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DECORATIVE OBJECTS:
Guides to Hallmarks, Marks, Markers and Companies
A Selected List of References

Compiled by Lois Korzendorfer, Reference Specialist

1988

According to the _Oxford Companion to the Decorative Arts_,
decorative arts are "arts which are made to serve a practical
purpose but are nevertheless prized for the quality of their
workmanship and the beauty of their appearance."  These arts, or
"major crafts," dating from prehistoric times to the present,
include a wide variety of objects from ceramics to clocks and
jewelry to armor.  The terminology describing them is diverse; 
"antiques," "fine crafts," "minor arts," and even "collectibles"
are all terms that are often used interchangeably when discussing
these objects.  "Material culture," used more recently in academic
settings, describes these objects and the context in which they are
used.  Decorative arts fall somewhere between the fine arts and
technology, although aspects of these two fields cross over and
intermingle.

The purpose of this guide is to assist researchers trying to
identify hallmarks and other marks on decorative art objects.  In
those categories where marks are not usually present or evident,
the guide gives sources that list manufactures or companies that
made particular kinds of objects. The various categories which make
up the field of decorative arts are diverse in form and function,
have varying histories, and have been pursued with varying degrees
of enthusiasm by collectors and connoisseurs for the past several
hundred years.

The books listed in this bibliography should help researchers
identify certain kinds of objects.  Attribution can affect both the
monetary and the historical value of a piece.  But even if a piece
does not have much value on the market, the owner's satisfaction
can be increased if some of its history is known.

For some crafts with long-established traditions, researchers may
be able to trace ancestry back several hundred years.  Often this
is because of the nature of the material used in the craft, e.g.,
gold or silver.  Since there is so much value inherent in the
material itself, even before it is crafted into an object,
procedures were established by the guild systems and assay offices
(e.g., with marks or hallmarks) to assure that the material used
was pure. Records from these offices have been maintained, and
consequently, documentation in this field is very extensive.  Even
though furniture and glass making have also been practiced for many
hundreds of years, those fields do not have the long-documented
tradition associated with metals and ceramics.

Within any particular field, coverage of artisans and craftspeople
can vary.  There is extensive coverage of French cabinetmakers, but
other countries are not well-documented.  The practice of using
paper labels (if anything) to mark furniture makes it difficult to
trace those craftsmen.  Ceramic marks were often applied to
indicate ownership and/or destination of the finished piece as well
as the origin and date.  Ceramic marks were never standardized and
the marks were not protected; consequently, they were often
imitated.  Glass was usually not marked at all.  So, within the
large field of decorative arts there are many categories--each with
its own unique history and practices of preparation and markings.

For many years 1820 was the cut-off date for those interested in
quality decorative arts.  Objects produced during the Victorian
period were not considered truly fine material.  In the past twenty
years, however, there has been a resurgence of interest in the
entire decorative arts field and that view has changed.  Academic
programs in the field are now more numerous and research is being
conducted that corrects the imbalance mentioned above.  Many of the
sources cited in this bibliography and the general catalogs still
reflect the earlier view and do not include artisans that were
active in the late nineteenth or early twentieth centuries.

This bibliography lists sources dealing with five larger categories
of decorative arts--furniture, glass, ceramics, metalware, and
clocks.  Books listed reflect the particular category as a whole,
rather than specialized aspects of it, e.g., books on American
silversmiths' marks rather than books listing silversmiths from
Virginia or American Indian silversmiths.  Books of a more
specialized nature can be found using the subject headings
suggested in Part VI.  Much of the material on marks and companies
is concealed in general books on the subject, and its existence is
not readily apparent from entries in the card catalog or computers.

If specific subject headings do not yield any relevant material, it
is often necessary to look at books listed under general headings. 
Articles in journals can be searched in the Art Index
(Z5937.A78MRR), Arts and Humanities Citation Index (A13.A63 MRR),
Repetoire Art et Archaeologie(Z5937.R4 MRR), RILA(Z5937.R16 MRR),
and the Magazine Index (available in the Microform and Electronic Resources Center (LJ-139, the former Computer Catalog Center)). 
These indexes are available in many public and research libraries.

Within each category of Parts 2-6, the books are arranged by broad
geographical groupings--general (books covering more than one
category) and then specific countries (United States, Great
Britain, France).

FURNITURE

General

Honour, Hugh.
CABINET MAKERS AND FURNITURE DESIGNERS. --[1 st American ed.]. --
New York : Putnam, [1969]. -- 320 o,: ill. (some col.)
NK2350.H6 1969 (MRR)
Bibliography: p. 311-314.

Arranged in rough chronological order and international in scope,
from the sixteenth through the twentieth centuries.  An index by
name is provided.  Fifty-two craftsmen are discussed in detail.

Johnson, Axel Petrus, 1878-
MANUAL OF THE FURNITURE ARTS AND CRAFTS / compile by A. P. Johnson
and Marta K. Sironen ; edited by William J. Etten. -- Grand Rapids,
Mich.:  A.P. Johnson Co., 1928. -- xxx, 899 p.: ill.
T880.J6
"Annotated Bibliography of Furniture Books";  p. 685-745;
"Bibliography of Furniture Books (Listed According to Subject
Matter)": p. 745-780.

Includes a list of European and American "furniture craftsmen,
architects, and artisans to the twentieth century with brief
biography," on p. 661-682.

Payne, Christopher.
THE PRICE GUIDE TO 19TH CENTURY EUROPEAN FURNITURE (EXCLUDING
BRITISH) / Christopher Payne. -- Woodbridge, Suffolk:  Antique
Collectors Club, c1981. -- 506 p.: ill.
NK2525.P39 1981 (MRR)
Bibliography:  p. 506

Divided by geographical area, each of these entries contains an
address and brief biographical information.  Signatures or marks
are sometimes reproduced. Designers and retailers are often listed
in addition to cabinetmakers.

Salverte, Francois de, comte.
LES EBENISTES DU XVIIe SIECLE: leurs oeuvres et leurs marques.-- 4
ed. rev. et augm. -- Paris : Vanoest, 1953. -- xxiv, 352 p. 71
plates: ill., ports
NK2360.S3 1953B
Appendix of "marques abbreviatives":  P. 319-326.

Arranged in dictionary form, this guide primarily lists French
cabinetmakers.  Important artisans from the United States and other
European countries are also included.  Biographical information and
marks, if known, are provided.

UNITED STATES

Bjerkoe, Ethel Hall.
THE CABINETMAKERS OF AMERICA/ by Ethel Hall Bjerkoe; assisted by
John Arthur Bjerkoe; foreword by Russell Kettell. -- Rev. and
corrected ed. -- Exton, Pa. :  Schiffer Ltd. c1978. -- x, 272 p. :
ill.
NK2406.B55 1978 MRR Biog
Bibliography:  p. 270-272
Entries provide some biographical information and a location.  Most
entries cite a source such as a directory, diaries, or newspapers. 
Cabinetmakers from the seventeenth to the early nineteenth century
are included.

GREAT BRITAIN

Agius, Pauline.
BRITISH FURNITURE, 1880-1915/ Pauline Agius. -- Woodbridge [Eng.]: 
Antique Collectors' Club, c 1978. -- 195 p.: ill.
NK2530.A34 (MRR)
Bibliography: p. 186-190.
List of "Progressive Designers":  p. 98-121. -- List of Firms
Active Between 1880 and 1915:  p. 174-176.

Aslin, Elizabeth.
NINETEENTH CENTURY ENGLISH FURNITURE. -- New York:  T. Yoseloff,
[c1962]. -- 93 p.: ill., plates (some col.). -- (Faber monographs
on furniture)
NK2530.A8
Bibliography: p. 89-[90].
List of Cabinetmakers:  p. 83-88.

Beard, Geoffrey W.
THE NATIONAL TRUST BOOK OF ENGLISH FURNITURE Geoffrey Beard. --
[Harmondsworth, Middlesex, England; New York: Viking in association
with the National Trust, 1985. -- 295p. : ill.
NK2528.B43 1985
Bibliography: p. [270]-273.
Pages 239-257 contain " A List of Cabinet-Makers and Designers."  

Brief biographical information is provided for each along with
citations to additional sources.

Edwards, Ralph, 1894-
GEORGIAN CABINET-MAKERS, c. 1700-1800 / by Ralph Edwards and
Margaret Jourdain. -- New and rev. [i.e. 3rd] ed. -- London:
Country Life ltd., 1955. -- 2457 p. : ill., ports.
NK2529. E3 1955 (MRR)
Bibliographical footnotes.
Bibliography: p. 311-314

105 famous 18th century English cabinetmakers, joiners and carvers
are discussed in detail.

Heal, Ambrose, Sir, 1872-
THE LONDON FURNITURE MAKERS, FROM THE RESTORATION TO THE VICTORIAN
ERA, 1660-1840; with a chapter by R. W. Symonds of the problem of
identification of the furniture they produced. -- New York:  Dover
Publications, [1972]. -- xx, 276 p. : ill.
NK2529 . H45 1972 (MRR)
Reprint of the 1953 ed.
Bibliography: p. xix-xx.
"A record of 2500 cabinet-makers, upholsterers, carvers and
guilders with their address and working dates."

FRANCE

Ledoux-Lebard, Denise.
LES EBENISTES DU XIXe SIECLE:  1795-1889: leurs ouveres marques /
Denise Ledoux-Lebard. -- Paris:  Editions de l'Amateur, [1984] --
699 p.: ill.
NK2548. L35 1984 (MRR)
Bibliography:  p. 690-699.
Rev.ed. of : Les ebenistes parisiens du XIXe sicecle. 2e ed.
List of Cabinetmakers: p. 83-88.

Entries give biographical information descriptions of the
furniture, marks (if known), exhibitions, commissions, and auction
sales.  There are extensive bibliographical notes.

Nacelle, Jean.
L' ART ET LA MANIERE DES MAITRES EBENISTES FRANCAIS AU XVIIIe
SIECLE.../Jean Nacelle. -- Paris : Editions Pygmalion, 12976. -- 2
v. in 1 (799 p. ): ill.
NK2548.N5 1976

Tome 1 is arranged in dictionary form, giving biographical
information and comments about the work.  Tome 2 contains and marks
and a listing of cabinet-makers not included in Tome 1.

GLASS

GENERAL

Arwas, Victor.
GLASS: art nouveau to art deco / Victor Arwas. -- New York :
Rizzoli, 1977. -- 256 p. : ill. (some col.)
NK5109385.A7 A781977(MRR)
Bibliography:  p. 250-254.

This listing of the major designers and craftsmen is international
in scope.  Illustrations of their works and marks are provided.

Beard, Geoffrey W.
INTERNATIONAL MODERN GLASS / Geoffrey Beard. -- London:  Barrie &
Jenkins, 1976. -- 264 p., [3] leaves of col. plates: ill.
NK5110. B39
Bibliography:  p. 254-256.
"Select List of Glass Manufacturers": p. 209-215. -- "Select List
of Designers"; p. 216-253.

Covers the time period 1870 to 1974.

Newman, Harold.
AN ILLUSTRATED DICTIONARY OF GLASS / Harold Newman; with an
introductory survey of the history of glass-making by Robert J.
Charleston. -- London: Thames and Hudson, c 1977. -- 351 p., [8]
leaves of plates : ill. (some col.)
TP788. N48 (MRR)

On t. p. : 2,442 entries including definitions of wares, materials,
processes, forms , and decorative styles, and entries on principal
glass-makers, decorators, and designers, from antiquity to the
present.  

Important glass-makers, decorators and designers are listed.
Entries include biographical information and descriptions of the
works of the artist.

UNITED STATES

Revi, Albert Christian.
AMERICAN ART NOUVEAU GLASS. -- [Camden, N.J.] : Nelson, [1968].--
476 p. : ill., facsims.
NK5103.R4
Bibliography:  p. 463-464.

Major companies and artists of the time period are covered. 
Catalogs of four firms are reprinted.

Revi, Albert Christian.
AMERICAN PRESSED GLASS AND FIGURE BOTTLES. -- New York : Nelson,
[1964]. -- xi, 446 p. : ill., diagrs.
NK5112. R4
Bibliography: p. 413.

Entries, arranged alphabetically by country, contain illustrations
and reproductions from the company catalogs.

Wilson, Kenneth M. 
NEW ENGLAND GLASS AND GLASSMAKING / by Kenneth M. Wilson. -- New
York : Crowell, [c1972]. -- 401 p. : ill.
NK5112. W55 1972
Bibliography:  p. [385]-386.

Includes glass makers from the seventeenth century to the present. 
The appendix includes a "chronological list of New England glass
houses and products."  The book is divided into sections, such as
Nineteenth Century New England Window Glasshouses, Seventeenth and
Eighteenth Century Glassmaking Attempts in New England, and so
forth.

CERAMICS

General

Burton, William, 1863-
HANDBOOK OF MARKS ON POTTERY & PORCELAIN / by W. Burton... and R.
L. Hobson. -- London, Macmillan, 1928. -- x [2], 213 p. : ill.
NK4215. B8 1928 (MRR)
"First edition 1909, reprinted with additions 1912, 19198, revised
and enlarged 1928."
"Works of Reference Consulted": p. [xii].

Reprinted under title:  Collector's handbook to marks on porcelain
and pottery / edited by E. Paul and A. Petersen in Greens Farms,
Conn. by Modern Books and Crafts in 1974. Arranged by broad
geographic categories, e.g., Italy, Spain, and Portugal, entries
list marks and working dates.  Generally, 1850 is the cut-off date,
although there is a chapter on modern British marks.  There are
indexes of names, initials, and marks other than names or initials.

Chaffers, William, 1811-1892.
MARKS & MONOGRAMS ON EUROPEAN AND ORIENTAL POTTERY AND PORCELAIN /
The British section edited by Geoffrey A. Godden : the European and
Oriental sections edited by Frederick Litchfield & R. L. Hobson. --
15th rev. ed. -- London : W. Reeves, [1965]. -- 2 v. : ill.
NK4215.C46 1965 (MRR)

Vol. 1 includes continental Europe and the Orient; v. 2 treats
Great Britain.  Chapters are arranged by country or by type of
ware, e.g., majolica or faience.  Most entries are extensive and in
addition to marks, include a history of the pottery and its
proprietor.  Vol. 2 has an index by name or initial plus lists of
British pottery manufacturers in 1900 and 1964.

Cushion, John Patrick.
HANDBOOK OF POTTERY AND PORCELAIN MARKS / compiled by J. P. Cusion
in collaborations with W. B. Honey. -- 4th ed, rev. and expanded.
-
- London : Faber, 1980. --272 p. :ill.
NK4215. C8 1980 (MRR)

Includes European, Japanese, and Chinese marks, many from the
nineteenth and twentieth centuries.  Arranged alphabetically by
country, the entries include a chronological sequence of marks and
types of ware.  the index describes place and personal names,
monograms, and initials.

Kovel, Ralph M.
DICTIONARY OF MARKS : pottery and porcelain / by Ralph M. and Terry
H. Kovel.  --New York : Crown Publishers, [1953]. x, 278 p.
NK4215.K68 (MRR)
Bibliography: p. x. 

The first part is arranged alphabetically by marks that resemble or
are words or letters.  The second part is divided into sections by
shape, e.g., circle, bird, crown, etc.  Most entries give the
place, type ow are, and the date a particular mark was used.  The
book emphasizes marks that are likely to be seen by the average
collector.  There are indexes of marks and manufacturers.

Kovel, Ralph M.
KOVELS' NEW DICTIONARY OF MARKS / Ralph and Tery Kovel. -- 1st ed.
-- New York:  Crown Publishers, c 1986. -- xii, 290 p. : ill.
NK4215.K68 1986 (MRR)
Bibliography: p. 272-277.

Intended as a companion volume to Kovels' 1953 Dictionary of Marks
-- Pottery and Porcelain, this book includes information on many
items that have become of interest to collectors since then.  The
majority of the marks date from 1850.  It is arranged by type of
design, e.g., birds, shields, and then has an alphabetical list of
marks.  There are several useful sections at the back including a
vocabulary of marks, dating systems used by various factories,
family trees of large pottery companies and an extensive
bibliography.

UNITED STATES

Barber, Edwin Atlee, 1851-1916.
MARKS OF AMERICAN POTTERS / by Edwin Atlee Barber...with facsimiles
of 1000 marks and illustrations of rare examples of American wares.
-- philadelphia : Patterson & White Co., 1904. -- 174 p. : ill.,
ports.
NK4215.B3 (MRR)

Reprinted in Ann Arbor by Ars Ceramica in 1976.
Divided by state or region (mostly in the eastern United States)
the entries show marks and give a brief history.

Evans, Paul.
ART POTTERY OF THE UNITED STATES : an encyclopedia of producers and
their marks / by Paul Evans.-- New York: Scribner, [1974]. -- 353
p., [4] leave of plates : ill. (some col.)
NK4007. E92 (MRR)
Bibliography:  p. 345.

Covers the work of potteries primarily from 1870 to 1920.  Arranged
alphabetically, entries include photographs of a work, marks
associated with the pottery, bibliographic citations to additional
material and one to four pages of text.

Henzke, Lucile
ART POTTERY OF AMERICA / Lucile Henzke. -- Exton, Pa. : Schiffer
Pub., c1982 -- 368 p.: ill. (some col.)
NK4007.H46 1982 (MRR)
Bibliography: p. 361.

Arranged alphabetically by the name of the pottery, this work
includes many illustrations of wares along with the marks of the
potteries and/or the potters.  In some cases patterns for
dinnerware are shown giving dates and potters marks.  There is an
index of lines and patterns and an index of locations.

Kovel, Ralph M.
THE KOVEL'S COLLECTOR'S GUIDE TO AMERICAN ART POTTERY / Ralph &
Terry Kovel. -- New York: Crown Publishers, [1974] -- vi, 368 p.,
[8] leaves of plates : ill. (some col.)
NK4005. K68 1974 (MRR)
Includes bibliographies and index.
Entries for the large potteries include:  marks of the pottery,
marks of individual artists, illustrations of the work, and
bibliographic citations to additional material.  There is a section
on miscellaneous smaller potteries and a listing of architectural
terrcotta factories.

Ramsay, John, 1899-
AMERICAN POTTERS AND POTTERY / by John Ramsay. --[Boston] : Hale,
Cushman & Flint, [c1939]. --xx, 304p. :ill., plates.
NK4000. R3 (MRR)

Reprinted in New York by Tudor Pub. Co. in 1947 and in Ann Arbor by
Ars Ceramica in 1976.  
Bibliography:  p. 244-251.  "Checklist of Potters"; p. 161-243.
These entries are keyed to items in the bibliography for
verification.  Potters marks are in a separate section.  The
indexes are divided into "General," "Place and Persons," and Firms 
and Potteries."

GREAT BRITAIN

Cushion, John Patrick.  
POCKET BOOK OF BRITISH CERAMIC MARKS, INCLUDING INDEX TO REGISTERED
DESIGNS, 1842-83 / compiled by J.P. Cushion. --3rd rev. ed. --
London; Boston:  Faber and Faber, [1984]. -- 431p. : ill.
NK4085. C8 1984 (MRR)

Appendix B:  "Index of Names and Dates of Manufacturers, Retailers,
Wholesalers, and Others Who Registered Designs From 1842-1883." 
First-2nd ed. published under title:  POCKET BOOK OF ENGLISH
CERAMIC MARKS AND THOSE OF WALES, SCOTLAND, and IRELAND.
Arranged by cities, the entries give dates and marks.  This guide
includes many late nineteenth and twentieth-century potteries.

Godden, Geoffrey A.
ENCYCLOPEDIA OF BRITISH POTTERY AND PORCELAIN MARKS / by Geoffrey
A. Godden. -- New York: Crown, [1964]. --765 p. : ill., map.
NK4085.G63 (MRR)
Bibliography: p. [741]-744.
"Unidentified Marks": p. 708-737. --"Index of Signs and Devices":
p. 753-765. --"Index of Monograms": p. 746-752.

This is a companion volume to Godden's _Illustrated Encyclopedia of
British Pottery and Porcelain_.  It contains over 4,400 marks which
date from 1650 to the present.  Entries include types of ware,
working dates, and addresses.

Godden, Geoffrey A.
THE HANDBOOK OF BRITISH POTTERY AND PORCELAIN MARKS / [by] Geoffrey
A. Godden. --London:  Jenkins, 1968. --197 P.: ill.
NK4085. G35 (MRR)
Bibliography:  p. 190-191.

Entries are arranged in alphabetical order by pottery or potter,
and contain marks, working dates, and some bibliographical
citations.  Marks of the eighteenth through the twentieth century
are included.  There is an appendix of initials used as marks.

Godden, Geoffrey A.
VICTORIAN PORCELAIN. -- London : Jenkins, [1961]. -- 222 p. : ill.
NK4485.G6

Contains a survey of the major British, Victorian pottery
manufacturers.  For each pottery, there is a list of artisans and
their dates and marks used.  There is a chapter on smaller
factories.

Ormsbee, Thomas Hamilton, 1890-
ENGLISH CHINA AND ITS MARKS / drawings by W. Robert Suba. --[Rev.
ed.]. -- London:  W. H. Allen, [1962, c1959]. -- 200 p. :ill.
NK4085.O7 1962

This book has three sections:  pottery before 1750, between 1750
and 1880, and contemporary.  Listings provide working years, types
of ware made, marking techniques, and other pertinent information.

EUROPEAN

Danckert, Ludwig.
HANDBUCH DES CUROPAISCHEN PORZELLANS / Ludwig Danckert. -- 5.,
uberarbeitete und erw.  Aufl. -- Munchen : Prestel, c 1984. -- 888
p. : chiefly ill.
NK4083. D36 1984 (MRR)
Bibliography:  p. [696] -704.

The first of the book's tree parts is a list of over 2,300 entries
of names of companies, potteries, places of production, artists,
marks, and terminology.  The second part is a catalog of porcelain
marks arranged by letter and then by motif.  Some entries in the
first section have been keyed to additional information in the
appendix (Nachtrage), p. 705-888.  This work covers potteries from
the seventeenth to the twentieth centuries.

Haggar, Reginald George.
THE CONCISE ENCYCLOPEDIA OF CONTINENTAL POTTERY AND PORCELAIN / by
Reginald G. Haggar. -- New York: Praeger, [1968, c1960]. -- 533 p.:
ill., plates (some col.)
NK4083. H3 1968 (MRR)

A companion volume to his _Concise Encyclopedia of English Pottery
and Porcelain_.  Marks, potters and artisans names, potteries, and
pottery terms are all interfiled in one alphabet.  For important
pottery centers, e.g., Servers, all marks and lists of artisans are
given.

Lesur, Adrien.
LES PORCELAINES FRANCAISES. -- Paris : Tardy, 1967. --839 p. :
ill., col. plates.
NK4097. L38 (MRR)

Entries are arranged by city or region with large cites subdivided
by street.  There is an index of names and tables of marks and
letters.  Markers of porcelain from the 18th-20th centuries are
included.

POTERIES, GRES, FAIENCES : France. -- Paris: C.P.I.P., [1985-<1986>
-- v. <1-5> : ill. (some col.). -- (ABC collection, 0224-5051.
Nouveau Tardy)
NK4097.P67 1985 (MRR)

Compiled under the direction of Maurice Tardy Lengelle.
Entries are arranged geographically, giving marks, dates nd other
pertinent information.

Rontgen, Robert E.
MARKS ON GERMAN, BOHEMIAN, AND AUSTRIAN PORCELAIN : 1710 to the
present. -- Exton, Pa. : Schiffer Pub., c1981. -- 636 p. : ill.
NK4215.R66 1981 (MRR)
Bibliography: p. 609-619.
English and German.
"List of Motifs and Symbols Appearing in Marks":  p. 62627.

The main part of this book is arranged by motif group, e.g., marks
with crown, shields, trees, wreaths and so forth.  The list of
manufacturers according to location is keyed to the motif group and
vice-versa.  There is also a list of names, appendix, and a list of
marks that could be mistaken for other manufacturers.

Tardy.
LES POTERIES, LES FAIENCES ET LES PORCELAINES EUROPEENNES
HITORIQUE, CARACTERISTIQUES, DECORS, COULEURS, ET 4500 MARQUES /
par Tardy Lengelle.  -- Pais: T. Lengelle, c 1983. -- 2 v. (1125
p.) : ill.
NK4083. T3 1983 (MRR)
Contents:  1 ptie. Allemagne, Autriche-Hongrie, Belgique, Danemark,
Espangne, Estonie, Findlande, Grande-Bretagne, Hollande -- 2 ptie. 
Italie, Luxembourg, Malte, Norvege, Pologne, Portugal, Roumanie,
Russie, Suede, Suisse.

Arranged geographically, omitting France, this guide is further
subdivided by type of pottery-- faience or porcelain -- and by city
or region for each country.  Marks through the twentieth century
are included.  Vol. 2 contains supplementary material on p. 955-
986; a list of similar types of pottery on p. 987-995; an
alphabetical list of names listed p. 996-1068; a table of marks
made of letters p. 1069-1085:  a table of marks made of symbols, p.
1086-1113; and a geographic table of places of manufacture, p.
1114-1122; Table of Contents, p. 1123-1125.

METALWARE

GENERAL

Brett, Vanessa.
THE SOTHEBY'S DIRECTORY OF SILVER, 1600-1940/ Vanessa Bret. --
[London]:  Sotheby's Publications; New York:  Distributed in the
USA by Harper & Row, 1986. -- 432 p. : ill.
NK7142.B74 1986 (MRR)
Bibliography: p. 423-[424].

Based on selections from the auction houses' catalogs between 1920-
1984, the entries are arranged by geographic area (Europe and Not
America only--the majority from Great Britain).  Within each area,
entries are arranged in rough chronological order.  Very brief
biographical information is given along with references citing
sources that provide hallmark information.  Illustrations have been
chosen which typify the work of each goldsmith.  Each object
illustrated is keyed to a sales catalog.  There are indexes by type
of object and by goldsmith, designer, retailer and engraver.

Forrer, Leonard.
BIOGRAPHICAL DICTIONARY OF MEDALISTS : coin, gem, and seal-
engravers, mint-masters, &c.., ancient and modern with reference to
their works, B.C. 500-A.D. 1900 / compiled by L. Forrer. -- London
: Spink & son, 1902-1930. -- 8 v. : ill., fronts. (ports.)
CJ5535. F72
Bibliography:  Vol. I. p. xxxix-xivii.
Contents: v. 1. A-D--v.2. E-H --v. 3. I-Maz--v. 4. Mb-Q--v.5.  R-S
--v. 6. T-Z --v. 7. Supplement A-L--v. 8. Supplement M-Z.

Reprinted in New York by B. Franklin in 1970. Entries usually
provide working dates, location and some biographical information
ranging from one sentence to several pages.

Macdonald-Taylor, Margaret Stephens.
A DICTIONARY OF MARKS:  METALWORK, FURNITURE, CERAMICS / compiled
and edited by Margaret Macdonald-Taylor. --Revised ed. / with an
introduction by Bevis Hillier. -- London:  Connoisseur, 1976. --
319 p. : ill. (incl. 1 col.)
NK7210. M25 1976 (MRR)
Bibliography: p. 311-[312]

Marks on metalwork are described for silver, pewter, gold and
Shefield plate made in England, Ireland, and America.  Furniture
marks are from England and France.  The ceramics section includes
English, European, Japanese and Chinese marks.  There are indexes
for metalwork and ceramics by name and by symbol.

Okie, Howard Pitcher.
OLD SILVER AND OLD SHEFFIELD PLATE : a history of the silversmith's
art in Great Britain and Ireland with reproductions in facsimile of
about thirteen thousand marks:  tables of date letters and other
marks:  American silversmiths and their marks : Paris marks and
Paris date letters with a description of the methods of marking
employed by the Paris guild of silversmiths:  Hallmarks, and date
letters when used, of nearly all the countries of continental
Europe, reproduced in facsimile : a history of old Sheffield plate
and a description of the method of its production, with the names
and marks, in facsimile, of every known maker;  with twelve full-
page illustrations / by Howard Pitcher Okie. --Garden City, N.Y.:
Doubleday, Doran, 1928. --xii p., 21., 420 p. : ill., plates.'
NK7143. O4

Includes a separate index to the marks of English, Scotch, and
Irish silversmiths.

Wyler, Seymour B.
THE BOOK OF OLD SILVER, ENGLISH, AMERICAN, FOREIGN / by Seymour B.
Wyler; with all available hallmarks, including Sheffield plate
marks. -- New York:  Crown Publishers, [c1937]. --x, 447 p. : ill.,
plates.
NK7230.W9 (MRR)

Numerous brief chapters on different types of silver and silver
from different geographical areas, with separate indexes to marks
for different countries.

UNITED STATES
Belden, Louise Conway.
MARKS OF AMERICAN SILVERSMITHS IN THE INESON-BISSELL COLLECTION /
Louise Conway Belden. --Charlottesville; Published for the Henry
francis du Pont Winterthur Museum by the University Press of
Virginia, 1980. == vii, 505 p. :ill.
NK7210.B44 (MRR)
Bibliography: p. [489]-505.

Entries provide dates, locations, notes, listing from directories
and advertisements, and other known marks.  The marks are shown as
photographic reproductions.

Currier, Ernest M., 1867-1936.
MARKS OF EARLY AMERICAN SILVERSMITHS, WITH NOTES ON SILVER, SPOON
TYPES & LIST OF NEW YORK CITY SILVERSMITHS. 1815-1841 / by Ernest
M. Currier; illustrated with many of this original drawings; edited
with introductory note by Kathryn C. Buhler. --Portland, Me. :
Southworth Anthoensen Press; London; B.Quaritch, 1938. --xv, 179 p.
:ill., port., facsims.
NK7112.C78
Printed in Harrison, N.Y. by R.A. Green in 1970 and in Watkins
Glen, N.Y. ("with most of the preliminary matter omitted and a new
bibliography added, " p. [172]-[176]) by American Life Foundation,
distributed by Century House in 1970.

An alphabetical listing, giving brief biographical and geographical
information, plus an "Unidentified initialed marks" section at the
end of each letter.

Ensko, Stephen Guernsey Cook, 1896-
AMERICAN SILVERSMITHS AND THEIR MARKS : the definitive (1948)
edition / Stephen G. C. Ensko. -- New York : Dover Publications,
1983. -- 287 p. : ill.
NK7112.E66 1983
Bibliography: p. 283-287.
Originally published in New York as a private printing in three
volumes in 1927.  A "much expanded" edition was privately published
in New York in 1948.  

Covers silversmiths from 1650 to 1850.  The first section is a list
of names giving location, dates, and sometimes other information. 
Part Two is a list of marks with location and date, and Part Three
is a list of smiths arranged geographically by major cities.

French, Hollis, 1868-1940.
A LIST OF EARLY AMERICAN SILVERSMITHS AND THEIR MARKS / by Hollis
French; with a silver collectors' glossary. --New York:  printed
for the society, 1917. -- ix, 164 p. : ill.
NK7112.F7
At head of title:  The Walpole Society.

Entries provide a location and approximate working dates, with some
comments.

Jacobs, Carl.
GUIDE TO AMERICAN PEWTER / illustrated by Marion B. Wilson.  -- New
York : McBride, 1957. -- 216 p. : ill.
NK8412.J3 (MRR)

An alphabetical listing giving dates, locations, and details of
marks.  There is an appendix of characteristic pewter forms.

Kovel, Ralph M.
A DIRECTORY OF AMERICAN SILVER, PEWTER, AND SILVER PLATE / by Ralph
M. & Terry H. Kovel. -- New York : Crown Publishers, [1961]. -- 352
p. : ill.
NK7112. K66 (MRR)
Bibliography: p. [345]-347.

There is a separate alphabetical listing for silver, pewter, and
silver-plate.  Entries provide marks and location, and many are
keyed to bibliogprhy entries for additional information.  There is
an index of initials used as marks.

Laughlin, Ledlie Irwin.
PEWTER IN AMERICA : its makers and their marks / by Ledlie Irwin
Laughlin. -- Boston : Houghton Mifflin, 1940. -- 2 v. : ill.,
ports., facsims.
NK8412.L3 (MRR)
Bibliography: Vol. 2. p. [161]-[192].
Vols. 1 and 2 reprinted with a third volume which "corrects,
supplements, and brings the material in volumes 1 and 2 up to
date," in Barre, Mas., by Barre Publishers in 1969-1971.  Three
volumes in one published in New York by American Legacy Press,
distributed by Crown Publishers, in 1981.


A very thorough listing of American pewterers.  Chapters are
arranged geographically and by type of pewter, e.g., ecclesiastical

or household.  Appendix 1 is a checklist of makers of pewter and
Appendix 2 contains representative inventories of pewter shops. 
There is an index of symbols and initials.

Rainwater, Dorothy T.
ENCYCLOPEDIA OF AMERICAN SILVER MANUFACTURERS / Dorothy T.
Rainwater. --3rd ed. rev. --West Chester, Pa.:  Schiffer Pub.,
c1986 --vi, 266 p.: ill.
NK7112.R3 1986 (MRR)
Bibliography: p. 261-266.

This alphabetical list of silver manufacturers from the mid-
nineteenth century to approximately 1920 gives marks, locations,
and a brief history.  Cross reference are included as is a trade
name index and a key to unlettered trademarks.

Thorn, C. Jordan.
HANDBOOK OF AMERICAN SILVER AND PEWTER MARKS / pref. by John
Meredith Graham II. --New York: Tudor Pub. Co., [1949]. --xii, 289
p. : ill.
NK7210.T5 (MRR)

Divided into sections for silver and pewter, the entries provide
dates, locations, and other information, e.g., whether the person
was a jeweler, watchmaker, or retailer.  There are illustrations of
various styles of objects such as tankards and teapots.

Turner, Noel D.
AMERICAN SILVER FLATWARE, 1837-1910 /' by Noel D. Turner. -- South
Brunswick: A.S. Barnes, [1972]. -- 473 p. : ill.
NK7112. T8 (MRR)
Bibliography: p. 413-422.

The extensive postscript includes a listing of American
silversmiths working after 1837, giving dates and geographic
locations, which keyed to citations in the bibliography.  There is
a listing of manufacturers giving their trade marks, trade names,
dates, locations, cross references to other companies, and
citations to entries in the bibliography.

GREAT BRITAIN

Bradbury, Frederick, 1864-
BRITISH AND IRISH SILVER ASSAY OFFICE MARKS, 1544-1968:  with notes
on gold markings, and marks on foreign imported silver and gold
plate:  [and] Old Sheffield plate makers' marks, 1743-1860 /
compiled by Frederick Bradbury. -- 12th ed. --Sheffield, Northend,
1968. -- 93 p.: ill.
NK7210. B74 1968 (MRR)

Bibliographical references included in preface.  A pocket-sized
guide arranged by assay office and then by date.  No index is
included.  

Cotterell, Howard Herschel.
OLD PEWTER, ITS MAKERS AND MARKS IN ENGLAND, SCOTLAND, AND IRELAND
: an account of the old pewterer & his craft. --Ruthland, Vt. : C.
E. Tuttle, [1963]. -- xxii, 432 p. : ill., 82 plates (incl.
facsims.)
NK8415.G7 .C6
Bibliography: p. 423.

Over 5,000 pewterers, most working before 1850, are listed with
their marks and working dates.  There is also a list of marks where
only the initials are known, a list of obscure marks, and indexes
by devices or symbols and by marks.

Grimwade, Arthur.
LONDON GOLDSMITHS 1697-1837 : their marks and lives from the
original registers at Goldsmiths' Hall and other sources / by
Arthur G. Grimwade. --2nd rev. ed. --[Boston] : Faber and Faber,
1982. -- ix, 737 p. : ill.
NK7144.L66 G74 (MRR)

This list includes goldworkers, bucklemakers, hiltmakers,
smallworks, and other specialists.  Part One reproduces 3,469
registered marks and 440 unregistered marks.  Part Two is a
biographical dictionary of 2,500 goldsmiths.

Jackson, Charles James, Sir, 1849-1923.
ENGLISH GOLDSMITHS AND THEIR MARKS : a history of the goldsmiths
and plate workers of English Scotland, and Ireland : with over
thirteen thousand marks reproduced in facsimile from authentic
examples of palate, and tables of date-letters and other hall-marks
used in the assay office of the United Kingdom / by Sir Charles
James Jackson. -- 2nd ed., rev. and enl. -- London: Macmillan,
1921. -- xvi, 747 p. ill.
NK7143. J15 (MRR)
"Unabridged and unaltered republication of the work" published in
New York by Dover Publications in 1964.

There are several chapters devoted to London goldsmiths in addition
to those from York, Sheffield, Dublin, and elsewhere.  An index by
letter mark is included.

FRANCE

Carre, Louis.
A GUIDE TO OLD FRENCH PLATE / by Louis Carre; with a foreword by E.
Alfred Jones. --London: Chapman & Hall, Ltd., 1971. -- xxvi, 270 p.
: ill., plates.
NK7149.C3
Translation of Guide de'amateur d'orfefrerie francaise.
Reprinted with a new foreword by Maurice Bouvier-Ajam, in London by
Eyre and Spottiswoode in 1974.


Part One covers the thirteenth century to the Revolutionary period.

Part Two continues to modern times.  The marks are listed by
minuets, and there are alphabetic and theme indexes.

Helft, Jacques.
LE POINCON DES PROVINCES FRANCAISES. -- Paris : F. de Novele, 1968.
--xxiv, 612 p. : ill., plates.
NK7210. H4
Bibliography: p. 606-607.

Marks are arranged by jurisdiction and then alphabetically.  Marks
for goldsmiths and silversmiths from the mid-seventeenth to the
nineteenth century are included with indexes by theme and by
letter.

New York. Metropolitan Museum of Art.
THREE CENTURIES OF FRENCH DOMESTIC SILVER : its makers and its
marks / by Faith Dennis. -- New York:  [The Museum], 1960. -- 2 v.
: ill., maps.
NK7149 . N42 (MRR)
Bibliography : Vol. 2, p. 189-192.

Vol. 1 contains illustrations, while v. 2 features photographic
reproductions of the marks.  Craftsmen from the seventeenth through
the early nineteenth century are included.  Vol. 2 is arranged
geographically by town and by the supervisory mints.  There is an
index of devices used in silver marks and a chapter about illegible
marks.

CLOCKS

GENERAL

Baillie, G. H.(Granvill Hugh).
WATCHMAKERS AND CLOCKMAKERS OF THE WORLD / by G. H. Baillie. -- 2nd
ed. -- London : N.A.G. Press, c1947. -- xxxiii, 388 p. : ill.,
maps.
NK7486.B26 1947 (MRR)
Bibliography: p. xiv.
Originally published in London by Methuen in 1929. --Reissued in
1976.

Companion volume:  Watchmakers and clockmakers of the world, volume
2/by B. Loomes, 1976.  A listing of clockmakers who flourished
until 1825.  Entries give geographic location, dates and type of
work.  There is an addenda, p. xxv-xxxiii, a listing of names with
alternative spellings, p. xv-xxiii, and a list of place names and
maps, p. 358-388.

Britten, Frederick James, 1843-1913.
BRITTEN'S OLD CLOCKS AND WATCHES AND THEIR MAKERS: a historical and
descriptive account of the different styles of clocks and watches
of the past in England and abroad containing a list of nearly
fourteen thousand makers. --8th ed. by Cecil Clutton and the late
G.H. Baillie and C. A. Ilbert, rev. and enl. by Cecil Clutton, with
diagrams by F. Janca and endpapers by L.H. Cresswell. -- London :
E. Methuen is association with E. & F. Spon, [1973]. --xxii, 532 p.
: ill. (some col.)
TS542.B8 1973 (MRR)
Bibliography: p. 326-332.

"Former Clock and Watch Makers": p. 335-519.  The list of clock and
watch makers gives dates and locations.  It also describes those
who were active until the nineteenth century.

Loomes, Brian.
WATCHMAKERS AND CLOCKMAKERS OF THE WORLD / [by] Brian Loomes. --
London : N.A.G. Press, 1976. --xxii, 263p.
NK7486.B26 1976 suppl. (MRR)
Bibliography: p. vii-viii.
"Written as a supplement to the late G.H. Baillie's _Watchmakers
and Clockmakers of the World."

This supplement contains approximately 35,000 entries, including
information for clockmakers who flourished from 1820 to 1875. It
also includes additional information about many of those listed in
the original work.

UNITED STATES

Bailey, Chris H.
TWO HUNDRED YEARS OF AMERICAN CLOCKS & WATCHES / by Chris H.
Bailey; photography by John Garetti. -- Englewood Cliffs, N.J. :
Prentice-Hall, 1975. -- 254 p. : ill. (some col.)
TS543.U6 B27 (MRR)
Includes bibliographies and index.

Charts of clockmakers arranged chronologically and geographically
are presented on p. 222-240.  There are also charts for tall
clocks, shelf clocks, and specialized clocks.

Dreppard, Carl William.
AMERICAN CLOCKS & CLOCKMAKERS. --Enl. [i.e. 2nd]ed. -- Boston: C.T.
Branford Co., 1958 [c1947]. -- 312, 52 p. : ill., facsims. 
NK7492.D7 1958
Bibliography: p. 312.

A List of American Clockmakers: p. 196-293 and p. 3-52 (2nd group).
Clocks produced and used in colonial America are the subject of
this book.  There is a list of 3,000 artisans with their dates and
locations and some additional information.

Palmer, Brooks.
THE BOOK OF AMERICAN CLOCKS. --New York: Macmillan, 1950. -- viii,
318 p. : 312 ill.
NK7492. P3 1950 (MRR)
"Based on the clock sections of the Wallace Nutting's...Furniture
treasury."--Dust jacket.
Bibliography:p. 317-318.
"List of Clockmakers": p. [133]-316.

Entries provide geographic location, working dates and sometimes
citations to other reference along with such information as the
type of clock made, advertisements, and work experience.

Sposato, Kenneth A.
THE DICTIONARY OF AMERICAN CLOCK & WATCH MAKERS / by Kenneth A.
Sposato. -- White Plain, N.Y. : K.A. Sposato, c1983. -- 190 p.
TS543.U6 S68 1983
Includes bibliographical references.

Watch makers, clock peddlers, case makers, jewelers, label
printers, dial makers, and inventors are listed.  Entries provide
working dates and a geographic location.  Many entries provide
birth and death dates and special achievements, and some entries
are keyed to the bibliography for additional references.

GREAT BRITAIN

Loomes, Brian.
THE EARLY CLOCKMAKERS OF GREAT BRITAIN / Brian Loomes. -- London:
N.A.G. Press, 1981.-- 608 p., xvi p. of plates: ill.
TS543.G7 L62 1981
Bibliography: p.607-608.

This listing includes clockmakers operating before 1700.  Entries
include at least the geographic locations and working dates.

FRANCE

Tardy.
Dictionnare des horlogers francais / documentation reunie par
Tardy; avec l'apport des travaux de Paul Brateau et de Robert
Ardignac. -- Paris : (5e), Tardy, 21, rue des Boulangers, 1971-
1972. -- 2 v. : ill. -- (Collection Tardy, 125, 127)
TS543.F8 T28
Contents: 1. A-K -- 2. L-Z.

Alphabetical listing of over 23,000 names, including many
photographs, drawings, marks, signatures, and portraits.  There are
several specialized indexes including one by city.

LIBRARY OF CONGRESS SUBJECT HEADINGS USEFUL FOR FURTHER SEARCHING

GENERAL

Hall-marks
 --Catalogs
 --Registers

FURNITURE

Search under the name of individual cabinet makers or companies. 
Also search under the following headings:

Cabinet-workers
 --Dictionaries
 --Geographic designation, e.g., France
Furniture
 --Collectors and collections
 --Geographic designation
Furniture, Geographic type, e.g., British
Furniture, Type, e.g., Rococo
Furniture design
 --History
Furniture industry and trade
 --Geographic designation
Furniture workers

GLASS

Search under the name of individual glassworkers or companies. 
Also search under specific types or forms of glass, such as pressed
glass or bottles.  Search also under the following headings:

Glass
 --Dictionaries
Glassware
 --Geographic designation, e.g., France
 --History
Glassware, Geographic type, e.g., French

CERAMICS

Search under the name of individual potters or potteries.  Search
also under the following headings:

Porcelain
 --Dictionaries
 --History
 --Marks
Porcelain, Geographic type, e.g., British
 --Dictionaries
 --handbooks, manuals
Potters
 --Geographic designation, e.g., Great Britain Pottery-Collectors
     and collecting
 --History
 --Marks
 --19th century
Pottery, geographic type
 --Dictionaries
 --Handbooks, manuals, etc.

METALWARE

Search under the name of individuals or companies.  Search also
under the following headings:

Goldsmiths
 --Geographic designation, e.g., France 
Goldsmiths, geographic type, e.g., French 
Medallion
 --Dictionaries
Pewter
 --Geographic designation
 --marks
Pewter, geographic type
Pewterers
 --Geographic designation 
Plate
 --Geographic designation
Plate, geographic type
Sheffield Plate
Silver-plate ware
Silversmithing
 --Geographic designation
Sivlersmiths
 --Geographic designation
   --Biography
   --Directories
Silverwork
 --Geographic designation
   --Catalogs

CLOCKS AND CLOCKMAKERS

Search under the name of individual clockmakers or companies. 
Search also under the following headings:

Clock and watch makers
 --Directories
 --Geographic designation, e.g., United States
   --Biography
 --Registers
Clock and watchmaking
 --Geographic designation
Clocks and watches
 --Collectors and collecting 
 --Geographic designation

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