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THE MOVING IMAGE GENRE-FORM GUIDE

Forms


Contents | Introduction | Examples | Bibliography | Genres

Appendices: Experimental | Animation | Advertising


Advertising

Work which promotes a product, service, candidate or company. Include promotional work for consumer products and services shown in theaters.

Used for Promotional.

Note: A list of subdivisions of advertising is offered in Appendix C for the use of specialized collections.

See also Television commercial and Trailer.

Amateur

Work created for private, not commercial use, such as "home movies," designed to be shown primarily to family and friends, and usually made by people not professionally connected with the film-video industry.

Used for Home.

Note: Do not include work by amateurs intended for public exhibition, or by independent filmmakers; such work should be treated the same as other theatrical product.

Examples: [GEORGE STEVENS WORLD WAR II COLOR FOOTAGE]; [ZAPRUDER FILM] (with Unedited)

Animation

Work created by recording a series of still images, such as drawings, objects, or posed people; when played back, the static images combine to simulate motion, creating the impression of movement.

Note: For a "cartoon," use Animation in conjunction with the form Short as a second form subfield. A list of Animation subdivisions is offered in Appendix B for the use of specialized collections.

see also Puppet.

Anthology

Work, most commonly a television series (although occasionally a feature), without continuing characters, often linked by host, genre, original source, or reappearing star. Also use for work containing multiple, diverse segments that cover a wide range of topics and genres.

Note: When single segments of an anthology belong to a specific genre, but are not applicable to the series or feature as a whole, use the genre without the form in addition to a broad genre for the entire work (for example, TWILIGHT ZONE: AN OCCURRENCE AT OWL CREEK BRIDGE would use "Fantasy--Anthology--Television Series" and the additional genres Adaptaion, Historical and War for that particular episode).

Used for Omnibus.

Feature examples: FACE TO FACE (1952) (with Adaptation); FLESH AND FANTASY (1943); NEW YORK STORIES; QUARTET (1949) (with Adaptation); TALES OF MANHATTAN; TALES OF TERROR (with Horror; Adaptation); TRIO (with Adaptation); TWICE-TOLD TALES (with Horror; Adaptation); TWILIGHT ZONE--THE MOVIE

TV examples: ALFRED HITCHCOCK PRESENTS (with Thriller); DICK POWELL'S ZANE GREY THEATER (with Western); HALLMARK HALL OF FAME; KRAFT TELEVISION THEATER; OMNIBUS; OUTER LIMITS (with Science fiction); SCREEN DIRECTOR'S PLAYHOUSE; TWILIGHT ZONE

Audition

Work designed to demonstrate a performer's aptitude or to try a scene in a proposed major work. Includes screen tests created for studios or television networks and moving image "resume" work submitted by performers.

Used for Test.

Cartoon see Animation (with the form Short)

Clip see Excerpt

Commercial (Theatrical) see Advertising

Commercial (Television) see Television commercial

Dailies see Unedited

Excerpt

Portion, usually of a few minutes duration or less, of a longer, fully edited complete work. The material is too brief to be considered an incomplete copy of the work. Typical excerpt material is a title sequence, musical number, or special effects highlight.

Used for Clip.

Note: Do not use for Unedited material or stock shots. For an excerpt not utilized in the final cut of a film, use Outtake.

Feature

Work, usually originally released theatrically or direct to video, with an original length of at least forty minutes (or four or more 35 mm. reels).

Note: Feature length work originally presented on television usually has a longer running time, from 90 minutes to three hours in length (including commercials); use the term Television feature when such a work is not part of a regular television series or mini-series, and is not a special. For a work derived from a television series, but re-edited as a feature for theatrical release, use the form feature (such as the features DAVY CROCKETT--KING OF THE WILD FRONTIER and DAVY CROCKETT AND THE RIVER PIRATES from the Walt Disney television mini-series DAVY CROCKETT). For a work originally presented on television in some countries while first released theatrically in other countries, use the term appropriate to the copy in hand.

Home see Amateur

Infomercial see Advertising (Appendix C)

Made for TV movie see Television feature

Marionette see Puppet

Omnibus see Anthology

Outtake

Material shot for a longer work but not used in the final cut.

Performance

Nonfiction work documenting a performance, event, or concert of dance, music, opera, operetta, theatrical stage productions, magic, circus, stand-up comedy, burlesque, or other vaudeville or variety stage acts. Although the work being performed may be fictional, as with a stage play, the intent of the work in hand is documentation of that performance rather than a fictional narrative about it.

Note: If applicable, use the form Performance in conjunction with the appropriate genre(s) and other form(s), such as Television special. see also Unedited.

Film examples: GRAND CONCERT (with Music; Opera; Dance); MILLER AND LYLES IN THEY KNOW THEIR GROCERIES (with Comedy); SOLLY WARD AT THE PARTY (with Comedy); SPANUTH'S ORIGINAL VOD-A-VIL MOVIES; SWIMMING TO CAMBODIA; TRAPEZE DISROBING ACT (with Erotic)

TV examples: BARYSHNIKOV ON BROADWAY (with Dance); LIVE FROM LINCOLN CENTER; THE MAGIC OF DAVID COPPERFIELD

Political spot see Advertising--Political commercial (form)

Promotional see Advertising

Puppet

Work that photographs puppets in a manner sometimes related to, but distinct from, animation, since it uses a three-dimensional rather than two-dimensional perspective. Puppet work may be presented in an abstract or realistic manner, with the puppets controlled by hand and photographed through stop-motion, or photographed in live-action, with strings or electronic mechanisms to operate their limbs and expressions.

Used for Marionette.

Film examples: ALICE IN WONDERLAND (1948) (with Fantasy); THE ANIMAL KINGDOM (1956) (with Nature); THE HAND (1965); JASPER GOES HUNTING (1944); KOTLERS MARIONETN (with Fantasy); MIDSUMMER NIGHT'S DREAM (1959) (with Adaptations); THE NIGHTMARE BEFORE CHRISTMAS (with Fantasy); ON PARADE (1936); LA PETITE PARADE / THE SMALL PARADE (1928)

TV examples: THE MUPPET SHOW (with Children's); THUNDERBIRDS (with Science fiction)

Rushes see Unedited

Screen test see Audition

Serial

A multi-episode film chronicling the thrilling, action-filled exploits of characters, lasting a certain number of chapters, usually around fifteen episodes, of about twenty minutes duration apiece. Typically uses the "cliffhanger" ending to lure audiences to the next chapter of the work. Most often utilizes such genres as Western, Science fiction, Jungle, Adventure, Espionage, and Crime, and frequently loosely combines aspects of many formulas in a free- flowing manner endemic to the serial form.

Note: For feature-length condensations of serials, use the term Feature. For television work with the serial form, see Television mini-series.

Examples: ADVENTURES OF CAPTAIN MARVEL (with Fantasy); THE ADVENTURES OF SIR GALAHAD (with Adventure); FLASH GORDON CONQUERS THE UNIVERSE (with Science fiction); HOLT OF THE SECRET SERVICE (with Crime); THE JUNGLE MYSTERY (with Jungle); RIDING WITH BUFFALO BILL (with Western)

Series

A planned group of works of set length and subject matter, each related to the other, such as an educational series.

Note: see also Television series and Television mini-series.

Short

Work, usually originally released theatrically or direct to video, with an original length less than forty minutes (or three or fewer 35 mm. reels).

Note: Do not include a condensed or shortened version of a work originally of feature length.

Stock shot

Miscellaneous footage organized around a theme, event, or subject, usually used as a resource in gathering visual material for a documentary.

Television

Work originally broadcast over the medium of the "small screen."

see also Television commercial, Television feature, Television mini-series, Television pilot, Television series, and Television special.

Television commercial

Short work (usually running from ten seconds to one minute in length) typically promoting consumer products and services.

Note: For collections needing specialized treatment, see the terms for Advertising in Appendix C.

Television feature

Individual fictional work (often called "Made for TV movie") presented on television, usually running from 90 minutes to three hours in length (which may include commercials), and is not part of a regular series or mini-series.

Used for Made for TV movie; Television movie.

Note: Do not use for a Television special, which is usually less than 90 minutes in length. A Television feature may be originally shown on television in some countries while originally released theatrically in other countries (such as THE FOUR FEATHERS [1977] or CASANOVA [1987]). In such cases, classify the work according to how the copy in hand was released. Also, work originally shown on television is occasionally subsequently released theatrically in the same country (such as a number of episodes of Walt Disney's 1957-59 television series ZORRO repackaged as two 1960 features, THE SIGN OF ZORRO and ZORRO THE AVENGER); classify depending on whether the item in hand is from the original televsion program, or the feature version.

Television mini-series

Multi-episode program of limited duration, shown on a daily or weekly schedule, usually lasting fifteen hours or less in total running time.

Examples: THE AMERICAN REVOLUTION (1994) (with Documentary); EYES ON THE PRIZE (with Ethnic (Nonfiction)); SHOGUN (with Adventure; Adaptation); THE THORN BIRDS (with Romance; Adaptation); THE WINDS OF WAR (with War; Adaptation)

Television movie see Television feature

Television pilot

Initial episode of a possible series, designed to showcase the show's possibilities for audiences and sponsors.

Television series

A multi-episode program originally conceived with an indefinite duration, shown on a regular schedule (daily, weekly, monthly) or irregular basis (such as TALKING WITH DAVID FROST or NATIONAL GEOGRAPHIC SOCIETY SPECIALS). Episodes of a television series are usually related by subject matter, hosts, or, in the case of fictional programs, continuing characters in a predictable milieu.

Television special

A single television program shown on a specific occasion, such as a Variety show (BOB HOPE'S HIGH FLYING BIRTHDAY EXTRAVAGANZA); a pageant (TOURNAMENT OF ROSES PARADE), contest (MISS AMERICA), or award presentation (AMERICAN FILM INSTITUTE LIFETIME ACHIEVEMENT AWARDS); shown in conjunction with specific holidays (A CHARLIE BROWN CHRISTMAS; AMAHL AND THE NIGHT VISITORS); on shown on an annual or less than annual basis (such as a political convention); or to report on news, such as a royal wedding, an assassination, or a military event. Usually an entertainment special has a length of less than 90 minutes (and most typically 30 or 60 minutes), although news coverage can be of any length.

Note: Do not use for a Television feature, which is usually 90 mins. to three hours in length.

Test see Audition

Trailer

Short work promoting a new motion picture and usually containing scenes from it.

Unedited

Footage recording a live event, such as a Congressional hearing or floor debate (such as broadcast on C-SPAN), a funeral of a famous person (such as FDR, JFK, Princess Diana, Mother Teresa), or a scientific experiment. Such footage is generally unedited beyond necessary changes in camera angles, and the shots are in the original sequence in which the events took place, without subsequent editing.

Note: Unedited does not apply to works derived from or including footage from such a source, such as a Documentary or Television special. Coverage of an event with commentary would be placed under such categories as the form Television specials. Unedited could include sports coverage that is comprised of uninterrupted footage without commentary or commercials; see Sports (Nonfiction).

see also Lecture and Performance.

Used for Dailies; Rushes.

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  April 28, 2016
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