Skip Navigation Links and Jump to Page Content  The Library of Congress >> Researchers
Business Reference Services (Science, Technology, and Business Division)
  Home >> Guides >> This Month in Business History >> July

July

      Dun & Bradstreet         Fireworks
                        Milton Friedman

    The Origins of Dun and Bradstreet

Lewis Tappan, half-length portrait, seated, facing right

Did you ever wonder where the idea of credit reports came from? In July 1841 Lewis Tappan formed the Mercantile Agency (later Dun & Bradstreet) in New York City. The agency collected a small amount of business information - sales estimate, industry, and bill paying ability - on companies, so that those wanting to do business with each other reliable information. This firm continues on today and has grown to include the publisher Hoover's, another staple of libraries.

Read more about it

This Month in Business History

Table of Contents

    January
    February
    March
    April
    May
    June
    July
    August
    September
    October
    November
    December

Left:
Lewis Tappan, half-length portrait, seated, facing right
Prints & Photographs Division
Library of Congress
Reproduction number: LC-USZ62-47919


    Fireworks -- Beyond the Fourth of July

Fireworks at Washington Monument, ca. 1950.

Above:
Fireworks at Washington Monument, ca. 1950.
from the Gottscho-Schleisner Collection (Library of Congress)
Reproduction number: LC-H8-CT-F02-001-A

July 4th marks the founding of the United States, and for many the day would not be complete without the evening fireworks celebration. If you've ever wondered about the origins of this custom, fireworks appear to have been associated with this day since the founding of the republic. John Adams wrote in his diary for July 3, 1776, about the declaration to be made the following day: "The day .... ought to be solemnized with pomp and parade, bonfires and illuminations (fireworks) from one end of this continent to the other, from this day forward forevermore."

Read more about it


    Milton Friedman

In July of 1912 economist and Nobel Memorial Prize in Economic Sciences winner Milton Friedman was born.  Milton Friedman taught economic theory for many years at the University of Chicago, known collectively as the Chicago School of Economics.  Among some of his more well known works are A Monetary History of the United States which was an examination of the role of the money supply and economic activity in U.S. history and A Theory of the Consumption Function,  an alternative theory to John Maynard Keynes' The General Theory of Employment, Interest, and Money .

Photograph of Milton J. Friedman, 2002, courtesy of the University of Chicago.

Image (above):
Photograph of Milton J. Friedman, 2002
Courtesy of the University of Chicago

Read more about it

Top of Page Top of Page
  Home >> Guides >> This Month in Business History >> July
  The Library of Congress >> Researchers
  July 2, 2014
Legal | External Link Disclaimer

Contact Us:  
Ask a Librarian