Section 1 – Introduction
The National Library Service for the Blind and Physically Handicapped (NLS) of the Library of Congress (LOC) administers a free library service to approximately 525,000 eligible residents of the US and US citizens living overseas who cannot read, hold or handle print media because of visual and/or physical disabilities. Under a special exemption of the US copyright laws and with the cooperation of authors and publishers who grant permission to use non-covered copyrighted works in the program, NLS selects and produces annually about 2,000 full-length audio book titles and 45 audio magazines in a specialized 4-Track, 15/16 ips recorded cassette (RC) format. NLS also produces annually about 42,000 specially-designed Cassette Book Machines (CBM) which enable readers in the program to play the recorded cassette books and magazines produced in specialized format.
A cooperating nationwide network of 57 regional (RL) and 75 subregional (SRL) libraries currently stores approximately 19,400,000 RC books and loans about 19,000,000 RC books per year to readers in the program, while about 3,500,000 copies of cassette magazines are provided annually from manufacturers on a one-way, disposable circulation basis. Operations in network libraries are supported by a combination of federal, state, local and private funding, while NLS contracts with manufacturers for the provision of direct circulation magazines. Virtually all circulation of books, and all circulation of magazines, is on a mail-order basis which is performed by the US Postal Service (USPS) and the costs of which are covered under a special Congressional appropriation for the same ("Free Matter for the Blind").
Cassette technology has been the backbone of the talking book program for almost 30 years, but is fast becoming outdated in several respects and is nearing the end of its useful life. Compared to cassette-based technology, digital audio technology offers significant improvements to readers in the program, to the network libraries, and to NLS. Furthermore, the impending obsolescence of key elements of RC and CBM technology dictates the conversion of the present system to alternative technology. NLS has therefore determined to implement digital audio technology as the new medium for the future delivery system. Following extensive research, NLS has established a digital audio book standard (ANSI/NISO Z39.86) and has selected a digital file compression algorithm (AMR WB+) to be used to compress the size of files required for audio books while retaining acceptable audio quality.
While NLS anticipates that ultimately most patrons of the program will download digital reading materials from the Internet using a variety of broadband channels, and store and read books and magazines on portable playback machines designed specifically for use with such a delivery system, several major technological and economic impediments related to the provision of broadband Internet access to patrons of the program are expected to continue for some time. Therefore, NLS has decided that reliance upon such a delivery system must be postponed until technological advances make it economically feasible for most patrons in the program.
NLS has performed extensive research and determined that the first digital audio book distribution system will be based upon a high-density, solid-state, Flash Memory medium, using a "one-book, one-object" circulation protocol (i.e., as is currently used), with books being delivered to readers and returned from readers via the USPS. The transition to this new distribution system, which is the subject of this report, is planned to begin in 2008 and will require approximately four or five years to complete.
In addition, the entire collection of digital audio books will be available for download by patrons and libraries, probably in 2007, and certainly by the time digital audio book distribution from libraries is begun. This will allow “early adopter” readers who strongly wish access to a book to obtain it directly from the download site, or Digital Asset Management System (DAMS). Libraries will also be able to download books for which they are not provided copies, e.g., probably most of the 20,000 “retrospective” (those already produced on cassette) book titles planned to be available by 2008, and make copies if necessary.
The Digital Talking Book (DTB), Digital Talking Book Machine (DTBM), and DTB container for the future system are currently being designed, and the prequalifications of potential mass-producers are being evaluated. All new audio book titles are being produced in digital format, as have all titles beginning in FY 2004 (with some produced as early as FY 2002), and an additional 10,000 titles in cassette format are being converted to digital format via analog-to-digital conversion; as noted, a total of 20,000 titles are planned to be available in digital format by FY 2008. The specifics of the encryption schema required to provide copyright protection for program materials are being developed. A pilot test for Internet-delivery of digital audio magazines has been completed, and a similar pilot test for digital audio books is currently ongoing.
In September, 2005, the ManTech project team completed Phase 1 of the DTB Distribution study, which was an analysis in which three alternative digital book distribution systems were formulated and evaluated, taking into account both NLS and network library-incurred costs, and both economic and non-economic considerations. It was first concluded that the system in which NLS would provide all audio book distribution from contracted Duplication-on-Demand (DOD) Centers is not economically feasible. It was then determined that a "Hybrid" distribution system - in which audio books with the greatest anticipated demand would be mass-duplicated, allocated to libraries, and loaned to patrons as is currently done, and in which books with relatively low anticipated demand would instead be provided by DOD Centers – would be more economically efficient from the perspective of both NLS and network libraries than would a system in which all DTB titles are mass-duplicated. In terms of non-economic considerations, a comparison of the two systems resulted effectively in a “draw.”
However, while mass production of Flash Drives is a mature technology, mass-duplication of Flash Drive DTBs is currently only in a formative stage, while duplication-on-demand of Flash Drive DTBs is non-existent. DOD on a mass-scale will be an inherently more complex process than mass-duplication, requiring greater capital investment, set-up time, and extent of automation of operations. Also, libraries will have to make certain minimum enhancements to their information systems in order to function properly in the future system, especially with regard to working with DOD Centers. For all three reasons, ManTech recommended that DTB distribution begin with the All Mass-Duplication system, probably for the first two or three years of the transition period, but then evolve into a Hybrid system thereafter.
The Distribution System Design final report was submitted to NLS on June 29, 2006, which conveyed the same recommendations as those of the Phase 1 final report, except that distribution of DTBs from DOD Centers was recommended after either three or four years of operation of an All Mass-Duplication system. The primary reason for recommending later implementation of DOD Centers is the extremely formative current state of Flash Memory cartridge mass-duplication technology, rather than complexities associated with information exchange between DOD Centers and network libraries.
Based upon analyses of the project team as described in the Transition Plan preliminary draft report submitted April 17, 2006, analyses performed by the project team after the submission of that report, and independent analyses of NLS staff, a “consensus” transition plan for implementation of the digital system was developed in late April, 2006. This plan was presented both to representatives of network libraries at the national conference in Portland, Maine on May 2, 2006 and to the Digital Long-Term Planning Group (DLTPG) in Washington, DC on May 24, 2006.
The Transition Plan draft report was submitted to NLS by ManTech on July 14, 2006, and on July 17, 2006 NLS submitted to Congress a multiyear transition plan for implementation of the future DTB distribution system. The plan submitted to Congress is currently the “baseline” transition plan for the time period FY 2007 – FY 2012.
The objectives of Phase 2 of this project are to finalize the design of the selected audio book distribution system (Task 2), prepare Statements of Work for operations that would be contractor-performed (Task 3), and develop a telic Transition Plan to effect implementation of the system (Task 4). The objective of this report is to present the final multiyear transition plan for the implementation of the digital book distribution system. The report describes the major implementation steps necessary to successfully effect the transition from the current cassette-based system to the future digital system, and presents the logical sequence and approximate duration of these steps.
Several points regarding the scope of this report, major assumptions made, and limitations encountered are listed below.
- The designs of the DTBM, DTB, and DTB container are ongoing and not yet completed. Consequently, certain aspects of the future audio book distribution system and the timing of its implementation will potentially change when those designs are final.
- NLS directed that any formulated transition plan be economically feasible with regard to the funding available to NLS. Available funding accordingly was the binding constraint in development of the subject plan.
- Recorded magazine production and distribution operations are not addressed, rather only the distribution of recorded books. However, the plan as formulated takes into account both the workload placed upon CBMs by the reading of RC periodicals, and the requirement that patrons who read periodicals will continue to need a CBM.
- The production and repair of playback machines are necessarily addressed, for both CBMs and DTBMs, since such activities effectively act as constraints for the rate at which the implementation of the digital book distribution system can occur given both limited fiscal resources and the necessity of patrons having playback machines to read audio books.
- USPS costs were not considered in the analyses performed for formulation of the transition plan, and our assessment is that they will be little changed by implementation of the recommended changes.
- In development of the transition plan, it was assumed that future production of new audio book titles by NLS and demand for audio book copies system-wide will be about the same as that for the current system.
- Any specific assumptions used are stated where applicable.