Section 2 – Major Steps in Transition
The transition of the free national library program from the current analog cassette-based system to a digital flash memory-based system is a complex process that has required, and will continue to require, very careful planning and execution, and is more complex than the most recent transition of audio technologies from RD (Rigid Disk) to RC. In this section of the report, the major steps that must be undertaken in the transition to the new medium are described to the extent that they can now be defined, and include the most recent information provided by NLS.
As noted in the final Phase 1 report, critical aspects of the planned flash memory-based delivery system, specifically the mass-duplication and DOD of DTBs, must await further declines in the wholesale unit price of flash memory before implementation becomes economically feasible. It is estimated that this milestone will be substantially reached by FY 2008.
Time is also required for the development of technology to enable economical mass-duplication of NLS DTB flash memory cartridges and modification of library information systems to support library-based distribution of DTBs. It is estimated that this milestone will also be reached by FY 2008, if not sometime during the second half of FY 2007.
Finally, further refinements in duplication technology to enable economical DOD of DTB flash memory cartridges, modification of library information systems to support DOD Center-based distribution, and establishment of the DOD Center operations will require development time beyond FY 2008. It is estimated that these would be completed during FY 2011 and that DOD Centers would be ready to distribute DTBs by the beginning of FY 2012. These are the most uncertain aspects of the transition plan and are, of course, dependent upon both whether or not NLS actually implements DOD Centers and the rate of evolution of flash memory duplication technology. Implementation of the Hybrid audio book distribution system was accordingly not included in the NLS baseline transition plan submitted to Congress.
The fundamental transition strategy for implementation of the digital delivery system is therefore to await the necessary further declines in the wholesale unit price of flash memory which will make implementation economically feasible. But this strategy also entails execution of all other necessary planning and implementation steps that can be logically performed prior to FY 2008, which NLS has been doing and will continue to do.
Market prices for flash memory and advancements in duplication technology will not be the only factors, or even the most important factors, ultimately constraining the rate at which the transition to a digital delivery system can proceed. Fiscal limitations are likely the binding constraint upon the maximum rate at which the transition can occur, specifically whether or not NLS receives special appropriation funding requested for the transition and the amount and timing of this special funding. NLS is both hoping and expecting to receive virtually all of the requested special appropriation funding and to execute the transition as rapidly as possible, both because service to program patrons will be improved, and because there are significant risks of a prolonged transition due to the ongoing obsolescence of cassette technology.
Regardless of the specific timing and the amount of special appropriation funding received by NLS for the transition, all major steps in the transition plan must be performed ultimately in order to achieve successful implementation. When each of these steps will be performed will be determined by the actual funding scenario, which is currently fluid. However, it is now expected that NLS will receive virtually all of the special appropriation funding requested, and the dates shown below for the major transition taskings reflect this assumption.
The designs of the DTBM, DTB and DTB container are ongoing activities. The design concepts phase of development was completed in October 2005, and then engineering development and refinement of the designs were performed. A Preliminary Design Review (PDR) was conducted in late June, 2006. The current objective is to have prototypes built and tested, and design specifications developed, for all of these products by the end of November, 2006. Functional prototypes are first being developed for each product, followed-by pre-production prototypes. Alpha-testing of the products will be conducted beginning in September, 2007, and Beta-testing will begin in March, 2008. NLS Quality Assurance (QA) test plans for these products are concurrently being developed and applied to both the design and pre-production prototypes. Concurrently, environmental testing and certification testing will be performed on both the functional and pre-production versions of the products. The contractor will also perform a repair/dispose analysis for the DTBM, develop a machine diagnosis system and procedures for repair, software support system, and training materials for DTBM repairs. Design analyses for manufacturability will be performed, incorporating the feedback received from potential suppliers in the pre-solicitation process. The final design will then be transferred to mass production, and the contractor will provide support to the DTBM manufacturer during the initial months of mass production in FY 2008. It is currently estimated that mass-production will begin in July, 2008. All technical documentation for the products will be transferred from the design contractor to the manufacturer. Continuing support will be provided by the design contractor including assistance with ordering and installation of production tooling, development of the production supply chain and quality assurance system, and validation of the first mass-produced units. Period of Performance: November 2005 - July 2008.
A majority of digital book machines produced will be a “Basic” model and a minority an “Advanced” model (which will utilize many/most design features of the Basic model, but offer the user additional functionality via more complex features). If the full funding requested for the special appropriation for the transition to the digital system is obtained, then NLS intends to produce DTBMs at the highest practical rate in order to achieve full implementation (defined as when all patrons who want DTBMs will have them) as rapidly as possible, and then produce machines at a much lower rate (probably about 30,000 per year) required to compensate for machine attrition due primarily to loss and secondarily to damage. The procurement process for this has actually begun, with the pre-solicitation information gathering process having begun during early FY 2006. Potential producers of DTBMs have and are currently being identified and their input regarding the manufacturability of the DTBM prototypes is being impounded into the design of the DTBM. Sometime during FY 2007, a manufacturer will be awarded a production contract, create the necessary manufacturing tooling, establish the assembly process, and begin mass-production of DTBMs. The manufacturer will work closely with the design contractor in the last quarter of FY 2008 as the product transitions from design to mass production. NLS will have a manufacturer’s warranty of some type on the DTBM; as a history of machine performance is accumulated, the most favorable warranty terms for NLS will be identified and implemented, but for now the assumption is made that the warranty period will be one-year. Period of Performance: FY 2007 - Continuing Operation.
The mass production of flash memory cartridges will begin in this step, and there will be only one type and size of cartridge produced. The cartridges will be Flash Drives customized to NLS specifications in accordance with the final design for the DTB. The customized features of the cartridge that differentiate it from commercial Flash Drives are the shell and the controller chip. Production tooling must first be designed to manufacture these custom components, then assembled and tested, and then mass production can commence. This step will, in all likelihood, not begin until the wholesale unit price of 256 MB Flash Drives declines to about $10. Production of cartridges, which will be correlated with the production of DTBMs, will begin in either late FY 2007 or early FY 2008, and increase to a maximum until the reuse of reconditioned cartridges begins, at which time there will be a reduced requirement for new cartridges. Period of Performance: Late FY 2007/Early FY 2008 - Continuing Operation.
The mass-production of DTB mailing/storage containers will commence in this step. The design of production tooling must precede production, and will occur early in FY 2007, with the building, installation and testing of production tooling occurring during the balance of FY 2007. Actual container production is scheduled to begin toward the end of FY 2007 or the beginning of FY 2008. Production of containers, which will be correlated with the production of Flash Drive cartridges and DTBMs, will increase over the years to a maximum until the reuse of reconditioned containers begins, at which time there will be a reduced requirement for new containers. Period of Performance: Late FY 2007/Early FY 2008 - Continuing Operation.
In this step, the DTB mass-duplicators will procure commercially-available flash memory duplication equipment, customize such equipment, and/or design and build their own duplication equipment to facilitate the mass-duplication of NLS Flash Memory-based DTBs. NLS will provide guidance to the contractors, including all reports addressing duplication equipment concepts developed by the DTB cartridge and container design contractor, but it will be the responsibility of the mass duplication contractors to procure, customize, and/or build duplicator and other production equipment as necessary and set-up integrated production operations. Period of Performance: FY 2007 – Continuing Operation.
NLS will have to plan and manage the simultaneous production of RCs and DTBs during the time period FY 2008 (and possibly beginning in late FY 2007) through FY 2010, and coordinate this plan with DTBM availability. “Retro” titles, i.e., those already produced in RC format, will also be mass-duplicated and allocated to network libraries. The production plan for mass-duplication of Retro titles is currently somewhat fluid, but the bulk of such production would occur during FY 2008 and FY 2009. One approach would be to mass-duplicate the latest and most popular Retro titles and the older Retro titles that were once the most popular; another approach would be to mass-duplicate all 20,000 titles in nominal quantities. Period of Performance: Late FY 2007/Early FY 2008 – FY 2010.
As previously noted, the mass-duplication of DTBs must await further declines in the wholesale unit price of 256 MB Flash Drive cartridges before implementation is economically feasible, and this is now expected to be in FY 2008. However, limited production could possibly proceed toward the end of FY 2007 so as to bring mass-duplication contractors on-line and to have some mass-duplicated copies available for distribution from network libraries when the first DTBMs become available in FY 2008; this limited production that is now planned will be 50 titles in 350 copies each. Both DTB cartridges and containers will be provided to mass-duplicators as Government Furnished Equipment (GFE). The issue of how many titles and copies per title should be produced, given that only a minority of patrons will initially have DTBMs, has been considered and addressed. There will no doubt be a minimum Economic Order Quantity (EOQ) threshold to consider; however, as now conceived, the duplication processes will be much simpler than those for RC’s, and the EOQ should be lower. Full-quantity-scaled production of mass-duplicated titles will not begin until all, or almost all, patrons have DTBMs. Period of Performance: Late FY 2007/Early FY 2008 – FY 2012.
Weeded DTB copies from network library collections that are not picked-up by other libraries in the XESS protocol will be forwarded to an NLS cartridge and container reconditioning contractor. The containers will undergo an inspection and reconditioning/disposal process very similar to that now done with RC containers, i.e., all labels and residual materials will be removed from reusable containers, and unusable containers will be scrapped. It is expected that approximately 90% of the DTB containers sent by libraries to the reconditioning contractor will be reconditioned and reused. Both a new material and the color of the material in the new container will account for this longer usable life relative to that of the RC container. Almost all the DTB cartridges will be reconditioned and reused. This reconditioning will involve both label removal and cleaning, and the cartridge and label are being designed to facilitate the process. As now conceived, the labels on mass-duplicated cartridges will have to be heated to facilitate their removal. The degree of automation applied to this process will be determined by the reconditioning contractor(s). On receipt of instructions, the reconditioned cartridges and containers will then be forwarded to specified NLS mass-duplication contractors for reuse in the production of mass-duplicated DTBs. Period of Performance: FY 2011 - Continuing Operation.
Changes and enhancements to library information systems will be necessary or, in some cases, highly desirable in order to successfully implement the All Mass-Duplication DTB distribution system. This will include the three multi-library systems (Reader Enrollment and Delivery System (READS), Keystone Library Automation System (KLAS), and Consortium of User Library (CUL) system) and the two independent systems used by Texas and New York (Albany). NLS will assume the responsibility for modifying READS, but individual libraries and groups of libraries will be responsible for modifying the independent and multilibrary systems, respectively. T hese system enhancements will include: addition of DTBM type (Basic or Advanced) to the patron machine record; addition of language preference to the patron DTBM record; machine-readable barcodes for patron and library zip codes on the pick tickets/address cards, if needed; support for a random storage system for Retro titles and, during the initial years of the transition, for new DTBs titles; and a computer-directed protocol for scheduled weeding of both DTBs and RCs. The implementation of the required library information systems changes will be performed both by the contractors who modified the systems, and by network library Information Technology (IT) staff who are responsible for their operation. In this step, or steps, all information system components will be installed, tested and verified on-site. Period of Performance: FY 2007 – FY 2008.
The DTBs will be stored in a separate area from RCs rather than being co-mingled, and the shelves in the storage area must be reprofiled to take advantage of the smaller size of the DTB container. The shelf openings in the DTB shelving will then be 10-high, as compared to 6-high in the RC shelving. As a result, a shelf section of DTBs will have 43% greater container storage capacity than a comparable shelf section of RCs. Period of Performance: FY 2008 - Continuing Operation.
Network libraries will use a PC-based tool that NLS is developing to duplicate in-house copies of DTBs. This tool will allow the copying of one title onto multiple cartridges simultaneously, or multiple titles onto multiple cartridges simultaneously. The essential system components will be a PC, cable, Universal Serial Bus (USB) “Hub,” and the application software. Libraries will supply the hardware and NLS will provide the software application. It is likely that the only customized component would be the USB Hub, designed to accommodate NLS DTB cartridges, but off-the-shelf hubs with sufficient spacing between USB connectors would suffice – depending upon the DTB cartridge final design. Library staff will either download the required DTB files from the NLS DAMS system, or use any in-stock copy of the title to serve as a master in the duplication process. This duplication system will obviate the need for master copies. Libraries would procure cartridges for in-house duplication on an ongoing, as-needed basis. Period of Performance: FY 2008 - Continuing Operation.
A pilot program for books was launched in early 2006, after software/playback machines were distributed to readers in the pilot test sample that are capable of handing the new codec and encryption for the books. Sometime in late FY 2007, NLS will offer DTBs for Internet download to program patrons and network libraries via the DAMS system, which will precede the offering of DTBs on flash memory cartridges via USPS delivery. The DAMS system will be located at NLS. Period of Performance: January 2006 – Continuing Operation.
There will be significant changes in this function, and it will be greatly simplified relative to what is required for RC inspection. Most (95%) of DTB titles will have only one cartridge in one container, whereas the average RC book has multiple cassettes per copy; for the 5% of DTBs that require more than one cartridge, there will be a second container (effectively a second “Volume”), which will appear as an “A”, “B”, “C” or “D” suffix to the Title Number. No rewinding will be necessary, which accounts for most of the labor required in the book inspection function, and there will be no spooled or shredded tape, or jammed reels with which to contend. The cartridge will be much more robust than a cassette, but the USB connector must be inspected to insure that there is no damage. Each copy must also continue to be inspected for container-cartridge agreement, and to ensure that no foreign objects are included. Period of Performance: FY 2008 - Continuing Operation.
Free library program rules require that veterans in the program must be offered DTBMs before other patrons. After veterans, the current distribution plan is to next offer DTBMs to current patrons and students, and then possibly the most active patrons. Based upon information collected during site visits to network libraries and feedback from the DLTPG, the preferential allocation of DTBMs to veterans and students, and to pre-transition patrons (with the exception of new veterans or students), is generally agreed upon. However, whether the “most active” criterion will also actually be applied is To-Be-Determined (TBD). Period of Performance: FY 2008 - Continuing Operation.
Weeding of DTB mass-duplicated copies will occur as the demand for titles wanes with age, but weeding of surplus copies will also be driven by the need to recover the cartridge for reuse in operations, i.e., to recover the inventory investment. Analyses of empirical detailed circulation data have shown that after a title has been in circulation for three years, the potential exists for the first significant weeding; the current NLS XESS system procedures effectively apply this logic. Demand then declines annually until, after about six-to-eight years in circulation, demand falls to effectively a uniform residual level. These findings have also been corroborated anecdotally by network librarians during site visits in Phase 2 of the project, and by further analyses made during Task 2. After reconditioning, these excess copies will be sent to DTB mass-duplication contractors for reuse. This reuse will not begin until approximately FY 2011 (after DTBs mass-duplicated in FY 2008 have had three full years to circulate). It is assumed that mass-duplicated DTB copies of Retro titles will not be weeded. Period of Performance: FY 2011 - Continuing Operation.
New DTBMs will be allocated to network libraries based upon readership, which is the current policy for CBM allocation. The quantity of machines produced will be driven by available funding. As now planned, new machine production will begin in the last quarter of FY 2008 and continue through FY 2011 at high production levels, and then be reduced to “maintenance” levels, i.e., sufficient to compensate for attrition (and net readership growth, if applicable). All patrons who want a DTBM are expected to have one by the end of FY 2011. Period of Performance: FY 2008 - Continuing Operation.
NLS has set a goal of 20,000 total titles in DTB format by the end of FY 2008. All title masters produced from FY 2004 forward have been in digital format. It is also planned that book production contractors will perform the entire gamut of DTB title master preparation including narration of audio content in .wav format, production and insertion of Extensible Markup Language (XML) files into the raw audio files, application of the AMR WB+ compression codec, encryption of the encoded files using the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) Advanced Encryption Standard, and creation of “image” format files for the title masters. Approximately 2,000 new titles per year will be produced in DTB format during this period, and approximately 1,600 titles previously produced in analog format will be converted to DTB format per year. Production of new DTB titles is expected to continue at the rate of 2,000 titles per year. The number of analog-to-digital conversions of older titles that will be performed beyond FY 2008 is currently unknown and TBD. Period of Performance: October 2002 – End of FY 2008/Beyond FY 2008.
The copy allotment process for new and Retro copies of DTBs will be similar to that now used in the current RC allocation process, but the allocation of Retro copies will likely be much smaller. In the transition years, the sum of new and Retro DTB production will be less than current RC production. The analysis of patron demand that was made in Phase 1 confirmed that the comparative demand for titles does not fundamentally vary by library location. The patron base will therefore continue to be the most important factor driving copy allotment order quantities, but collection storage space constraints will also be a factor in some libraries, as they are now, though relatively less so with DTBs because of the smaller container size. Fiscal limitations impacting production lot sizes may also prove to be a constraint on the size of the lots that will be allocated to libraries. Bibliographic information for new titles will be downloaded from the Production Inventory Control System (PICS) at several junctures by the libraries, for the same purposes as now. Period of Performance: FY 2008 - Continuing Operation.
NLS will begin to evaluate DTBM repair processes and parts needs in late FY 2008 based upon patron feedback and as manufacturers and NLS have time to perform various types of testing on DTBM production units. The type and frequency of DTBM failures will in turn be analyzed to improve product quality, determine the best warranty strategy from NLS’s perspective, and to develop an infrastructure for the repair of DTBMs. Testing and repair procedures will be developed by NLS and promulgated to library staff, volunteer, and commercial repairers; disposal criteria and procedures will also be developed and promulgated. Parts procurement requirements will be determined, and the procurement of parts will begin during FY 2008. The machines are expected to carry at least a 1-year manufacturer’s warranty. It is envisioned that the parts logistics system for DTBMs will be very similar to that now in place for CBM repair, i.e., centralized procurement and storage of parts by NLS, distribution of parts to repair locations, and maintenance of smaller inventories of parts onsite at the repair locations. Some types of needed repairs can no doubt be performed by volunteers, while others will have to be performed by paid commercial repairers; at this time it is estimated that volunteers will perform 75% of repairs and commercial repairers 25%, with the commercial repairers handling the more complex repairs. DTBM repair parts will be provided to commercial repairers as GFE. Period of Performance: FY 2008 - Continuing Operation.
Fewer RC copies per title will be required as more DTBs and DTBMs come on-line in the system. It is expected that a majority of patrons will still have CBMs, but no DTBMs when this phase-out begins, and hence will be able to read RCs only. However, after the transition, a majority of patrons will have DTBMs and will primarily read DTBs. The demand for RCs will fall further until such time that the EOQ threshold for RC production is breached. The production of new titles on RC will then cease. This policy is consistent with a stated objective of the Digital Long-Term Planning Group for the program to preferentially offer a maximum variety of reading material to patrons (i.e., maximize title production) and limit, if necessary, the number of types of media and/or copies per title produced. The ManTech project team has addressed this issue, as has NLS independently, in order to determine the most appropriate timing for a phase-out plan. The baseline plan for this phase-out is provided in Section 3 of this report, and calls for RC mass-duplication through FY 2010 but not beyond. It is likely that technological obsolescence will prohibit RC mass-production beyond FY 2011 regardless of intentions. Period of Performance: FY 2008 – FY 2010 or FY 2011.
During conversion from cassette to digital technology, there will be a gradual reduction in CBM inventories as DTBMs generally replace CBMs, and CBM production will cease after March, 2007. Inventory will then be gradually reduced at normal attrition for loss and damage. There will ultimately be a residual inventory of CBMs that is in excess of requirements to support the reading of RC magazines, RC titles not converted to digital format, and patrons who will still prefer RCs/CBMs. At that time, NLS will determine the most appropriate disposition of the excess inventory. During the conversion period, it will be especially important for network libraries to exercise control of the CBM inventory i.e., to repair broken machines and minimize the loss of machines. Period of Performance: FY 2007 - Continuing Operation.
The weeding of RC collections in network libraries will continue before, during and after the conversion to DTB distribution, and excess copies will be removed from library collections as the demand for individual titles wanes. This trend will accelerate for those titles that are also available in DTB format. The disposition of these weeded copies will be distribution to other libraries via the XESS system, or termination. RC containers will continue to be salvaged for reuse as long as there is an identified need. Period of Performance: Ongoing - Continuing Operation
An analysis of detailed circulation data in the Task 1 planning study revealed that a distinct minority of titles in network library collections constitute a distinct majority of the circulation. At the other end of the spectrum, it was found that almost half of the NLS titles in network library collections have virtually no circulation. As expected, these are generally the oldest titles in the collection. The potential therefore exists for freeing-up considerable collection storage space in the network libraries, as needed. This could be done by selecting the titles with virtually no circulation and “migrating” their distribution to the Multistate Centers (MSCs) (as has already been done for RC titles with Title Numbers below RC6000). That is, MSCs would take responsibility for circulation of these titles from the libraries, and the libraries would remove and forward all needed copies of these titles to the MSCs, with the balance (majority) of copies terminated. The consequent incremental workload for the MSCs would be minimal because the titles have almost no circulation. Period of Performance: TBD - Continuing Operation.
During FY 2006, FY 2007 and FY 2008, NLS intends to purchase all CBM repair parts required to maintain the CBMs through the end of their useful life in the program. Such a “lifetime buy” approach is necessary because many CBM repair parts will not be available for purchase after FY 2008 due to technological obsolescence. Results from this analysis have already been provided to NLS, which took into account existing inventories of parts (at NLS and in the field), current prices for the parts, and all future repair requirements. A lifetime buy approach is not required for CBM batteries, however, which should be available for purchase on an ongoing basis. Period of Performance: FY 2006 – FY 2008.
All RD collections will be removed from network libraries prior to the receipt of the first mass-duplicated DTBs; this transfer will be discretionary on the part of network libraries, but recommended by NLS. At some time before FY 2008, it will become feasible to support all remaining RD circulation from the MSCs. Some surplus copies of RDs could be terminated, either in Landover, Maryland or locally. Very few patrons will be affected by this step; the FY 2005 RD readership in the program was down to 6,584 individuals and 910 institutions, with only 9,662 copies circulated by network libraries and 896 by MSCs. RD circulation services will continue to be provided by the MSCs until no longer needed. Beginning October 2004 - Completed by End of FY 2007.
If a Hybrid DTB distribution system is implemented, NLS will phase-in DOD distribution from DOD Centers after first initiating distribution of mass-duplicated DTBs from the network libraries. This timing is necessary to await further refinements in duplication technology automation for NLS-customized Flash Drives, and to allow time for LAS modifications before commencing DOD operations. The DOD Centers will then be set-up and begin operations. There may only be a single DOD center initially, with a second center being established shortly thereafter. Having two centers will both reduce risk associated with disruption of operations, and shorten somewhat delivery times for DOD books. Network libraries and/or their contractors will be performing any modifications necessary to accommodate DOD-based distribution during this time, primarily during FY 2011. Concurrently, the information system for the DOD center will be developed (both the functionality required to interface with libraries and to control production of DOD DTB copies), a contractor will be selected to operate the center, the equipment will be procured and tested, the information system installation will proceed, and both component and integrated systems testing will be performed. The best contractual approach as to whether NLS will own the information system and/or equipment and provide as GFE to a contractor, or a contractor would develop and own the same, must be determined in the future, because not enough information is available to make this determination at this time. Pilot tests will then be performed for communications and information exchange between the DOD Center and a designated library for each of the five LASs that will be in use. Following successful testing, the centers will then go online, which should be by the beginning of FY 2012. Period-of-Performance: FY 2010 – FY 2012.
Changes and enhancements to library information systems will be necessary in order to successfully implement the Hybrid DOD distribution concept. This will include the three multi-library systems (READS, KLAS and CUL) and the two independent systems used by Texas and New York (Albany). NLS will assume the responsibility for modifying READS, but individual libraries and groups of libraries will be responsible for modifying the independent and multilibrary systems, respectively. These system enhancements will include the capabilities as described in the Distribution System Design Final report, the most fundamental of which will be information interchange with the DOD Centers. The implementation of these required library information system changes will be performed both by the contractors who modified the systems, by network library IT staff who are responsible for their operation, and by staff at the DOD Centers who would assist in testing and implementation from the DOD Center’s perspective. In this step, or steps, all information system components will be installed, tested and verified. After successful testing, DOD distribution would be implemented. Period of Performance: FY 2011 – FY 2012.
After a period of about six-to-eight years in circulation, analyses have shown that circulation of books tends to level-out at a more-or-less final uniform level that is a mere fraction of the circulation that they generated when new and significantly less than when they were four-six years in age. These findings have been corroborated anecdotally by network librarians during the site visits in Phase 2 of this project. The best approach appears to be for most of the titles mass-duplicated and managed by libraries to migrate to DOD production after they have been in circulation for 6-to-8 years; this approach is obviously not an option for the All Mass-Duplication system. The exception to this rule will be titles that remain relatively popular despite their age. In the present system, these titles account for approximately 5%-to-10% of titles in the RC collections. However, because in a title-based Hybrid model the relatively more popular titles will be the ones mass-duplicated and managed by the libraries, possibly 10%-to-20% rather than 5%-to-10% of these titles would remain with libraries. Patron demand for the migrated titles could then readily be handled by the DOD Centers. When titles migrate to the DOD Centers, the libraries will be expected to remove all copies of those titles from their collections and forward them to the DTB cartridge and container reconditioning contractor. For the time period FY 2007 – FY 2013 and possibly even FY 2014, the All Mass-Duplication system and a Time-Based Hybrid system are effectively identical because migration of mass-duplicated DTB copies would not begin until FY 2014 or later. Period of Performance: FY 2014/FY 2015 – Ongoing (TBD).