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April 17, 1861

Graham. Map of Virginia: showing the distribution of its slave population, 1861

Graham. Map of Virginia: showing the distribution of its slave population, 1861

Graham. Map of Virginia: showing the distribution of its slave population, 1861

Graham. Map of Virginia: showing the distribution of its slave population, 1861

Graham. Map of Virginia: showing the distribution of its slave population, 1861

Graham. Map of Virginia: showing the distribution of its slave population, 1861

By the spring of 1861, several states had already seceded from the Union. The state of Virginia decided to call a special convention of delegates to consider secession and on April 17, 1861, following the attack on Fort Sumter, Virginia passed its “Ordinance of Secession”.

Published in 1861, Edwin Hergesheimer’s map entitled Map of Virginia: showing the distribution of its slave population from the census of 1860 provides statistics on the percentage of slaves in each Virginia county compared to the total free population. During 1861 three editions of the map were produced, all of which were based on 1860 census data. The choice of shading from lower percentages per county in light grey to higher percentages illustrated in darker tones, including a contrasting font color, provides a dramatic representation of slavery in Virginia.

Map Citations

Graham, Henry S. Map of Virginia: showing the distribution of its slave population from the census of 1860 / drawn by E. Hergesheimer. Washington: [Henry S. Graham], 1861. 1 map ; 48 x 69 cm
Catalog record: http://lccn.loc.gov/2010586916

Graham, Henry S. Map of Virginia: showing the distribution of its slave population from the census of 1860 / drawn by E. Hergesheimer. 1 map ; 48 x 69 cm.
Catalog record: http://lccn.loc.gov/2010586922

Graham, Henry S. Map of Virginia: showing the distribution of its slave population from the census of 1860 / drawn by E. Hergesheimer ; C.B. Graham, lithr. Washington: Henry S. Graham, 1861. 1 map: hand col.; 47 x 67 cm.
Catalog record: http://lccn.loc.gov/2010586923