AMBERSONS (with Adaptation); MEET ME IN ST. LOUIS (with Musical); ON GOLDEN POND; THE PARENT TRAP (with Comedy); PARENTHOOD; SENSE AND SENSIBILITY (with Romance; Historical; Adaptation); A TREE GROWS IN BROOKLYN (with Adaptation)

TV examples: AVONLEA (with Historical; Adaptation); FAMILY; PARTY OF FIVE; THE WALTONS (with Historical)

Fantasy

Fictional work set in a netherworld where events trespass physical laws and the bounds of human possibility, mixing the otherwise separate worlds of the natural and the supernatural. The hero often undergoes mystical experiences, and must call on powerful, extra-human forces outside themselves to prevail, such as a genie, and use such tools as a flying carpet, a magic sword or spell, or ancient religious relics. Often set in bizarre or imaginary lands, like Shangri-La or Brigadoon, among lost races, with monstrous creatures representing the divine or the diabolical, utilizing Greek mythology or Arabian Nights-type narratives.

Used for Sword and sorcery.

Note: If the primary intent is to frighten the audience in the use of the supernatural, such as with a story of vampires, use Horror. If the narrative relies on advanced technology, even if presented in a fantastic manner (STAR WARS), use Science fiction.

Feature examples: BARON MUNCHAUSEN (with Adaptation); BRIGADOON (with Musical); A CHRISTMAS CAROL (with Adaptation); CLASH OF THE TITANS (with Ancient world); CONAN THE BARBARIAN (with Adaptation); A CONNECTICUT YANKEE IN KING ARTHUR'S COURT (with Adaptation; Comedy); EXCALIBUR (with Adaptation); A FLORIDA ENCHANTMENT; HARVEY (with Adaptation); HEAVEN CAN WAIT; IT'S A WONDERFUL LIFE; LOST HORIZON (with Adaptation); MARY POPPINS (with Musical; Adaptation); PEGGY SUE GOT MARRIED; RAIDERS OF THE LOST ARK; SHE (with Adaptation); DET SJUNDE INSEGLET / THE SEVENTH SEAL; SPLASH (with Romance); THE THIEF OF BAGDAD; THE THREE WORLDS OF GULLIVER (with Adaptation); TIME BANDITS; TOPPER (with Comedy); THE WIZARD OF OZ (with Musical; Adaptation)

TV examples: BEWITCHED (with Situation comedy; Family); FANTASY ISLAND; THE GREATEST AMERICAN HERO; HERCULES; ROBIN HOOD / ROBIN OF SHERWOOD / ROBIN HOOD--THE LEGEND (1984-86); SUPERMAN (with Adaptation); TALES OF THE GOLD MONKEY; XENA--WARRIOR PRINCESS

Farce see Comedy

Film art see Experimental

Film noir

Fictional work using the crime formula, but in which crime becomes a dark metaphor that is symptomatic of what is wrong with society, rather than simply a single aberration from the norm. The film noir world is one of disillusionment and full of pervasive evil, guilt, fear, and paranoia. The protagonists are frequently anti-heroic hardboiled detectives, and are surrounded by corrupt characters that may include a femme fatale. Narratives are frequently convoluted and characterized by the use of flashbacks, voice-over narration, and echoed by visual devices reminiscent of German expressionism, such as shadows, low key lighting, and oblique, unbalanced compositions. Unlike mysteries, identifying the culprit proves less significant than revelations that justify the hero's cynical perspective.

Note: Film noir was primarily made in a cycle during the 1940s and into the 1950s, but includes work made in previous and subsequent years that invoke the feel and mood of classical film noir (BODY HEAT; CHINATOWN), including television.

Related terms: Caper, Crime, Gangster, Mystery, Police, and Thriller.

Feature examples: AGAINST ALL ODDS; THE BIG SLEEP (with Adaptation); THE BLUE DAHLIA (with Adaptation); D.O.A.; DOUBLE INDEMNITY (with Adaptation); KISS ME DEADLY (with Adaptation); THE LADY FROM SHANGHAI; THE MALTESE FALCON (1941) (with Adaptation); MURDER, MY SWEET (with Adaptation); OUT OF THE PAST; SCARLET STREET; TOUCH OF EVIL (with Adaptation)

TV examples: DANTE'S INFERNO; M SQUAD; MARLOWE--PRIVATE EYE (with Adaptation); PETER GUNN

Film poetry see Experimental

Game

Television work in which contestants participate in various types of competitive activities for prizes, usually by answering questions on given topics. The prizes can range from automobiles to cash awards to "dates," and the mediating role of the host with contestants and celebrities is an important entertainment element.

Used for Quiz show.

Examples: THE DATING GAME; FAMILY FEUD; HOLLYWOOD SQUARES; JEOPARDY; TWENTY ONE; WHAT'S MY LINE; WHEEL OF FORTUNE

Gangster

Fictional work telling a crime story concentrating on the lawbreaker, utilizing his point of view, often portraying and glorifying his rise and fall. The criminal may be either an individual or part of a gang; their rivalry with other criminals is as significant to them as their concern about police apprehension. Gangsters are often excessively ambitious, materialistic, street-wise, and immoral, and suffer from megalomania and various complexes that help lead to their destruction; they fail to understand that they are living an inversion of the dream of wealth and success, and are doomed to failure.

Related terms: Caper, Crime, Film noir, Mystery, Police, and Thriller.

Feature examples: ANGELS WITH DIRTY FACES; BONNIE AND CLYDE (with Biographical); DARK MANHATTAN (with Ethnic); THE GODFATHER (with Adaptation); GOODFELLAS; HIGH SIERRA (with Adaptation); LITTLE CAESAR (with Adaptation); MANHATTAN MELODRAMA; MARRIED TO THE MOB (with Comedy); THE PUBLIC ENEMY; SCARFACE; WHITE HEAT

TV examples: BLOOD VOWS: THE STORY OF A MAFIA WIFE; THE DON; THE GANGSTER CHRONICLES; GANGSTERS; LADY MOBSTER; OUR FAMILY BUSINESS

Hispanic see Ethnic

Historical

Fictionalized work set in a certain specified time in the past. Historical "fiction" is regarded as fiction because it most typically follows one of two formulas. Most common is the portrayal of an imaginary character interacting with real people or events as a background (A TALE OF TWO CITIES). Less common is the dramatization of a specific actual event, imagining dialogue and other aspects of the actions of real individuals (THE PRIVATE LIVES OF ELIZABETH AND ESSEX). Accuracy is usually sacrificed to the personalizing or mythicizing of complex political forces, and actual chronology is telescoped and often transposed. The reliance is on the trappings of a period setting (costume, decor, locale) to lend verisimilitude, rather than accurately reproducing the complexity of historical individuals or incidents.

Used for Docudrama.

Note: If the work concentrates on a specific actual individual, use Biographical. See also genres whose setting is inherently historical: Adventure; Ancient world; Prehistoric; War; Western. Not necessary to use Historical with those genres.

Feature examples: THE AGONY AND THE ECSTASY (with Adaptation); APOLLO 13; LA BATTAGLIA DI ALGERI / THE BATTLE OF ALGIERS (with Propaganda; War); GONE WITH THE WIND (with Romance; Adaptation); IN OLD CHICAGO (with Family; Romance; Disaster); IL GATTOPARDO / LE GUEPARD / THE LEOPARD; LLOYDS OF LONDON (with Adventure; Romance); A MAN FOR ALL SEASONS (with Adaptation); MATEWAN; MONSIEUR BEAUCAIRE (with Comedy; Adaptation); ORPHANS OF THE STORM (with Family; Adaptation); SARABAND FOR DEAD LOVERS (with Melodrama); 1776 (with Musical; Adaptation); SI VERSAILLES M'ETAIT CONTE / ROYAL AFFAIRS IN VERSAILLES

TV examples: BLACK ADDER (with Situation comedy); ARTHUR OF THE BRITONS; FALL OF EAGLES; THE JEWEL IN THE CROWN (with Melodrama; Adaptation); POLDARK (with Adaptation); ROOTS (with Family; Ethnic; Adaptation); THE VOYAGE OF CHARLES DARWIN (with Biographical); THE YOUNG INDIANA JONES CHRONICLES

Home shopping

Television work in which hosts display various types of merchandise that the viewer can then purchase by using the telephone.

Horror

Fictional work portraying the dark side of life, the unknown, the forbidden, and the supernatural, with the primary aim of frightening the viewer in an entertaining, cathartic manner. Frequently, haunted houses, ghosts, werewolves, zombies, vampires, or the diabolical are depicted. The menace may also come through the horrific impact of nature or science gone wrong, such as a monster deliberately or accidentally created by advanced technology, or from Earth under attack by extraterrestrial beings; in such cases use Horror in conjunction with Science fiction. The "monster" figure may not be one that properly inspires dread, but is simply perceived in that way by those around them (THE HUNCHBACK OF NOTRE DAME). Horror may also induce both shudders and laughs (THE CANTERVILLE GHOST), or be a straightforward comedy about monsters or a parody of the genre (ABBOTT AND COSTELLO MEET THE KILLER, BORIS KARLOFF).

Note: Unlike Horror, Fantasy may also use the supernatural, but not for the purpose of frightening the audience. When the source of the horror is a result of advanced technology or alien life, use Horror in conjunction with Science fiction.

Related term: Slasher.

Feature examples: THE BEAST WITH FIVE FINGERS (with Adaptation); DRACULA (with Adaptation); DR. JEKYLL AND MR. HYDE (with Adaptation); THE FACE BEHIND THE MASK; THE FLY; FRANKENSTEIN (with Science fiction; Adaptation); GODZILLA; DER GOLEM / THE GOLEM (with Adaptation); HUSH ... HUSH, SWEET CHARLOTTE; THE INNOCENTS (with Adaptation); INVASION OF THE BODY SNATCHERS (with Science fiction); THE ISLAND OF LOST SOULS / THE ISLAND OF DR. MOREAU (with Science fiction; Adaptation); JAWS (with Adaptation); DAS KABINETT DES DR. CALIGARI / THE CABINET OF DR. CALIGARI; KING KONG (with Prehistoric); MURDERS IN THE RUE MORGUE (with Adaptation); THE PHANTOM OF THE OPERA (with Romance; Adaptation); (PSYCHO (with Adaptation); ROSEMARY'S BABY (with Adaptation); THE UNINVITED (with Adaptation)

TV examples: AMERICAN GOTHIC; FREDDY'S NIGHTMARES--THE SERIES; FRIDAY THE THIRTEENTH--THE SERIES; GOOSEBUMPS (with Children's); TALES FROM THE CRYPT

Industrial

Nonfiction work concerned with illustrating and explaining industrial and manufacturing processes or issues. Generally distributed nontheatrically and designed for in-house educational or promotional purposes, many such works are sponsored by a concerned business or organization.

Note: Not necessary to also use Documentary, since that is implied by the term Industrial.

Related terms: Instructional and Training.

Examples: ABCS OF MASONRY CONSTRUCTION (with Sponsored); CULLING CHICKENS (with Sponsored); THE STORY OF ASBESTOS (with Sponsored)

Instructional

Nonfiction work designed to impart skills or techniques to general audiences, typically in a "how-to" manner.

Used for Exercise.

Note: Not necessary to also use Documentary, since that is implied by the term Instructional. For instructional work used within the military, industry, or trades, use Training. If a work is predominantly informative rather than instructional in its emphasis, use Educational.

Related terms: Industrial and Social guidance.

Film examples: ABC OF HAND TOOLS (with Sponsored); CRIMES OF CARELESSNESS (with Sponsored); HOW TO MAKE A LINOLEUM BLOCK PRINT

TV examples: THE FRENCH CHEF; FRUGAL GOURMET; JULIA CHILD & COMPANY; THIS OLD HOUSE

Video examples: JANE FONDA'S WORKOUT; RIDE A HORSE

Interview

Work featuring a discussion between a newsmaker, author, celebrity, or a similar notable individual. The structure of the work tends to be formal, with a reporter, host, or audience posing questions to be answered. There may also be a smaller segment featuring discussion of the issues at hand between journalists or others involved in the interview.

Note: Not necessary to also use Documentary, since that is implied by the term Interview.

Related term: Talk, which tends to cover works with are more informal, and may focus on ordinary individuals.

TV examples: FACE THE NATION (with Public affairs); LARRY KING LIVE; MAN OF THE WEEK; MEET THE PRESS (with Public affairs); PERSON TO PERSON; THIS WEEK WITH DAVID BRINKLEY (with Public affairs)

Jewish see Ethnic

Journalism

Fictional work centered around the world of reporters and news, with deadlines, breaking stories, competition among their colleagues, feuding with their editor, and yellow journalism and questions of journalistic ethics. Such work is typically involved with such activities as searching for a "scoop," exposing crime and corruption, and obsessively pursuing a story, often to the point of destroying a person's reputation. Includes stories of journalists in the print, newsreel, and broadcast mediums.

Used for Newspaper; Reporter.

Feature examples: ABSENCE OF MALICE; ACE IN THE HOLE / THE BIG CARNIVAL; ALL THE PRESIDENT'S MEN (with Mystery; Political); BROADCAST NEWS (with Show business; Romance); THE FRONT PAGE; HENRY ALDRICH, EDITOR (with Family; Youth); HIS GIRL FRIDAY (with Screwball comedy); NETWORK (with Show business); TOO HOT TO HANDLE

TV examples: LOU GRANT; NEWSRADIO (with Situation comedy)

Jungle

Fictional work set in the jungles of South America, Africa, or Asia, relating the adventures of humans against ferocious wild animals, the discovery of lost cities, Westerners against threatening natives, or the competition between rival tribes in an untamed setting. The narratives are usually extremely fanciful and often juvenile, with minimal characterization, and almost no attempt at authenticity in settings. Unlike other adventure types, there is little veneer of verisimilitude, use of historical period, or recognition of the issues of colonialism (development of the imperial theme would place a work under Adventure). Popular series characters include Tarzan, Jungle Jim, Sheena, Nyoka, and Bomba the Jungle Boy.

Feature examples: AFRICA SCREAMS (with Comedy); CONGO; GREEN HELL; NABONGA / THE JUNGLE WOMAN / GORILLA / THE GIRL AND THE GORILLA; SAFARI; WHITE PONGO

Serial examples: JUNGLE MENACE; THE LOST JUNGLE (with Fantasy); TIGER WOMAN; TIM TYLER'S LUCK

TV examples: ADVENTURES OF A JUNGLE BOY; GEORGE OF THE JUNGLE (with the form Animation); JUNGLE JIM; RAMAR OF THE JUNGLE; SHEENA, QUEEN OF THE JUNGLE; TARZAN

Juvenile delinquency

Fictional work depicting criminal tendencies and actions among people in their teens and twenties. The setting is often in an urban slum or a school, with the characters becoming members of rival gangs, with events leading to violence. Such work is typically aimed largely at a younger audience, through representations of misunderstood youth rebelling against the perceived restraints and hypocrisies of adults.

Note: Not necessary to also use Youth, since that is implied by Juvenile delinquency. If the work concentrates on youth and older characters equally, then use such categories as Crime or Gangster (DEAD END).

Feature examples: BADLANDS (1973); BLACKBOARD JUNGLE; BOYS TOWN; LITTLE TOUGH GUYS; REBEL WITHOUT A CAUSE; ROCK AND ROLL HIGH SCHOOL; RUMBLEFISH; THE WILD ONE

TV examples: CHILDREN OF THE NIGHT (with Romance); DAWN: PORTRAIT OF A TEENAGE RUNAWAY; JUVENILE JUSTICE; ON CAMPUS (with Comedy); 21 JUMP STREET (with Police)

Kung fu see Martial arts

Latino see Ethnic

Lecture

Nonfictional work in which an individual or team, usually in a classroom-style setting, give a talk on a particular subject.

Note: While there may be some interaction with the audience, such as the speaker taking occasional questions, a lecture is different from an Interview or Talk show in that the exchange is not the primary element. For a discussion among several individuals, use the heading appropriate for the subject, such as Public affairs or Sports (Nonfiction).

Video example: CAPSTONE LECTURES IN WESTERN CULTURE

Legal

Fictional work in which the capacity of the legal system to find the guilty and acquit the innocent is measured through the interaction of lawyers, prosecutors, clients, witnesses, and judges, largely in a courtroom setting. The law may prove capable of rendering justice, or it may prove to be a flawed system open to abuse and susceptible to perpetuating a miscarriage of justice.

Used for Courtroom.

Note: Work portraying military trials will usually also be listed under Military.

Feature examples: ANATOMY OF A MURDER (with Mystery); ... AND JUSTICE FOR ALL (with Crime); THE COURT-MARTIAL OF BILLY MITCHELL (with Biographical; Military); A FEW GOOD MEN (with Military); INHERIT THE WIND (with Social problem; Adaptation); JUDGEMENT AT NUREMBURG; THEY WON'T FORGET (with Social problem); TO KILL A MOCKINGBIRD (with Social problem; Adaptation); TWELVE ANGRY MEN (with Adaptation); WITNESS FOR THE PROSECUTION (with Adaptation)

TV examples: THE DEFENDERS (with Crime); JUDD FOR THE DEFENSE (with Crime); L.A. LAW (with Crime); LAW & ORDER (with Police); MATLOCK (with Mystery); MURDER ONE (with Crime); PERRY MASON (with Mystery); RUMPOLE OF THE BAILEY (with Crime; Adaptation)

Love see Romance

Magazine

Nonfiction work covering disparate but contemporary topics during its duration, often mixing news with weather, human interest, or gossip.

Note: Not necessary to also use Documentary, since that is implied by the term Magazine.

TV examples: A CURRENT AFFAIR; ENTERTAINMENT TONIGHT; HARDCOPY; NATIONWIDE; 60 MINUTES; THE TODAY SHOW; 20/20

Magic show see Show business; Variety; Performance (form); Television special (form)

Martial arts

Fictional work designed to showcase the hero's athletic agility and ability to turn his body into a weapon. This skill has been achieved through his dedication to, and personification of, Oriental teachings about physical and mental discipline, allowing the hero to execute fast, fluid, but spare movements that knock out or kill his numerous adversaries and allow him to triumph over formidable odds. The hero's adversaries range from criminals to supernatural beings. The emphasis on the actual choreographed movement dominates the narrative, which can be set in historical to modern times, in the East or the West.

Used for Kung fu.

Feature examples: THE BIG BRAWL; THE CHINESE CONNECTION; DRUNKEN MASTER; ENTER THE DRAGON; ENTER THE NINJA; FIST OF FURY; GAME OF DEATH; THE KARATE KID; KICKBOXER; LIONHEART (1991); MORTAL KOMBAT (with Fantasy); THE OCTAGON; RUMBLE IN THE BRONX

TV examples: KUNG-FU; THE MASTER

Maternal melodrama

Fictional type of melodrama centered around a mother who will come into contact with her child after many years but has concealed her true identity for fear of that her past will harm the child. Often compelled by social pressure to give up the child at a young age, or because of the belief that a woman cannot raise a child herself, the child is unaware of his or her mother's true identity, although s/he usually comes to know her. Sometimes the separation is because the mother is guilty of a moral lapse, or because she has become involved in a scandal through no fault of her own. The overriding virtue of selfless motherhood becomes the goal to which all other desires or ambitions are sacrificed.

Related terms: Family; Fallen woman; Melodrama; Women.

Feature examples: BLONDE VENUS; THE GOOSE WOMAN; THE HOUSE ON 56TH STREET; LADY FOR A DAY (with Adaptation); MADAME X (with Adaptation); MY SON; THE OLD MAID (with Historical); POCKETFUL OF MIRACLES (with Adaptation); SARAH AND SON; THE SECRET OF MADAME BLANCHE; THE SIN OF MADELON CLAUDET; STELLA DALLAS (with Adaptation); TO EACH HIS OWN

Medical

Fictional work telling of the milieu of health practitioners, from doctors to nurses, their profession, and their patients. Romances among them are frequent, and the presentation ranges from the most scandalous behavior to idealized portraits of selfless doctors and nurses. The milieu may be portrayed under both emergency as well as day-to-day conditions, with patients struggling to overcome physical and sometimes mental challenges.

Feature examples: THE COUNTRY DOCTOR; DR. EHRLICH'S MAGIC BULLET (with Biographical); DOCTOR IN THE HOUSE (with Slapstick comedy); THE HOSPITAL (with Dark comedy); JANET DEAN, R.N.; THE MAGNIFICENT OBSESSION (with Romance; Adaptation); MEN IN WHITE; REGISTERED NURSE (with Melodrama; Women); SISTER KENNY (with Biographical; Adaptation)

TV examples: DR. KILDARE; ER; THE DOCTORS AND THE NURSES; MARCUS WELBY, M.D.; NURSE; QUINCY, M.E. (with Mystery); ST. ELSEWHERE; TRAPPER JOHN, M.D.

Medical (Nonfiction)

Predominantly nontheatrical work documenting medical operations, procedures, or conditions, or work designed for medical personnel.

Note: Not necessary to also use Documentary, since that is implied by the term Medical (Nonfiction). For health or medical work produced for informative purposes and generalized audiences, use Educational.

Film examples: EPILEPTIC SEIZURE NOS. 1-9; OBJECTIVES IN EMERGENCY CARDIOVASCULAR CARE; SURGICAL OPERATION BY DR. HURST

TV examples: HEART SURGERY

Video examples: CLINICAL APPLICATIONS AND UTILITY OF HIGH RESOLUTION CT IN LUNG DISEASE; DENT PROJECT LESSONS 1-107 (with Training)

Melodrama

Fictional work emphasizing emotional vicissitudes and tragic occurrences, traditionally presented in an overwrought manner. The plot usually concerns victimized or suffering protagonists and a mixture of difficulties among lovers, family, friends, or the community. The story typically encompasses both familial and romantic themes.

Note: Narratives concentrating on a single family unit should use Family; those emphasizing a single couple should use Romance; and those chronicling primarily a single female character should use Women, or Fallen woman or Maternal melodrama. For a Melodrama that is a television series, in most cases Soap opera is the most appropriate term. Do not use Melodrama when that element is merely one among many assorted subplots.

Related terms: Fallen woman, Family, Historical, Maternal melodrama, Romance, and Women.

Feature examples: BROKEN BLOSSOMS; FLAMINGO ROAD; GIANT (with Adaptation); GRAND HOTEL; GREEN DOLPHIN STREET (with Historical; Adaptation); IMITATION OF LIFE (with Family; Women); THE JOY LUCK CLUB (with Historical; Adaptation); KINGS ROW (with Adaptation); PEYTON PLACE (with Adaptation); STEEL MAGNOLIAS; THE SUN ALSO RISES (with Adaptation; Romance); TENDER IS THE NIGHT (with Adaptation; Romance); TERMS OF ENDEARMENT; THIS HAPPY BREED (with Historical); WAY DOWN EAST (with Adaptation); WRITTEN ON THE WIND

Military

Fictional work concentrating on the military lifestyle and loyalty to the armed forces and its codes, predominantly set during peacetime. Among the hero's codes of conduct is a willingness to sacrifice the ease and the comfort of civilian life in favor of a devotion to duty. This may result, on the one hand, in facing life-threatening situations, but ultimately also brings its own internal rewards and camaraderie with others who have chosen this career.

Note: Work about the military life during wartime would go under War, and stories set in the French Foreign Legion will usually go under Adventure. Work portraying military trials will usually also be listed under Legal.

Feature examples: BROTHER RAT (with Comedy); FROM HERE TO ETERNITY (with Adaptation); THE LONG GRAY LINE; NO TIME FOR SERGEANTS (with Comedy; Adaptation); AN OFFICER AND A GENTLEMAN (with Romance); THE SEARCH; TOP GUN (with Aviation); UNDER SIEGE

TV examples: EMERALD POINT, N.A.S.; GOMER PYLE (with Situation comedy); MAJOR DAD (with Domestic comedy); PRIVATE BENJAMIN (with Situation comedy)

Music

Nonfiction work focusing on music, musicians, and singers. Music work may be biographical, ethnographic, educational, or instructional in nature.

Note: Not necessary to also use Documentary, since that is implied by the term Music. For work documenting single or multiple music concerts or events, use Music in conjunction with the form Performance. For variety programs and films that contain predominantly musical segments, use Music with Variety. For fictional treatments that deal with music subjects and contain musical numbers, use Musical. Provide access for specific types of music performed or discussed through subject headings.

Related terms: Opera and Operetta.

Film examples: ATUMPAN / TALKING DRUMS OF GHANA (with Dance; Ethnographic); BERNSTEIN IN ISRAEL (with Biographical (Nonfiction)); the form Performance); LA CARNAVAL DE BINCHE / THE BINCHE CARNIVAL; GIMME SHELTER (with Biographical (Nonfiction)); the form Performance); GUS EDWARDS' SONG REVUE (with Variety); INTERNATIONAL SWEET HEARTS OF RHYTHM (with Biographical (Nonfiction)); JAZZ IN PIAZZA (with the form Performance); RIMSKY-KORSAKOV (with Biographical (Nonfiction)); Dance); SAY AMEN, SOMEBODY; WHAT'S HAPPENING! THE BEATLES IN THE U.S.A.; WOODSTOCK (with the form Performance)

TV examples: THE BELL TELEPHONE HOUR (with Variety); CBS NEWS SPECIAL REPORT: LOUIS ARMSTRONG 1900-1971 (with Biographical (Nonfiction)); LIVE FROM LINCOLN CENTER (with the form Performance); MEHTA CONDUCTS DVORAK (with the form Performance); THE PERRY COMO SHOW (with Variety); THE SUBJECT IS JAZZ (with the form Performance)

Video examples: LEARNING MOUNTAIN DULCIMER (with Instructional)

Music video

Generally short works that feature a song, performer, or musical group, sometimes structured narratively and accompanied by highly stylized visuals or a series of images to convey a mood.

Note: Used for compilations of videos as well as for individual videos. Music video may include what appears to be a performance of a work, but for works which contain an entire concert performance, use Music with the form Performance (RAY CHARLES IN CONCERT; BILLY JOEL LIVE FROM LENINGRAD USSR; MADONNA LIVE: WHO'S THAT GIRL?).

Examples (individual videos): STRAIGHT UP [performed by Paula Abdul]; ABOUT A GIRL [performed by Nirvana]; LUCKY STAR [performed by Madonna]

Examples (music video compilations): JANET JACKSON--CONTROL--THE VIDEOS [performed by Janet Jackson]; JUST SAY YES--THE VIDEO. VOL. 1 [performed by various artists]; VIDEO A GO-GO, VOL. 1 [performed by various artists]

Musical

Predominantly theatrical fiction work whose plot is structured around segments featuring combinations of music, song, and dance, including such various types as backstage, comedy, rock, and musical biographies. In the Hollywood context, musicals emerged with the coming of sound motion pictures, from roots in stage musicals and operettas, revues, and vaudeville.

Note: For musical westerns use Musical in conjunction with Western (ANNIE GET YOUR GUN; PAINT YOUR WAGON), but for a Western using a singing hero, such as Gene Autry, use Singing cowboy. Use Musical with Variety for musical revues. For filmed or televised productions of stage musicals, not adaptations, use the form Performance in conjunction with Musical; otherwise, use Music and the form Performance for recorded musical performances.

Related terms: Opera and Operetta.

Feature examples: ALEXANDER'S RAGTIME BAND; THE BAND WAGON (with Show business); CABIN IN THE SKY (with Ethnic; Fantasy); DANCE, GIRL, DANCE; THE DUKE IS TOPS / THE BRONZE VENUS (with Ethnic); FLOWER DRUM SONG (with Ethnic; Adaptation); 42ND STREET (with Show business); GREASE (with Youth; Comedy; Adaptation); THE GREAT WALTZ; THE GREAT ZIEGFELD; JESUS CHRIST SUPERSTAR (with Religious; Adaptation); OKLAHOMA (with Romance; Western; Adaptation); ROMAN SCANDALS; SATURDAY NIGHT FEVER; SEVEN BRIDES FOR SEVEN BROTHERS (with Western); SOUTH PACIFIC (with War; Romance; Social problem; Adaptation); YANKEE DOODLE DANDY (with Biographical)

TV EXAMPLES: COP ROCK (with Police); FAME (with Youth)

Musical western see Musical; Singing cowboy; Western

Mystery

Fictional work in which a detective (sometimes merely an endangered individual forced to "detect" for his own self-protection) attempts to solve a crime, usually a murder or theft. The detective may be an amateur, a private investigator, or a plainclothes member of a police force, but whatever the identity, the mystery places the emphasis on the search for clues and rationative power of the detective, rather than the efforts of police or lawbreakers. In the mystery, suspense derives from the narrative's puzzle-like structure, with a group of suspects, whose testimony and motives must all be investigated until, in the surprising conclusion, the intelligent detective perceives the flawed alibi or other clue betraying the culprit's identity. Popular mystery heroes from literature include Boston Blackie, Father Brown, Charlie Chan, Adam Dalgliesh, Nancy Drew, the Hardy Boys, Sherlock Holmes, Miss Marple, Hercule Poirot, Ellery Queen, The Saint, Michael Shayne, Philo Vance, Lord Peter Wimsey, Nero Wolfe, Mr. Wong, and The Thin Man. Hardboiled detectives including Philip Marlowe, Sam Spade, and Mike Hammer are sometimes classified under Film noir. Some mystery heroes cross with other genres, such as Torchy Blane with Journalism, and Hopalong Cassidy or the Cisco Kid, most of whose exploits are mysteries within a Western setting.

Used for Whodunit.

Note: Detectives whose primary identification is with the police force and whose work is primarily involved with police methodology, rather then their own unique method of solving a case, should be classified under Police.

Related terms: Caper, Crime, Film noir, Gangster, Police, and Thriller.

Feature examples: DAUGHTER OF SHANGHAI; GREEN FOR DANGER (with Adaptation); I WAKE UP SCREAMING; KLUTE; LAURA (with Romance; Adaptation); MEET BOSTON BLACKIE (with Espionage); MURDER BY DEATH (with Parody); THE PENGUIN POOL MURDER; SECRET OF THE BLUE ROOM; AND THEN THERE WERE NONE / TEN LITTLE INDIANS (with Adaptation)

TV examples: BARNABY JONES; CHARLIE'S ANGELS; COLUMBO; THE GALLERY OF MME. LIU-TSONG; GET CHRISTY LOVE (with Ethnic); HART TO HART; MACGYVER; MOONLIGHTING; MURDER, SHE WROTE; REMINGTON STEELE; THE ROCKFORD FILES; 77 SUNSET STRIP

Mythological see Ancient world; Fantasy

Native American see Ethnic

Nature

Nonfiction work concentrating on the world of plants, insects, and animals, accounts of life in the wild, and how the ecosystems are formed with each species interacting with another, often presented in an anthropomorphized manner.

Note: Not necessary to also use Documentary, since that is implied by the term Nature.

Film examples: BEAVER VALLEY; THE LIVING DESERT; NATURE'S HALF- ACRE; THE SEA AROUND US; THE VANISHING PRAIRIE; WORLD WITHOUT SUN

TV examples: ANIMAL WORLD / ANIMAL KINGDOM; LAST OF THE WILD; THE UNDERSEA WORLD OF JACQUES COUSTEAU; WILD KINGDOM; THE WORLD OF SURVIVAL

New American cinema see Experimental

News

Nonfiction television relating topical events and background stories on matters contemporary with their broadcast date, usually organized in reports from correspondents on specific news stories.

Note: Not necessary to also use Documentary, since that is implied by the term News. Use in conjunction with form term Special for news special reports on breaking stories. For theatrical films, see also the genre Documentary and other nonfiction terms, and Newsreel.

Examples: CBS EVENING NEWS; THE MACNEIL-LEHRER NEWSHOUR; NBC NIGHTLY NEWS

Newspaper see Journalism

Newsreel

Work that contains a variety of news footage, ranging in content from lifestyles to international events. Newsreels typically had a duration of about ten minutes in length and were released twice weekly to theaters in the United States from 1911-1967.

Examples: FOX MOVIETONE NEWS; HEARST METROTONE NEWS; THE MARCH OF TIME; PARAMOUNT NEWS; PATHE'S WEEKLY

Nonfiction see such genres as Actuality, Adventure (Nonfiction), Art, Biographical (Nonfiction), Dance, Documentary, Educational, Ethnic (Nonfiction), Ethnographic, Home shopping, Industrial, Instructional, Interview, Magazine, Medical (Nonfiction), Music, Nature, News, Propaganda, Public access, Public affairs, Reality-based, Religion, Social guidance, Speculation, Sponsored, Sports (Nonfiction), Talk, Training, Travelogue, War (Nonfiction)

Northwest see Yukon

Opera

Nonfiction or fiction work featuring opera, opera singers, or opera composers.

Note: For nonfiction recordings of opera(s), use the form Performance in conjunction with Opera. For fictionalized representations of operas or singers, simply use Opera or Opera with Biographical, respectively. Also use Opera alone for operatic work specifically staged or adapted for the camera. Not necessary to also use adaptation, since that is implied by the term Operetta.

Related term: Operetta.

Film examples: LA BOHEME (with Romance); DON GIOVANNI; THE GREAT CARUSO (with Biographical); THE TALES OF HOFFMAN (with Fantasy)

TV examples: LIVE FROM THE MET (with the form Performance); NBC OPERA THEATRE (with the form Performance); THIS IS OPERA (with Educational)

Video examples: MARIA CALLAS: HER PARIS DEBUT (with the form Performance); OPERA: MAN, MUSIC, AND DRAMA (with Educational); PAVAROTTI MASTER CLASS AT JUILLIARD (with Instructional)

Operetta

Work of light opera, generally distinguished from Opera by romantic or farcical plots and the presence of spoken dialogue as well as music and dance.

Note: Use the form Performance in conjunction with Operetta for filmed or videotaped performances. Use Opera if in doubt whether the work in hand is an opera or operetta. Not necessary to also use adaptation, since that is implied by the term Operetta.

Related term: Musical.

Examples: THE DESERT SONG (with Adventure); H.M.S. PINAFORE; THE MERRY WIDOW (with Romance); THE MIKADO; THE PIRATES OF PENZANCE

Pageant see Television special

Panel see Interview; Public affairs; Sports (Nonfiction)

Parody

Nonfiction or fictional work which aims to humorously imitate another film, program, or story, or another genre's formula.

Used for Spoof.

Note: Not necessary to also use Comedy, since that is implied by the term Parody.

Feature examples: AIRPLANE! (with Disaster); CASINO ROYALE (with Espionage; Adaptation); HAIL THE CONQUERING HERO (with War); LAS HURDES / TIERRA SIN PAN / LAND WITHOUT BREAD / UNPROMISED LAND (with Documentary); DUCK SOUP (with Political); HOT SHOTS (with War); I'M GONNA GET YOU SUCKA (with Ethnic); LOVE AT FIRST BITE (with Horror); THE PALEFACE (with Western); PARIS QUI DORT / THE CRAZY RAY (with Science fiction); THE PRINCESS AND THE PIRATE (with Adventure); THE THREE AGES; YOUNG FRANKENSTEIN (with Horror); ZORRO--THE GAY BLADE (with Adventure)

TV examples: GET SMART (with Espionage); MYSTERY SCIENCE THEATER 3000 (with Science fiction); POLICE SQUAD (with Police); THE SIMPSONS (with Situation comedy; the form Animation); SLEDGE HAMMER! (with Police); SOAP (with Soap opera); WHEN THINGS WERE ROTTEN (with Adventure)

Peplum see Ancient world; Fantasy

Period see Adventure; Ancient world; Biographical; Historical; Prehistoric; War; Western

Personal cinema see Experimental

Play see Adaptation; Performance

Police

Fictional work portraying the activities and personalities of official law enforcement officers and agencies (from municipal police to F.B.I. to G-men) in tracking criminals. Police stories offer many of the same elements as the Crime and Mystery genres, but with an added concentration on the procedures of police work and characterizations of police officers. Narratives are often concerned with their excessive devotion to their work and police procedure as they cope with office routine, bureaucracy, and the death of fellow officers in the line of duty. Unlike detectives, policemen fear discovering that they will turn corrupt or are beginning to share traits in common with their criminal adversaries, by also adopting illegal tactics, although for the purpose of apprehending criminals.

Note: Some police may operate as detectives in a Mystery, or work as part of a team with a fellow policeman creating a Buddy work.

Related terms: Caper, Crime, Film noir, Gangster, Mystery, and Thriller.

Feature examples: THE BLUE LAMP; DETECTIVE STORY (with Adaptation); DICK TRACY; THE FBI STORY; THE FRENCH CONNECTION (with Adaptation); "G"-MEN; LETHAL WEAPON (with Buddy); THE NAKED GUN (with Parody)

TV examples: ADAM-12; THE BLUE KNIGHT; CAGNEY & LACEY; DEMPSEY AND MAKEPEACE; DRAGNET; HAWAII FIVE-0; HIGHWAY PATROL; IN THE HEAT OF THE NIGHT; KOJAK; MIAMI VICE; THE MOD SQUAD; NIGHT HEAT; POLICE WOMAN; PRIME SUSPECT; THE STREETS OF SAN FRANCISCO; THE SWEENEY; WISEGUY

Political

Fictional work centering on the political milieu, often of candidates, elections, and elective or appointive office. Some of the protagonists may be corrupt or dictatorial.

Note: For work emphasizing a specific issue or sociological viewpoint, see Social problem.

Feature examples: ADVISE AND CONSENT (with Adaptation); ALL THE KING'S MEN (with Adaptation); THE BEST MAN (with Adaptation); THE CANDIDATE; THE EMPEROR JONES (with Adaptation); THE LAST HURRAH (with Adaptation); MOON OVER PARADOR (with Comedy); MR. SMITH GOES TO WASHINGTON; SCANDAL (with Biographical); SEVEN DAYS IN MAY (with Thriller; Adaptation); STATE OF THE UNION

TV examples: HOUSE OF CARDS; THE SENATOR; TANNER '88; YES, PRIME MINISTER (with Situation comedy)

Pornography

Work representing persons "engaged in explicit, usually unfaked, sexual acts with a primary intent of arousing viewers." (Linda Williams, Hard Core, p. 30)

Related term: Erotic.

Feature examples: BEHIND THE GREEN DOOR; DEEP THROAT; MISTY BEETHOVEN

Prehistoric

Fictional work taking place in the distant past, before civilization or recorded history, and concentrating on showing living creatures long since extinct. Despite sometimes conflating the chronology of evolution, events are treated as factual, not fantasy (that is, without supernatural or magical elements). Plots frequently show cavemen fighting rival tribes as well as dinosaurs or early giant mammals. Alternatively, modern humans find prehistoric life, still surviving in an isolated "lost world" in one of the Earth's remote regions; they must then learn to survive amidst these conditions and escape.

Film examples: CESTA DO PRAVEKU / JOURNEY TO THE BEGINNING OF TIME / VOYAGE TO PREHISTORY (with Children's); CLAN OF THE CAVE BEAR (with Adaptation); GERTIE THE DINOSAUR (with the form animation); JURASSIC PARK (with Science fiction; Adaptation); THE LAND BEFORE TIME (with the form Animation); THE LAND THAT TIME FORGOT (with Adaptation); THE LAND UNKNOWN; THE LOST WORLD (with Adaptation); MISSING LINK; ONE MILLION YEARS B.C.; TWO LOST WORLDS; THE VALLEY OF GWANGI; VALLEY OF THE DRAGONS / PREHISTORIC VALLEY (with Adaptation); WHEN DINOSAURS RULED THE EARTH

TV examples: DINOSAURS (with Domestic comedy); THE FLINTSTONES (with the form Animation); IT'S ABOUT TIME (with Situation comedy); LAND OF THE LOST

Prison

Fictional work set primarily behind bars, where life becomes strictly regimented, impacting the lives of guards and wardens as well as prisoners. Nonetheless, methods of evading control and supervision are found, and motifs include attempts to escape, prove innocence, or await the death penalty. With the primary characters all criminals, one is bound to assume heroic status, if only because of differences from fellow criminals.

Note: For work set in a prisoner-of-war camp, use War.

Feature examples: THE BIG HOUSE; BIRDMAN OF ALCATRAZ (with Adaptation); BRUBAKER; COOL HAND LUKE (with Adaptation); THE CRIMINAL CODE; ESCAPE FROM ALCATRAZ; ESCAPE FROM NEW YORK (with Science fiction); FOR THE TERM OF HIS NATURAL LIFE (with Adaptation); THE LAST MILE (with Adaptation); THE SHAWSHANK REDEMPTION; 20,000 YEARS IN SING SING

TV examples: THE JERICHO MILE (with Sports); SIX AGAINST THE ROCK; WOMEN OF SAN QUENTIN

Private eye see Film noir; Mystery

Propaganda

Fiction or nonfiction work designed primarily to instill or reinforce a specific ideological belief or set of beliefs in the viewer, presented either as a documentary or as a fictional story. Propaganda may be produced by all parts of the political spectrum, and should not be interpreted pejoratively.

Feature examples: DER EWIGE JUDE / THE ETERNAL JEW; JUD SUSS / SWEET JEW; LA MARSEILLAISE (with Historical); MISSION TO MOSCOW; POTEMKIN (with Historical); OKTYABR' / OCTOBER--TEN DAYS THAT SHOOK THE WORLD; SONG OF RUSSIA; STATE OF SIEGE; THE TRIUMPH OF THE WILL; WHY WE FIGHT: PRELUDE TO WAR

TV Example: GOP-TV

Psychological thriller see Thriller

Psychotronic see Fantasy; Science fiction; Thriller

Public access

Television nonfiction in which non-commercial programming is presented, often reflecting community concerns or appealing to non-mainstream audiences, and usually produced inexpensively and/or by non-professionals.

Public affairs

Television nonfiction work which include discussions, debates, speeches, and editorials on politics, government, and public policy. The participants may range from a college debate team to journalists, and politicians are frequent guests.

Used for Campaign; Debates; Editorial.

Note: Not necessary to also use Documentary, since that is implied by the term Public affairs. For coverage of a complete presidential address, or congressional debate or hearing, without commentary, use Unedited.

Examples: FIRING LINE; INSIDE POLITICS; THE MCLAUGHLIN GROUP; NIGHTLINE; SEE IT NOW; WASHINGTON WEEK IN REVIEW

Quiz shows see Game

Race movies see Ethnic

Racing see Road; Sports

Reality-based

Type of television non-fictional work in which the term "based" signifies its derivation from actual footage, usually of police and criminal action, although also indulging in speculation and sometimes using recreated footage or staging a mock trial.

Used for True crime.

Note: Not necessary to also use Documentary, since that is implied by the term Reality- based.

Examples: AMERICA'S FUNNIEST HOME VIDEOS; AMERICA'S MOST WANTED; COPS; I WITNESS VIDEO; THE PEOPLE'S COURT; POLICE STOP; REAL LIFE; THE REAL WORLD; RESCUE 911; TEENAGE DIARIES; TOP COPS; UNSOLVED MYSTERIES; VIDEO DIARIES

Religion

Non-dramatized work such as lectures or discussions on religious topics, or worship services, ministries, sermons, revivals, miracles, or interpretations of contemporary issues, such as creationism. The "nonfiction" label refers simply to style of presentation and is not evaluative, referring purely to the technique used.

Used for Televangelism.

Note: Not necessary to also use Documentary, since that is implied by the term Religion.

TV examples: HOUR OF POWER; I BELIEVE IN MIRACLES; THE OLD TIME GOSPEL HOUR; THE PTL CLUB; THE 700 CLUB

Religious

Fictional work designed to demonstrate the positive (and, less often, negative) power of spirituality and redemption through religious faith. Typical strains are dramatizations of the life of Christ or adaptations of Biblical stories, frequently emphasizing miracles, the beginning of Christianity, and conflicts with nonbelievers.

Note: Because of the frequent dramatizations of Old Testament stories, such work is often used in conjunction with Ancient world.

Feature examples: THE BIBLE--IN THE BEGINNING (with Adaptation); THE CHOSEN (with Adaptation); DAVID AND BATHSHEBA (with Ancient world; Romance; Adaptation); ELMER GANTRY (with Adaptation); FRIENDLY PERSUASION (with Family; Adaptation); GODSPELL (with Musical; Adaptation); LITTLE BUDDHA; THE MIRACLE WOMAN; THE MISSION (with Adventure); THE NEXT VOICE YOU HEAR; THE NUN'S STORY (with Adaptation); OH, GOD! (with Comedy); THE ROBE (with Ancient world; Adaptation); THE SONG OF BERNADETTE (with Adaptation); THE TEN COMMANDMENTS (1956) (with Ancient world; Adaptation)

TV examples: GOING MY WAY; HIGHWAY TO HEAVEN; MAHABARATA (with Adaptation)

Reporter see Journalism

Revue see Variety

Road

Fictional work in which travel or a journey, often of a picaresque or outlaw nature, and sought as a way to find freedom or escape, forms the central narrative structure.

Note: Do not include films in which a journey is simply one of the plot elements, as in many Westerns.

Feature examples: DUEL (with Thriller); EASY RIDER (with Buddy); GIRLS OF THE ROAD (with Social problem); ISHTAR; MIDNIGHT RUN (with Thriller); ROAD TO MOROCCO (with Buddy; Comedy); MAD MAX; SULLIVAN'S TRAVELS (with Comedy; Show Business); THELMA AND LOUISE (with Buddy); TO WONG FOO, THANKS FOR EVERYTHING! JULIE NEWMAR

TV examples: CORONET BLUE; MOVIN' ON; ROUTE 66; THEN CAME BRONSON

Rock documentary see Music (with the form Performance)

Romance

Fictional work focusing on an affectionate relationship between two people, whether in courtship or marriage, and set in modern or historical times. The lovers often face obstacles of family, occupation, money, or social class that may imperil their permanent union. There are also the difficulties of day-to-day compatibility, temptation, and infidelity. The plot climaxes either on overcoming, or failing to overcome, these difficulties.

Used for Love.

Note: Unlike the conventional appearance of romantic subplots in many genres, romances concentrate on the love story as the main conflict. Stories concentrating on the relationship among the family, as opposed to the lovers, would belong under Family, while those emphasizing the female character would be classified under Women. For romantic comedy, use Screwball comedy, Sophisticated comedy, or Romance in conjunction with Comedy.

Feature examples: AN AFFAIR TO REMEMBER; THE AGE OF INNOCENCE (with Historical; Adaptation); LA BETE ET LA BELLE / BEAUTY AND THE BEAST (with Fantasy; Adaptation); BHOWANI JUNCTION (with Historical; Adaptation); THE BITTER TEA OF GENERAL YEN; BRIEF ENCOUNTER; CASABLANCA (with War; Adaptation); DODSWORTH (with Adaptation); DR. ZHIVAGO (with Historical; Adaptation); HIROSHIMA MON AMOUR; LOVE IS A MANY-SPLENDORED THING (with Adaptation); LOVE ME OR LEAVE ME (with Musical; Gangster; Biographical); LOVE STORY (with Adaptation); MARTY (with Adaptation); PICNIC (with Adaptation); A PLACE IN THE SUN (with Adaptation); THE RAINS CAME; RANDOM HARVEST (with Adaptation); ROMAN HOLIDAY; SEVENTH HEAVEN (with Adaptation); THE SHEIK (with Adaptation); THE WHITE SISTER (with Religious; Adaptation); WUTHERING HEIGHTS (with Adaptation; Melodrama)

TV examples: ANYTHING BUT LOVE (with Situation comedy); LOVE--AMERICAN STYLE (with Situation comedy); LOVE BOAT; SCENER UR ETT AKTENSKAP / SCENES FROM A MARRIAGE

Romantic comedy see Comedy; Romance; Screwball comedy; Sophisticated comedy

Science see Adventure (Nonfiction); Documentary; Ethnographic; Medical (Nonfiction); Nature; Speculation

Science fiction

Fictional work that relies on some type(s) of advanced technology, scientific development, or encounter with alien life, to make the narrative possible. Stories frequently have a prophetic nature, forecasting how technological changes may impact society in the years to come (METROPOLIS). The likely future is often seen as dehumanized (THX-1138), dystopian (BLADE RUNNER), or post-apocalyptic (PLANET OF THE APES). May be set on both Earth or in outer space, and (most often) in the future, although sometimes set in the present or past (TWENTY THOUSAND LEAGUES UNDER THE SEA; THE FIRST MEN IN THE MOON).

Note: Horror may overlap with Science fiction when advanced technology or alien life prove malevolent and terrifying.

Feature examples: BACK TO THE FUTURE; CLOSE ENCOUNTERS OF THE THIRD KIND; E.T.--THE EXTRA TERRESTRIAL; FAHRENHEIT 451 (with Adaptation); INVASION OF THE BODY SNATCHERS (with Horror); JOURNEY TO THE CENTER OF THE EARTH (with Adaptation); THE MAN WHO FELL TO EARTH (with Adaptation); MYSTERIOUS ISLAND (1961) (with Survival; Adaptation); ON THE BEACH (with Adaptation); STAR WARS; THINGS TO COME (with Adaptation); THE TIME MACHINE (with Adaptation); 2001--A SPACE ODYSSEY (with Adaptation); THE WAR OF THE WORLDS (with Adaptation); ZARDOZ

Serial examples: FLASH GORDON; BUCK ROGERS; THE PHANTOM EMPIRE (with Singing cowboy); RADAR MEN FROM THE MOON

TV examples: BLAKE'S 7; DR. WHO; FIREBALL XL-5 (with the form Puppet); LOST IN SPACE; MAX HEADROOM; MY FAVORITE MARTIAN (with Situation comedy); OCEAN GIRL; SPACE: 1999; STAR TREK; THE TIME TUNNEL; THE WILD, WILD WEST (with Western); THE X FILES (with Horror)

Screwball comedy

Fictional work in which the plot normally focuses on a comic battle of the sexes between an eccentric, well-to-do female and a generally passive or weak male. They are caught up in a romantic pursuit or patching up a marriage, with romantic love triumphing in the end. The heroine is often the only one aware of romance until the male's resistance is overcome. The characters behave in wacky manner and the dialogue is fast paced and witty.

Note: Not necessary to include the term Romance, since that is implied by Screwball comedy.

Feature examples: THE AWFUL TRUTH; BALL OF FIRE; BRINGING UP BABY; IT HAPPENED ONE NIGHT (with Adaptation); THE LADY EVE; THE MORE THE MERRIER; MY MAN GODFREY; THE PALM BEACH STORY; TWENTIETH CENTURY; WHAT'S UP, DOC?; WHO'S THAT GIRL

Show business

Fictional work dramatizing the world of performance, both on stage and on screen. The creative and artistic process is depicted, often going behind the scenes of the show, frequently dwelling on an individual tormented artist or the travails of a group producing their project.

Used for Backstage.

Feature examples: ALL ABOUT EVE; ALL THAT JAZZ (with Musical); THE BAD AND THE BEAUTIFUL; CINEMA PARADISO (with Youth); DAY FOR NIGHT; A DOUBLE LIFE; THE DRESSER; ED WOOD (with Biographical); 8 1/2; THE ENTERTAINER; A FACE IN THE CROWD; HOLLYWOOD BOULEVARD; THE HUCKSTERS; KING OF COMEDY; THE LAST ACTION HERO (with Crime; Parody; Fantasy); MAN OF A THOUSAND FACES (with Biographical); LE MEPRIS / CONTEMPT; MY FAVORITE YEAR; NASHVILLE; THE PLAYER; THE PURPLE ROSE OF CAIRO (with Fantasy; Romance); THE ROYAL FAMILY OF BROADWAY; SHERLOCK, JR. (with Comedy; Fantasy); SINGIN' IN THE RAIN (with Musical); A STAR IS BORN (with Romance); THE STATE OF THINGS; SUNSET BOULEVARD

TV examples: THE LARRY SANDERS SHOW; MURPHY BROWN (with Situation comedy); REMEMBER WENN; SO THIS IS HOLLYWOOD; TV 101

Singing cowboy

Fictional Western, usually lasting from sixty to eighty minutes, in which the standard formula is carried out in a more light-hearted, sometimes perfunctory way. The concentration is usually on ranch life, and the setting is often in the present or in an ambiguous time, rather than the more typical Western period of the late 19th century. The hero is a non-violent cowboy who is pure of heart, and behaves and dresses in a more elegant manner than most non-singing cowboys. The distinguishing aspect of the Singing cowboy from the Western is that the hero's vocal and musical skills are as important as his gunslinging. The two elements are fully integrated, and the plot periodically pauses, in the manner of a musical, to allow interludes for songs and production numbers, usually five to ten in each film. Music and action are blended in a manner to broaden the potential audience beyond western fans. Since the star often plays themselves, the films frequently contain a large measure of reflexivity, mixing their involvement in the entertainment industry and western exploits. The genre was most popular from the mid 1930s, with the emergence of Gene Autry and Roy Rogers, into the early 1950s.

Note: Do not use for westerns that merely contain a few songs, sung by a secondary character. For a musical of a different nature with a western background, use Musical in conjunction with Western (SEVEN BRIDES FOR SEVEN BROTHERS; OKLAHOMA; PAINT YOUR WAGON).

Feature examples: DON'T FENCE ME IN; HARLEM RIDES THE RANGE (with Ethnic); MEN WITH STEEL FACES / RADIO RANCH (with Science fiction); MOONLIGHT ON THE PRAIRIE; SONG OF THE GRINGO; THE TRAIL OF ROBIN HOOD (with Show business); TUMBLING TUMBLEWEEDS

TV examples: THE GENE AUTRY SHOW; THE ROY ROGERS SHOW

Situation comedy

Fictional work for television, normally running a half hour in length, which creates humor around the lives of a cast of recurring characters and the "situations" in which they find themselves. Generally, regardless of what happens in any given episode, the characters remain in the same relationships and position as they were before, and much of the humor derives from this predictability. The characters seldom change, and react in an expected manner to whatever challenges them, and generally the overall tenor of the shows is upbeat, expecting a happy, satisfying resolution. Everyday life is often an important element, and as a result, although the setting could be almost anywhere, most situation comedies are set in the home or workplace.

Note: For Situation comedies centering around the family, see Domestic comedy.

Examples: ABSOLUTELY FABULOUS; ARE YOU BEING SERVED?; THE DICK VAN DYKE SHOW; FAWLTY TOWERS; FRIENDS; HOGAN'S HEROES (with War); I DREAM OF JEANNIE (with Fantasy); I LOVE LUCY; THE MARY TYLER MOORE SHOW; M*A*S*H (with War); THE MONKEES (with Musical); MORK & MINDY (with Science fiction); ONLY WHEN I LAUGH (with Medical); ROOM 222; TO THE MANOR BORN (with Romance); THE YOUNG ONES (with Youth)

Slapstick comedy

Fictional work in which the humor is derived from physical comedy, such as falls, chases, and physical gags.

Film examples: ABBOTT AND COSTELLO IN THE FOREIGN LEGION (with Adventure); AUNTIE MAME; THE DENTIST; THE DISORDERLY ORDERLY; THE GODS MUST BE CRAZY; IT'S A MAD, MAD, MAD, MAD WORLD; IT'S THE OLD ARMY GAME; THE LONG, LONG TRAILER; MABEL'S AND FATTY'S WASH DAY; THE PINK PANTHER (with Crime); SAFETY LAST; SONS OF THE DESERT; THE THREE STOOGES GO AROUND THE WORLD IN A DAZE (with Parody); WAYNE'S WORLD

Slasher

Type of fictional horror work, highlighting shock and violence, most often centered around a male psychokiller who slashes to death a string of mostly female victims, one by one, until he is subdued or killed, usually by the one woman who has survived and fights back. Often the murderer is motivated by perverse sexuality or some past misdeed, taking revenge on the larger community, and killing becomes a metaphor for rape.

Related term: Horror.

Feature examples: BLOODY BIRTHDAY (with Youth); DRESSED TO KILL (1980); FRIDAY THE THIRTEENTH; HALLOWEEN; HE KNOWS YOU'RE ALONE; I SPIT ON YOUR GRAVE; IT'S ALIVE; MOTEL HELL (with Parody); MY BLOODY VALENTINE; A NIGHTMARE ON ELM STREET; PEEPING TOM / FACE OF FEAR; PROM NIGHT (with Youth); PSYCHO; SORORITY HOUSE MASSACRE (with College); STUDENT BODIES (with Parody); THE TEXAS CHAINSAW MASSACRE

Soap opera

Fictional television series which focus on the events in the lives of a cast of recurring characters, presented in a serial fashion. Plots often center on romances between the characters, but can include adventure, intrigue, or the supernatural. The endings of each program are normally unresolved or only partially resolved, encouraging the viewer to anticipate what may happen in the next episode.

Note: Spanish-language telenovelas are considered to be soap operas. Used for television series only; for features use the term Melodrama.

Examples: CORONATION STREET; DALLAS (with Family); DYNASTY (with Family); DARK SHADOWS (with Horror); DAYS OF OUR LIVES; EASTENDERS; THE EDGE OF NIGHT; GENERAL HOSPITAL (wiht Medical); MARY HARTMAN, MARY HARTMAN (with Parody); MELROSE PLACE; PRISONER CELL BLOCK H (with Prison); UPSTAIRS, DOWNSTAIRS (with Historical); THE YOUNG AND THE RESTLESS

Social consciousness see Social problem

Social guidance

Educational work designed to guide people, particularly teenagers, in proper behavior, dating, etiquette, and other social interaction. Perhaps the best-known producer of such work was Coronet.

Note: Not necessary to also use Documentary or Educational, since that is implied by the term Social guidance.

Examples: ARE YOU POPULAR?; CHEATING; DATING: DO'S AND DON'TS; GOOD TABLE MANNERS

Social problem

Fictional work dramatizing a specific societal ill, or a contemporary topic in the political arena, from alcoholism and drug addiction to racial and religious intolerance, to draw attention to the issue and take advantage of topical interest in a subject.

Used for Social consciousness.

Feature examples: BILLY JACK; CROSSFIRE (with Adaptation); THE DEFIANT ONES; DO THE RIGHT THING; THE EXILE (1931) (with Ethnic; Adaptation); DIE FREUDLOSE GASSE / THE JOYLESS STREET; FURY; GENTLEMAN'S AGREEMENT (with Adaptation); GUESS WHO'S COMING TO DINNER (with Romance; Family); HOW GREEN WAS MY VALLEY (with Family; Historical; Adaptation); I AM A FUGITIVE FROM A CHAIN GANG; INTRUDER IN THE DUST (with Adaptation); THE LOST WEEKEND (with Adaptation); MR. DEEDS GOES TO TOWN (with Comedy); ON THE WATERFRONT; PINKY (with Adaptation); ROOM AT THE TOP; THE SCAR OF SHAME (with Ethnic); THE SNAKE PIT; TAXI DRIVER (with Crime)

TV examples: BABY M; THE BURNING BED; ROE VS. WADE; SARAH T.: PORTRAIT OF A TEENAGE ALCOHOLIC (with Youth); SOMETHING ABOUT AMELIA; TESTAMENT

Sophisticated comedy

Fictional work marked by witty and sophisticated dialogue, centering on marital and romantic relationships, and finding humor in the lives and activities of the rich and urbane.

Note: Not necessary to include the term Romance, since that is implied by Sophisticated comedy.

Feature examples: BREAKFAST AT TIFFANY'S (with Adaptation); DESIGN FOR LIVING (with Adaptation); DINNER AT EIGHT (with Adaptation); THE IMPORTANCE OF BEING EARNEST (with Adaptation); MUCH ADO ABOUT NOTHING (with Adaptation); NINOTCHKA; TROUBLE IN PARADISE (with Crime); WHY CHANGE YOUR WIFE?

Spectacle see Biographical; Historical; Religious; War

Speculation

A type of documentary that focuses on actual mysteries or events, past and present, but instead of traditional, rational explanations, offers possible interpretations or solutions that are largely speculative and unprovable since the necessary material evidence is lacking. Favorite topics range from such historical events as the disappearance of Amelia Earhart to possible contact with alien beings.

Note: Not necessary to also use Documentary, since that is implied by the term Speculation.

Feature examples: CHARIOTS OF THE GODS; IN SEARCH OF HISTORIC JESUS; IN SEARCH OF NOAH'S ARK; THE LINCOLN CONSPIRACY (with Historical); MYSTERIES FROM BEYOND EARTH; SASQUATCH

TV examples: IN SEARCH OF ...; ALIEN AUTOPSY; ENCOUNTERS

Video examples: THE MONUMENTS OF MARS

Sponsored

Nonfiction or fiction work, typically ten minutes or longer in length, produced by, financed, or otherwise significantly supported by a business, government body, professional organization, or nonprofit association, with the intent to promote the sponsoring entity. Sponsored work may be educational, industrial, propagandistic, or, less commonly, instructional in nature. Although largely distributed by video today, sponsored work covering a wide variety of subjects and presenting differing levels of self-promotion or propaganda have historically been shown theatrically and at expositions, rented to schools and community organizations, and broadcast as economical "filler" programming for network and cable television.

Note: Not necessary to also use Documentary, since that is implied by the term Sponsored. Use Company promotion for commercial-length sponsored work that promote the sponsoring entity or industry.

Examples (sponsor given in brackets): BACK TO THE OLD FARM [International Harvester]; DOCTOR JIM [John Deere]; THE LOUISIANA STORY [Standard Oil of New Jersey]; THE RIVER [U.S. Dept. of Agriculture]; THIS IS TB [National Tuberculosis Association]; WITH THESE HANDS [International Ladies' Garment Workers' Union]

Spoof see Parody

Sports

Fictional work concentrating on how an individual athlete or team, through strength, training, agility, and-or tactics, compete in the often corrupt world of sports. Plots usually relate the victory of an underdog or the fall (and sometimes return) of the champion. Usually the world of a single sport is dramatized, such as baseball, basketball, boxing, football, horseracing, bullfighting, or automobile racing.

Note: The particular sport emphasized may be traced through subject headings.

Film examples: BLOOD AND SAND (with Romance; Adaptation); BODY AND SOUL (1947); BULL DURHAM (with Comedy; Romance); THE CHAMP; DAYS OF THUNDER; FEAR STRIKES OUT; FIELD OF DREAMS (with Fantasy); THE GOLF SPECIALIST (with Comedy); THE HARDER THEY FALL; THE JACKIE ROBINSON STORY (with Biographical); PERSONAL BEST; RAGING BULL (with Biographical); ROCKY; THE SET- UP

TV examples: THE BAD NEWS BEARS (with Children's); BALL FOUR; HARLEM GLOBETROTTERS; WHITE SHADOW

Sports (Nonfiction)

Nonfiction work covering sporting events, such as a boxing match, wrestling, or a football game; the work may include the event itself, retrospective highlights, interviews with players, and commentary. Standard recurring events covered include the Olympics, Super Bowl, and World Series.

Note: Not necessary to also use Documentary, since that is implied by the term Sports (Nonfiction). For coverage comprised of uninterrupted footage without commentary or commercials, see also the form Unedited.

Film examples: HOOP DREAMS; SPORTS HIGHLIGHTS OF 1948; TOKYO OLYMPIAD; UNIVERSITY OF SOUTHERN CALIFORNIA--NOTRE DAME FOOTBALL GAME; WINNING PUTTS (with Instructional)

TV examples: MONDAY NIGHT FOOTBALL; SPORTS FOR THE FAMILY; WIDE WIDE WORLD OF SPORTS; WORLD CHAMPIONSHIP BOXING

Video examples: 1993 ATLANTA BRAVES--HOW THE WEST WAS WON!; RECORD BREAKERS OF THE OLYMPIC GAMES; WORLD CUP USA 1994

Spy see Espionage

Stand-up comedy see Comedy (with the form Performance)

Survival

Fictional work usually set in a desert, island, polar, or other harsh, barren locale, in which an individual or group must struggle for their lives against the forces of nature. Facing imminent and seemingly arbitrary death, characters are compelled to test their spirit and discover their innermost nature deprived of the veneer of civilization. Emphasis is placed on the the character's psychology and reactions to the ordeal. The villain is the person who, under these grueling conditions, relies on competitive instincts to dominate rather than aid his fellow human beings. The one who ultimately endures as the hero is not the physically strongest individual but the one with the greatest will-power, ingenuity, and altruism, who labors to preserve the group.

Related term: Disaster.

Feature examples: ALIVE; DELIVERANCE (with Adaptation); FIVE CAME BACK; THE FLIGHT OF THE PHOENIX (with Adaptation); LEGEND OF THE LOST; THE LOST PATROL (with War); THE MOSQUITO COAST (with Adaptation); THE MOST DANGEROUS GAME (with Horror; Adaptation); THE NAKED PREY; THE RED TENT (with Historical); ROBINSON CRUSOE (with Adventure; Adaptation); SANDS OF THE KALAHARI; SCOTT OF THE ANTARCTIC (with Adventure; Biographical); SWISS FAMILY ROBINSON (with Adventure; Adaptation); WALKABOUT

TV examples: ANYTHING TO SURVIVE; EVERYBODY'S BABY: THE RESCUE OF JESSICA MCCLURE; GILLIGAN'S ISLAND (with Situation comedy)

Suspense see Caper; Crime; Disaster; Espionage; Film noir; Horror; Mystery; Police; Prison; Thriller

Swashbuckler see Adventure

Sword and sorcery see Fantasy

Talent see Variety

Talk

Television work which features discussions that are aimed primarily at entertaining an audience, and which although they may sometimes relate to current events, do not qualify as Public affairs. The guests may be celebrities or other well-known individuals, or the work may be thematically focused, introducing otherwise ordinary people who have shared certain experiences. The work may contain questions from the host that are answered by the guests, but the structure is generally more informal than that of a straightforward interview.

Note: Not necessary to also use Documentary, since that is implied by the term Talk. If the guests are noted individuals such as a celebrity or newsmaker, in a formalized question- and-answer setting, use Interview.

TV examples: THE ARSENIO HALL SHOW; GERALDO; THE JACK PAAR SHOW; OPRAH; THE PHIL DONAHUE SHOW; THE TONIGHT SHOW

Teen see Juvenile delinquency; Youth

Telenovelas see Soap opera

Televangelism see Religion

Thriller

Fictional work frequently related to the crime genre in that the subject is usually some aspect of criminal activity, but with the emphasis away from a detective, gangster, caper, or even the crime itself. Instead, the narrative concentrates on suspense as an individual or group is placed in a dangerous situation whose outcome hinges on sudden reversals of fate. Frequent themes are political conspiracy, terrorism, innocents on the run, romantic triangles leading to murder, and individuals suffering from psychosis.

Used for Psychological thriller.

Related terms: Caper, Crime, Film noir, Gangster, Mystery, and Police.

Feature examples: CAPE FEAR; THE CONVERSATION; LE CORBEAU / THE RAVEN; DIABOLIQUE; DR. MABUSE DER SPIELER; FATAL ATTRACTION; GASLIGHT / ANGEL STREET / THE MURDER IN THORNTON SQUARE; THE GENERAL DIED AT DAWN (with War); THE HUNT FOR RED OCTOBER (with Adaptation); THE LADY FROM SHANGHAI; M (with Social Problem); THE MANCHURIAN CANDIDATE (with Political; Adaptation); MR. ARKADIN / CONFIDENTIAL AGENT (with Adaptation); OBSESSION; THE PARALLAX VIEW (with Political); REBECCA (with Adaptation); SLEEPING WITH THE ENEMY; SPEED; SPELLBOUND; THE SPIRAL STAIRCASE; STRANGERS ON A TRAIN; THE THIRD MAN; VERTIGO

TV examples: THE ADVENTURES OF FU-MANCHU; THE FUGITIVE (with Road); THE HIJACKING OF THE ACHILLE LAURO; HOSTAGE FLIGHT; THE PRISONER

Training

Nonfiction, nontheatrical work used by industry, military, or trades to teach skills necessary in the performance of particular duties or jobs. Examples include military and employee training works, salesmanship courses, and trade school teaching aids.

Note: Not necessary to also use Documentary, since that is implied by the term Training.

Related terms: Educational, Industrial, Instructional, and Social guidance.

Film examples: HOW TO MAKE YOUR SALES STORY SELL; RADIO TECHNICIAN TRAINING

Video examples: MAKING EYE GLASS LENSES

Travelogue

Nonfiction work featuring or promoting geographic or cultural location(s), often in a romanticized manner. Includes early silent scenic films; moving images that accompany "tour" lectures; travel documentaries; and sponsored work by transportation companies, travel agencies, chambers of commerce, national parks, and other entities that promote modes of transportation, resorts, vacation areas, and other locations.

Note: Not necessary to also use Documentary, since that is implied by the term Travelogue.

Work intended to document cultures and their surroundings in more than a superficial manner should use Ethnographic.

Film examples: MEXICO STREET SCENE; HALE'S TOURS AND SCENES OF THE WORLD; WALT DISNEY'S PEOPLE AND PLACES SERIES; PERU'S COASTAL REGION (with Sponsored); WESTERN WONDERLAND (with Sponsored); YOSEMITE NATIONAL PARK

TV examples: JAMES MICHENER'S WORLD; MAURICE CHEVALIER'S PARIS; ON THE ROAD WITH CHARLES KURALT

Video examples: ARGENTINA--LAND OF NATURAL WONDER; DISCOVERING FRANCE; GLACIER NATIONAL PARK; THE MAINE COAST; RAND MCNALLY EXPLORING ANTARCTICA; SAN ANTONI0--THE HEART OF TEXAS

Trick

Short, early work, generally made before 1910, dependent upon extensive use of "trick photography" or special effects such as stop motion, fast or slow motion, dissolves, and multiple exposures. As in the "artificially arranged scenes" of the French magician-turned- filmmaker Georges M‚liŠs, trick effects were used to present mysterious appearances and disappearances, ghosts and other supernatural creatures, dreams or visions, physical transformations, travel in time and space, shocking (or even comedic) decapitations, and other magical or improbable situations.

Note: For work with fantastical themes or plots that go beyond the mere showcasing of trick effects, use Fantasy, Horror, or Science fiction as appropriate.

Examples: THE BEWITCHED TRAVELLER; THE DREAM OF A RAREBIT FIEND; THE EXECUTION OF MARY QUEEN OF SCOTS; ILLUSIONS FANTASMAGORIQUES / THE FAMOUS BOX TRICK; PRINCESS NICOTINE; THE ? MOTORIST; THE TERRIBLE TURKISH EXECUTIONER; UNCLE JOSH AT THE MOVING PICTURE SHOW; UN VOYAGE DANS LA LUNE / A TRIP TO THE MOON

Trigger

Nonfiction short work that is open-ended and designed to spark a discussion on a controversial or difficult problem or issue, predominantly sponsored and educational in nature.

Examples: BEHIND THE WHEEL; GINGER: TEENAGE PREGNANCY (with Sponsored); QUIT SMOKING TRIGGER SERIES (with Sponsored)

True crime see Reality-based

Underground films see Experimental

Variety

Work that is generally hosted and consists of a number of different acts, sketches, and/or dance and musical performances, combined in a non-narrative manner. Although predominantly for television, some theatrical film variety work has also been produced.

Used for Revue; Talent show.

Note: If the work predominantly features comedy acts or skits, particularly if the host or star is known primarily as a comedian, use Comedy with Variety. If the work instead predominantly features musical, song, and/or dance numbers, use Music with Variety. In the case of work that appears to be evenly split between comedy and musical acts, or consist of other types of segments, simply use Variety.

Related term: Performance (form).

Film examples: ELSTREE CALLING; HOLLYWOOD REVUE OF 1929 (with Music); LENINGRAD MUSIC HALL (with the form Performance); SHOW OF SHOWS

TV examples: THE ANDY WILLIAMS SHOW (with Music); AMERICAN BANDSTAND (with Music); THE DINAH SHORE SHOW; HEE HAW; THE ORIGINAL AMATEUR HOUR; ROWAN & MARTIN'S LAUGH-IN (with Comedy); YOUR SHOW OF SHOWS (with Comedy)

Vaudeville see Performance (form)

War

Fictional work portraying military conflicts in the twentieth century, primarily the first and second world wars, but also other subsequent wars, such as Vietnam, as well as smaller conflicts. Includes not only portrayals of combat, but stories set in POW camps (THREE CAME HOME; STALAG 17), accounts of the homefront (SINCE YOU WENT AWAY (with Family)), and depictions of the difficulties of demobilization and the veteran returning to civilian life (THE BEST YEARS OF OUR LIVES; COMING HOME). The genre includes depictions of the primary fronts during the war, as well as the battles on the geographical margins of the conflict (THE AFRICAN QUEEN). The genre ranges from work enthusiastically dramatizing the war effort, with harsh portrayals of the enemy, to denunciations of war.

Used for Combat.

Note: Stories taking place in the military milieu in peacetime go under Military, and those depicting military conflicts prior to the 19th century usually go under Historical or Adventure. Not necessary to also use Historical, since that is implied by War.

Feature examples: ALL QUIET ON THE WESTERN FRONT (with Adaptation); BATAAN; DAS BOOT / THE BOAT; BORN ON THE FOURTH OF JULY (with Biographical; Adaptation); THE BRIDGE OVER THE RIVER KWAI (with Adaptation); COURAGE UNDER FIRE; FOR WHOM THE BELL TOLLS (with Adaptation); LE GRANDE ILLUSION / THE GRAND ILLUSION; HITLER'S CHILDREN; IN WHICH WE SERVE; LIFEBOAT (with Survival); M*A*S*H (with Dark comedy; Medical); MRS. MINIVER; PLATOON; RAMBO: FIRST BLOOD, PART II; ROMA CITTA APERTA / OPEN CITY; SEVEN BEAUTIES; SO PROUDLY WE HAIL (with Women); THE STEEL HELMET; TORA! TORA! TORA!; WESTFRONT 1918; WINGS (with Aviation)

TV examples: CHINA BEACH; HOGAN'S HEROES (with Situation comedy); HOMEFRONT (with Family); MCHALE'S NAVY (with Situation comedy); THE RAT PATROL; TWELVE O'CLOCK HIGH (with Aviation)

War (Nonfiction)

Nonfiction work made to explain a war to servicemen and civilian viewers as well as retrospective documentaries on specific battles and other historical events of various wars.

Note: Not necessary to also use Documentary, since that is implied by the term War (Nonfiction).

Film examples: THE BATTLE OF SAN PIETRO; LE CHAGRIN ET LA PITIE / THE SORROW AND THE PITY; HEARTS AND MINDS (with Propaganda); LISTEN TO BRITAIN; THIS IS KOREA; WHY WE FIGHT (with Propaganda; Sponsored)

TV examples: AMERICA GOES TO WAR--THE HOME FRONT--WWII; KOREA-- THE UNKNOWN WAR; THE WORLD AT WAR

Western

Fictional work set in the period of American westward expansion. In the name of civilization, the wilderness is conquered and nature subordinated. Key thematic oppositions are between civilization and nature, law and anarchy, settler and nomad, and the new arrivals and the Native American. The hero is a person of integrity and principle, who tames the land, stands alone, faces danger, and is the fastest draw. Although usually set in the western United States from 1865-1900, settings in the Western may extend back to the era of America's colonial period (THE LAST OF THE MOHICANS), or as far geographically as Mexico (THE WILD BUNCH), and into the first half of the 20th century. Many westerns made through the 1950s used a contemporary setting for traditional western narratives, and a few examples of the genre continue to be made, set in modern times (LONELY ARE THE BRAVE; WALKER--TEXAS RANGER).

Note: For musical westerns use Musical in conjunction with Western (ANNIE GET YOUR GUN; PAINT YOUR WAGON), but for a Western using a singing hero, such as Gene Autry, use Singing cowboy. Not necessary to also use Historical, since that is implied by Western. For films which use conventions and temporal period of the American west (the frontier, gunslingers, ranching, rugged individualism) but are set in Australia (THE MAN FROM SNOWY RIVER; RANGLE RIVER; KANGAROO [1952]), add the 655 z subfield for Australia (for instance, 655#avz#Western#Feature#Australia).

Related term: Yukon.

Feature examples: CALAMITY JANE (with Musical; Romance; Biographical); CIMARRON (with Adaptation); THE COVERED WAGON (with Adaptation); DRUMS ALONG THE MOHAWK (with Adaptation); THE GOOD, THE BAD, AND THE UGLY; THE GUNFIGHTER; HELL'S HINGES; HIGH NOON; THE IRON HORSE (with Adaptation); MY DARLING CLEMENTINE; NORTHWEST PASSAGE (with Adaptation); THE OX-BOW INCIDENT (with Social problem; Adaptation); THE PLAINSMAN; POSSE (with Ethnic); RED RIVER; SHANE; STAGECOACH; TRUE GRIT; UNFORGIVEN

TV examples: THE BIG VALLEY; BONANZA; CHEYENNE; THE CISCO KID; DR. QUINN, MEDICINE WOMAN (with Medical); F-TROOP (with Situation comedy); GUNSMOKE; RAWHIDE; WAGON TRAIN

Whodunit see Mystery

Women

Fictional work usually concentrating on a woman and the challenges unique to the position of her gender in society. As a result, common situations are finding love, making a career, and/or raising a family. The protagonist is often faced by various romantic possibilities, or the belief that she has chosen the wrong profession or that she should sacrifice a career or health for her family. Frequently, these polar opposites demonstrates the limited possibilities and social roles open to women at a given historical moment. However, because the genre is centered on a woman's needs, not those of a man, the genre has often been a vehicle to examine the achievements of strong women characters who overcome stereotyped gender roles. Because male characters are often marginalized, the Women's genre has often been aimed primarily at the female segment of the audience.

Note: For stories of women in the workplace, use the appropriate genre to indicate the occupation, such as Journalism, Legal, Medical, or Show business. Narratives concentrating on the family itself should use Family, and on a love story should use Romance.

Related terms: Fallen woman and Maternal melodrama.

Feature examples: DIE BUCHSE DER PANDORA (1928) / PANDORA'S BOX; CHRISTOPHER STRONG (with Aviation); DARK VICTORY (with Adaptation); EHE DER THE MARIA BRAUN / MARRIAGE OF MARIA BRAUN (with War); THE HEIRESS (with Historical; Adaptation); A LETTER TO THREE WIVES (with Adaptation); MILDRED PIERCE (with Adaptation); MY BRILLIANT CAREER (with Historical; Adaptation); NOW, VOYAGER (with Adaptation); A PASSAGE TO INDIA (with Historical; Adaptation); QUEEN KELLY; TEN CENTS A DANCE; THE TOLL OF THE SEA; WAITING TO EXHALE (with Adaptation); THE WOMEN (with Adaptation); WORKING GIRL (with Comedy; Romance)

Yiddish see Ethnic

Youth

Fictional work portraying aspects of the trajectory through adolescence, including high school years, peer pressure, first love, beach parties, and initial attempts at adulthood, along with strains in the relationship with family. Teenage years are usually emphasized, although younger characters may also be included in a mix of ages, or the work may cover the transition from pre-teen to teenager, depicting a coming-of-age. A frequent emphasis is on a school setting including these ages (TOM BROWN'S SCHOOLDAYS).

Used for Coming-of-age.

Note: This category includes "Teen" films, usually aimed primarily at a teenage audience. Works depicting predominantly those of 12 years of age or under would go under Children's. A story with emphasis on familial relations would go under Family, while one set in a collegiate environment would go under College; if criminal tendencies are dominant, use Juvenile delinquent.

Feature Examples: AMERICAN GRAFFITI (with Historical); ANDY HARDY GETS SPRING FEVER (with Family); BEACH BLANKET BINGO (with Musical); THE BREAKFAST CLUB; BREAKING AWAY; BUFFY THE VAMPIRE SLAYER (with Horror; Parody); CLUELESS (with Comedy); DEAD POETS SOCIETY; FAST TIMES AT RIDGEMONT HIGH; HEATHERS (with Dark comedy); MARGIE; RISKY BUSINESS (with Caper); SIXTEEN CANDLES (with Comedy); SOMMAREN MED MONIKA / MONIKA / SUMMER WITH MONIKA (with Romance); TOL'ABLE DAVID

TV examples: BEVERLY HILLS, 90210 (with Soap opera); HEAD OF THE CLASS (with Situation comedy); THE MANY LOVES OF DOBIE GILLIS (with Situation comedy); SAVED BY THE BELL (with Situation comedy)

Yukon

Fictional work using some Western conventions but set outside of the "lower 48," in the Northwest part of the North American continent. The characters are generally of two types, law enforcement, and those lured by the various gold rushes and looking to obtain, by honest or dishonest means, the promised wealth of gold and furs in the Klondike. Law enforcement is represented by the Canadian Northwest Mounted Police, who keep a close guard over fur traders, smugglers, claim jumpers, and robbers--and always get their man. Human characters of whatever type must endure the hostile environment with its harsh cold, and are often dependent on their animals, especially dogs and horses. Indeed, these marvelous animals are often as heroic as their masters, sometimes more so. Frequent literary sources include the early stories of Jack London and the novels of James Oliver Curwood.

Used for Northwest.

Note: Not necessary to also use Historical, since that is implied by Yukon.

Feature examples: THE CALL OF THE WILD (with Adaptation); THE FAR COUNTRY; THE GOLD RUSH (with Comedy); NORTH TO ALASKA; NORTHWEST MOUNTED POLICE; PO ZAKONU / BY THE LAW / THE UNEXPECTED; RENFREW OF THE ROYAL MOUNTED; ROSE MARIE (with Operetta); THE SPOILERS (with Adaptation); WHITE FANG (with Adaptation)

TV examples: KLONDIKE; ROYAL CANADIAN MOUNTED POLICE; SERGEANT PRESTON OF THE YUKON

Top of Page Top of Page
  Home >> Reading Room >> Genre-form Guide
  The Library of Congress >> Researchers
  April 28, 2016
Legal | External Link Disclaimer

Contact Us:  
Ask a Librarian