A Sample Record in Various Formats
A note on the sample records shown here.
Here are examples of the same bibliographic record in various formats.
MARC 21 communications format: The block of data below is what the programmer sees when he looks at the contents of a MARC file. The tags do not appear before the fields, but a directory to the data tells which tags should be used and where each field starts (in other words, where each tag belongs).
Cracking the code, or, Interpreting the directory: Usually, only the computer programmer and the computer come into contact with the record in MARC 21 communications format, but it is interesting to understand how the directory works.
The first 24 positions are the leader. In this example the leader fills approximately 1/3 of the first line and ends with "4500." Immediately following the leader, the directory begins. Tags have been underlined in this example. Each individual tag directory is 12 characters long. The first tag is 001. Following each tag, the next four positions show the length of the field. The data in the 001 field (control number) in this record is 20 characters long. The next 5 positions tell the starting point for this field within the data string that follows the directory. The 001 field begins at the 00000 position (the first position is position 0). The next tag is 003, which is 4 characters long and begins at the 20th position (the length of the previous position -- 20 -- added to its starting spot -- 00000 -- equals 20). The next tag is 005. It is 17 characters long and begins at the 24th spot (4 + 20 = 24).
This directory tells us:
Field terminators (displayed as a ^ in this example) mark the end of the directory and the end of each field that follows. Notice that the sum of the 2nd and 3rd column in any row equals the number in the 3rd column in the next row. The starting point of one field plus its length equals the starting position of the next field.
This can be verified by counting the character positions within the data, remember that spaces count, as do the field terminators (^). (Two character positions are always reserved for indicators at the beginning of a field.) A record terminator (displayed as a \ in this example) ends each bibliographic record.
Tagged display: Most data editing screens are called "tagged displays" because they show the MARC 21 tags, inserted where they belong, as directed by the directory. A computer program has been written to do this tagging.
The example below, a sample data entry screen, is tagged.
Leader 01041cam 2200265 a 4500 Control No. 001 ###89048230 Control No. ID 003 DLC DTLT 005 19911106082810.9 Fixed Data 008 891101s1990 maua j 001 0 eng LCCN 010 ## $a ###89048230 ISBN 020 ## $a 0316107514 : $c $12.95 ISBN 020 ## $a 0316107506 (pbk.) : $c $5.95 ($6.95 Can.) Cat. Source 040 ## $a DLC $c DLC $d DLC LC Call No. 050 00 $a GV943.25 $b .B74 1990 Dewey No. 082 00 $a 796.334/2 $2 20 ME:Pers Name 100 1# $a Brenner, Richard J., $d 1941- Title 245 10 $a Make the team. $p Soccer : $b a heads up guide to super soccer! / $c Richard J. Brenner. Variant Title 246 30 $a Heads up guide to super soccer Edition 250 ## $a 1st ed. Publication 260 ## $a Boston : $b Little, Brown, $c c1990. Phys Desc 300 ## $a 127 p. : $b ill. ; $c 19 cm. Note: General 500 ## $a "A Sports illustrated for kids book." Note: Summary 520 ## $a Instructions for improving soccer skills. Discusses dribbling, heading, playmaking, defense, conditioning, mental attitude, how to handle problems with coaches, parents, and other players, and the history of soccer. Subj: Topical 650 #0 $a Soccer $v Juvenile literature. Subj: Topical 650 #1 $a Soccer.
Formatted displays: The type of screens OPAC patrons use are formatted, since MARC tags would be meaningless to the general public. Within each particular OPAC program is a routine that formats each record in the way the designers thought would best serve the public using the online catalog. A similar transformation takes place if catalog cards are printed from a MARC record, as illustrated in the 3rd example.
Sample of a brief record display as seen by a patron:
Sample of a full record display as seen by a patron:
Sample of a catalog card:
AV Records: From Cards to MARC 21
Book vs. non-book: Audiovisual materials are cataloged following many of the same rules as for books (from AACR2) and tagged using many of the same MARC 21 content designators (from the MARC 21 Format for Bibliographic Data). The differences from book tagging could be summarized as follows:
Remember: For complete details about the 007, 008, and any special tags
used with audiovisual materials, see the MARC 21 Format for Bibliographic
Examples: On the following pages are examples of cataloging for three types of non-book items. These pages show how the data on catalog cards would appear, then how the same record would be tagged with MARC 21 content designators.
Additional examples may be seen in several of the resources cited in the bibliography .
Typical videorecording in card format:
The same record with MARC 21 content designators:
Leader *****ngm 22*****1a 4500 001 89711816 003 DLC 005 19891107152635.3 007 vf cbaho 008 890719s1988 cau010 c v1eng c 010 ## $a 8911816 020 ## $c For sale ($195.00) or rent ($50.00) 040 ## $a AIMS Media 050 10 $a TH9148 082 10 $a 613.6 $2 11 245 04 $a The Adventures of Safety Frog. $p Fire safety $h [videorecording] / $c Century 21 Video, Inc. 246 30 $a Fire safety $h [videorecording] 260 ## $a Van Nuys, Calif. : $b AIMS Media, $c 1988. 300 ## $a 1 videocassette (10 min.) : $b sd., col. ; $c 1/2 in. 500 ## $a Cataloged from contributor's data. 538 ## $a VHS. 521 ## $a Elementary grades. 530 ## $a Issued also as motion picture. 520 ## $a Safety Frog teaches children to be fire safe, explaining that smart kids never play with matches. She shows how smoke detectors work and explains why they are necessary. She also describes how to avoid house hold accidents that lead to fires and how to stop, drop, and roll if clothing catches fire. 650 #0 $a Fire prevention $v Juvenile films. 650 #0 $a Fire detectors $v Juvenile films. 650 #0 $a Dwellings $x Fires and fire prevention $v Juvenile films. 650 #0 $a Puppet films. 650 #1 $a Fire prevention. 650 #1 $a Safety. 710 2# $a Century 21 Video, Inc. 710 2# $a AIMS Media.
Typical electronic resource record in card format:
The same record with MARC 21 content designators:
Leader *****cmm 22***** a 4500 001 93022553 003 DLC 005 19930731163011.2 008 930305s1993 mnun d b eng 010 ## $a 93022553 020 ## $a 0792902637 : c $59.00 037 ## $a A-336 b MEC 040 ## $a DLC c DLC d DLC 050 00 $a QA95 082 00 $a 513 2 12 245 00 $a Amazing arithmetricks $h [electronic resource]. 250 ## $a Version 1.0. 256 ## $a Computer programs. 260 ## $a Minneapolis, Minn. : $b MECC, $c c1993. 300 ## $a 2 computer disks ; $c 3 1/2-5 1/4 in. + $e 1 manual (71 p.) 538 ## $a System requirements: Apple II series; 128K RAM; floppy disk drive; color monitor recommended. 500 ## $a Title from title screen. 500 ## $a Ed. statement from disk label. 500 ## $a Copy-protected. 500 ## $a Same software on both disks. 521 2# $a 5-12. 520 ## $a Using the motivating environment of a carnival setting, students are challenged to solve a variety of puzzles. Intended to improve logic and mathematical problem solving skills. Includes a provision allowing students to choose a level of difficulty matched to ability. 650 #0 $a Mathematical recreations $v Juvenile software. 650 #0 $a Problem solving $v Juvenile software. 650 #1 $a Mathematical recreations $v Software. 650 #1 $a Problem solving $v Software. 710 20 $a Minnesota Educational Computing Corporation.
Typical sound recording in card format:
The same record with MARC 21 content designators:
Leader *****cim 22***** a 4500 001 93712603 003 DLC 005 19930528154400.4 007 ssulunjlcnnnu 008 930524s1991 mdunnn j d f eng 010 ## $a 93712603 040 ## $a DLC c DLC d DLC 050 00 $a RZA 2283 100 1# $a Fox, Ruth. 245 12 $a A story for every season $h [sound recording] / $c [stories by Ruth Fox]. 260 ## $a Baltimore, Md. : $b Uffigton Productions, $c  300 ## $a 1 sound cassette (ca. 45 min.) : $b analog. 306 ## $a 004500 511 0# $a Narrated by Trish MacDonald. 518 ## $a Recorded at Invisible Sound Studios. 500 ## $a In container (18 cm.). 520 ## $a Presents four children's stories about an oak sapling who finds a place to grow; a seashell who is given a home; a beaver who attempts to prolong fall; and a mountain boy who befriends a doe. Includes sound effects and music. 505 0# $a Spring. Oakie, the wonder tree -- Summer. The seashell -- Fall. The story of a rambunctious beaver named Willie -- Winter. Amos, the mountain boy. 650 #0 $a Children's stories $v Juvenile sound recordings. 650 #0 $a Trees $v Fiction $v Juvenile sound recordings. 650 #0 $a Shells $v Fiction $v Juvenile sound recordings. 650 #0 $a Beavers $v Fiction $v Juvenile sound recordings. 650 #0 $a Deer $v Fiction $v Juvenile sound recordings. 700 10 $a MacDonald, Trish. $4 nrt
Anglo-American Cataloguing Rules. 2nd ed., 2002 revision. Chicago: American Library Association, 2002.
Crawford, Walt. MARC for Library Use. 2nd ed. Boston: G.K. Hall & Co., 1989.
Dewey, Melvil. Abridged Dewey Decimal Classification and Relative Index. 13th ed. Albany, N.Y.: Forest Press, 1997.
Dewey, Melvil. Dewey Decimal Classification and Relative Index. 22nd. 4 vols. Albany, N.Y.: Forest Press, 2003.
Intner, Sheila S., and Weihs, Jean. Standard Cataloging for School and Public Libraries. 3rd. ed. Englewood, Colo.: Libraries Unlimited, 2001.
Olson, Nancy B. Cataloging of Audiovisual Materials and Other Special Materials. 4th ed. DeKalb, Ill. : Minnesota Scholarly Press, 1998.
Olson, Nancy B. A Cataloger's Guide to MARC Coding and Tagging for Audiovisual Materials. DeKalb, Ill. : Minnesota Scholarly Press, 1993.
Sears, Minnie Earl. Sears List of Subject Headings. 17th ed. New York: Wilson, 2000.
Taylor, Arlene G.Wynar's Introduction to Cataloging and Classification. 9th ed. Englewood, Colo.: Libraries Unlimited, 2000.
Library of Congress
260 ## $a New York :$b Harper & Row,$c 1988.
|A. field/s (3)||D. subfield code/s (3)|
|B. indicator/s (4)||E. tag/s (3)|
|C. subfield/s (2)|
1. The sample line represents one ___________.
2. The number 260 is its ____________.
3. There are two blanks in the ____________ positions.
4., 5. What we see on the sample line is a ____________ that is made up of three ____________.
6. The characters $a, $b, and $c are three examples of ____________.
7., 8. In this field, neither the first nor the second ____________ has an assigned meaning. In other words, the ____________ in this field are undefined.
9., 10., 11. In MARC 21 records, there are 3 types of content designators: ____________, _____________, and _____________.
12., 13. The 260 ____________ identifies this as the Publication, distribution, etc. ____________.
14. This field is divided into three ____________: Place, Publisher, and Date.
15. In this field, $b is the ____________ that marks Publisher information.
16., 17. Authority control assures (circle 2):
Part II:Access points. Access points include the main entry, subject added entries (often called subject headings), and other added entries.
For the book The abolitionists written by Dan Lacy and illustrated by Dick Tracy, draw lines to connect the right answers:
|18. Lacy, Dan||A. subject added entry|
|19. Tracy, Dick||B. main entry|
|20. Slavery--United States||C. other added entry|
Patterned tags: The tags for access points follow a pattern.
21. If a book is written about Hayes, Helen, the subject heading is numbered 6 _ _.
22. If a book is written about the Chrysler Corporation, the subject heading is numbered 6 _ _.
23. If a book is written about Brazil, the subject heading is numbered 6 _ _.
24. If a book is written about football, the subject heading is numbered 6 _ _.
One final question:
25. For the title, An album of great science fiction films,
the second indicator of the 245 tag should be set to _____.
| Answers to
MARC 21 Content Designators: A Review
1-A; 2-E; 3-B; 4-A; 5-C; 6-D; 7-B; 8-B; 9, 10, and 11 -- B, D, and E; 12-E; 13-A; 14-C; 15-D; 16 and 17 -- A and C; 18-B; 19-C; 20-A; 21-600; 22-610; 23-651; 24-650; 25-3