DATE: Jan. 21, 1997

NAME: Metadata, Dublin Core and USMARC: a review of current efforts

SOURCE: Library of Congress

SUMMARY: This paper summarizes discussions about developing standards for a simple resource description record for Internet resources (metadata). A series of workshops have convened that have made progress on developing common models for description of Internet resources to support resource discovery and retrieval. The paper reviews the results of each of these workshops, including the Dublin Metadata Workshop held in Dublin, Ohio in March 1995, the Warwick Metadata Workshop held in Coventry, UK in April 1996, and the Image Metadata Workshop held in Dublin, Ohio in September 1996. Some projects experimenting with Dublin Core style metadata are discussed. In addition, the paper presents the revised list of data elements (the "Dublin Core") and gives a mapping to USMARC fields (revised from Discussion Paper No. 86).

KEYWORDS: Metadata; Dublin Core

RELATED: 96-2 (Jan. 1996); DP86 (June 1995)


1/21/97 - Forwarded to USMARC Advisory Group for discussion at the 1997 Midwinter MARBI meetings.

2/16/97 - Results of USMARC Advisory Group discussion - Stu Weibel from OCLC updated the group on milestones since the Image Metadata Workshop in September. These include: changes to the Dublin Core and general consensus that it was stable; a statement of consensus about the element set and embedding it in HTML in a recently released Internet Request for Comments (RFC); the upcoming fourth metadata workshop in Canberra, Australia; agreement on changing the PICS (Platform for Internet Content Selection) standard to enable the use of metadata packages. Specific comments about the mapping of Dublin Core to USMARC detailed in the discussion paper should be sent to LC.

DISCUSSION PAPER NO. 99: Metadata, Dublin Core and USMARC


        The term "metadata" has been increasingly used in various
communities interested in information on the Internet to mean data
about information resources being made available.  Bibliographic
records, which have been created for many years in the library
world, are essentially metadata; they provide descriptive and other
information about an information object.  With the rapid
development of the World Wide Web and the increasing numbers of
Internet resources available, metadata for these resources are
necessary for effective resource discovery and retrieval.

        The USMARC Advisory Group considered Discussion Paper No. 86 
(Mapping the Dublin Core Metadata Elements to USMARC) in June 1995. 
The paper reviewed the developments concerning metadata at the
OCLC/NCSA Metadata Workshop in March 1995 and presented a mapping
of the elements to MARC fields.  In addition, it considered
problems in the mapping and options for their resolution.  The
Library of Congress agreed to keeping the group current on future
activities on this subject.  A proposal was initiated and approved
based on this effort (Proposal No. 96-2: Define a Generic Author
Field in the Bibliographic, Classification, and Community
Information Formats).

        Since the initial workshop in 1995, two additional ones were
convened.  At the same time, other metadata standards for more
specific applications of metadata have been developed and used
(e.g. geospatial).  As a result of many discussions (especially
conducted by electronic mail after the workshops), the list of
Dublin Core data elements has been slightly revised.  In addition
some participants of the second workshop at the University of
Warwick, UK in April 1995 have issued papers dealing among other
things with syntax and implementation.  Some experiments have been
initiated to use metadata, particularly in Web documents.


        The OCLC/NCSA Metadata Workshop, held in Dublin Ohio on March
1-3, 1995, was organized by OCLC and the National Center for
Supercomputer Applications (NCSA) to address the problem of
providing metadata for network-accessible materials.  The original
intent was to recognize various "stakeholder" communities with an
interest in the search and retrieval of Internet resources, to
understand the uses descriptive metadata would serve for these
communities, and to achieve if possible some consensus on a limited
data element set for identifying these resources.  Workshop
participants included librarians and archivists, researchers,
computer and information scientists, software developers,
publishers, and members of Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF)
working groups.  Within these constituencies there was tremendous
diversity of approach.  Some participants were concerned with
electronic data resources in general while others focused on
particular types of materials, such as humanities texts or
geospatial metadata.   Some were interested in the network services
and protocols that would make use of the metadata, while others
took the point of view of the author, publisher or end-user.  
        The one thing that united all participants was a belief that
nearly any standard metadata would be better than none, since there
had been little agreement and no standardization at the time. 
Nonetheless, early in the course of the workshop it became evident
that no single data element set whether limited or unlimited would
satisfy the widely divergent and highly specific needs of the
various stakeholders.    The emphasis therefore shifted to
something that was perceived as both useful and doable: the
definition of a simple data element set that could be used by
information providers to describe their own resources.  The goal
was to draft a single sheet of instructions that an author or
publisher mounting a document on a network server would be able to
follow without excessive effort or additional knowledge.

        Such a data element set, if it could become an official or de
facto standard, would have several uses.  It would encourage
authors and publishers to provide metadata simultaneously with
their data.  It would allow the developers of authoring tools for
network publishing to include templates for this information
directly in their software, making it even easier for the
information providers to supply it.  The metadata created by the
information providers would serve as a basis for more detailed
cataloging or description when warranted by specific communities. 
 In addition, it would ensure a common core set of elements that
could be understood across communities, even if more specific
information was required within a particular interest group. 
Because of the inadequacy of current search engines to provide
relevant search results given the huge number of Internet resources
being searched, fielded searching could be provided to allow for
more precision if metadata were available for them.

        Because it was agreed that a fairly short list of data
elements would be most useful and simple for naive users to use,
the concept of extensibility was established.  The metadata element
set concentrated on describing intrinsic properties of the
resource.  Extrinsic data, such as cost, access limitations, etc.
was considered outside the scope of the core set.  The
extensibility mechanism would allow for the base set to be extended
for a variety of purposes.  (Implementation considerations were
considered in the second metadata workshop.)  The extensibility
mechanism means that a particular user community may establish a
list of additional elements that may be incorporated for
specialized purposes.  A scheme sub-element is defined for some of
the elements in the core set and may also be used for the
extensible sets.  This allows for the specification of established
schemes or sets of rules that govern the syntax or semantics of an

        The simple resource description record that emerged from this
first metadata workshop has come to be known as the "Dublin Core". 
It is a core set in the sense that it is a small number of
elements, judged to have general applicability, that will be
universally understood if the standard is followed.   It is not a
core data element set in the sense of being a minimum number of
required elements.  


        Because the implementation of a simple resource description
record requires a formal syntax and deployment strategy, the second
metadata workshop was convened.  It was organized by the UK Office
for Library and Information Networking (UKOLN) and OCLC's Office of
Research.  The agenda included the identification and resolution of
impediments to the deployment of a Dublin Core resource description
record.  The participants at the meeting recognized the need for a
wider set of metadata types and a framework for extensibility for
interchange of different types of metadata.  There was consensus in
many areas, and broader plans for implementation were considered. 
Specific areas of consensus that resulted in separate documents
subsequent to the workshop included:

         Syntax:  a concrete syntax for the Dublin Core was
        established, expressed as a Document Type Definition (DTD) in
        Standard Generalized Markup Language (SGML); this syntax was
        mapped to existing HyperText Markup Language (HTML) tags for
        embedding metadata in Web documents.

         Warwick Framework: a container architecture for bringing
        together different packages of metadata, which are separately
        accessable and maintainable.  This allows for extensibility
        for other types of metadata not part of the Dublin Core
        element set (e.g., terms and conditions, administrative data). 
         User's Guide:  a guide to authors for preparing resource
        descriptions and for administrators of collections.  This
        would include both a simple high-level guide and another one
        for more complex resource descriptions.

        Several proposals dealing with syntax have been presented
subsequent to the workshop, including MIME and SGML-based
implementations.  In addition, participants at the World Wide Web
Consortium Workshop on Distributed Indexing and Searching reached
consensus on embedding metadata in HTML.  This provides an impetus
for implementation to begin. 

        Since no single element set will satisfy all metadata
requirements for different communities with different levels of
complexity, the Warwick Framework was embraced as an important step
forward and a necessity for accommodating a number of metadata
models.  Participants at the workshop agreed that some applications
would need a fuller resource description record than the Dublin
Core set of elements provides, and that other types of metadata
outside that core are also needed (such as administrative, terms
and conditions, etc.)  The Warwick Framework provides an
architecture that could satisfy the need for complementary or
overlapping metadata models and allows for the interchange of
different metadata packages.  

        In the Warwick Framework, a package is an object with a
specific type of metadata for a particular purpose. The metadata
packages may be embedded in the object described or may exist
separately with a URI (i.e., a URL or Uniform Resource Name (URN))
reference.  These packages are brought together in a conceptual
container through linkages.  A Dublin Core type record might be one
package, a MARC record another. Other packages might include (this
list is not exhaustive): terms and conditions, domain-specific
metadata (e.g. geospatial), rights, administrative data. 
Participants agreed that a registry of metadata package types was

        There are several issues that require examination before
finalizing the framework.  These include the overlapping of data
elements in multiple metadata sets; how a type registry will work
and how the system would deal with new metadata types; what the
syntax for transferring sets of packages will be; what sort of
structure will be used for encoding the data in each package; how
efficient this distributed architecture will be on the Internet;
and how retrieval of metadata will work.

        A draft user guide was prepared by a subgroup after the
workshop and distributed, but its future is uncertain because of
the many new issues that were presented.  However, there is general
consensus that a user guide will be necessary, probably in two
forms. One would be a simple user guide addressing the basic Dublin
Core elements that would be readily understood by the casual
Internet user putting up documents.  Another would be a more
complex one incorporating qualifiers and flags for richer, more
complex resource descriptions.


        Another workshop was held in Dublin, Ohio in September 1996 to
explore the usefulness of extending the Dublin Core element set to
the area of digital images.  During the first workshop, the scope
was limited to "document-like objects (DLO)" in order to make
progress.  Although this term was never fully defined, many
considered a document-like object to be essentially text.  This
third metadata workshop focused on the description of visual
resources such as photographs, slides, and image files.  It was
decided that databases or applications having visual outputs of a
dynamic nature need to be considered separately.

        The consensus of the workshop was as follows: "The Dublin
Core, within the context of the Warwick Framework, affords a
foundation for the development of a simple resource description
model to support network-based discovery of images (items or
collections of items, online or offline)."  One refinement to the
Dublin Core that the group supported was the addition of a rights
element, to be used either with simple rights information about the
object or as a link to a separate rights metadata package if the
information were more complex.  In addition, it endorsed the
inclusion of the Coverage element (about which there had been some
controversy over whether it was too domain specific), which is very
important for images.  It is important to note that only within the
context of the Warwick Framework is the Dublin Core considered
adequate, since richer, domain-specific description will always be
necessary for specialized applications.


        There are several projects that are experimenting with using
the Dublin Core.  Many of these involve interoperability between
different databases including MARC records, digital objects, and
other forms of metadata.  The following are a few of these (mainly
those that include experimentation with MARC records); some
descriptions are from the Dublin Core home page.

SOLINET's Monticello Electronic Library.  The basic function of
Monticello Electronic Library is to link distributed regional
resources regardless of source or type of information.  The Dublin
Core Element Set is being used to provide semantic interoperability
between several databases of electronic media and record types
including SGML EAD Finding Aid, MARC and GILS collections.

The National Library of Australia and the National Library of New
Zealand's National Document and Information Service (NDIS) Project. 
National Document and Information Service (NDIS) Project (National
Library of Australia) will provide access to 70 databases covering
law, journals, library resources, community resources, and
research.  The Dublin Core will be used to normalize a wide variety
of data under a single structure.

Resource Discovery Project, Distributed Systems Technology Centre
(Australia).  This project is investigating issues with locating
and retrieving information in large networked environments (e.g.
the Digital Library).  Technical problems under consideration are
resource access, resource services, and resource description.  The
project has a prototype system that maps MARC records to the Dublin
Core, which then merges them with Web resources also mapped to the
Dublin Core.

The Nordic Metadata Project.  Among Nordic countries there is a
special need for a shared metadata creation system, as it will
facilitate further the already active use of ILL and document
delivery services within Scandinavia. The Dublin Core is being used
to provide and enhance end-user services by making a diversity of
digital documents more easily searchable and deliverable over the

The Nordic Metadata Project is creating conversion programs between
NORMARC (similar to USMARC) and Dublin Core data elements.

Library of Congress Ameritech Digital Library Competition.  Another
project experimenting with Dublin Core metadata elements is the
Library of Congress' National Digital Library Program.  With a
grant from Ameritect, LC is sponsoring a competition to enable
libraries, museums, historical societies, and archival institutions
to create digital collections of primary resource material, which
will augment the collections already digitized through this
program.  Collections that are digitized as part of this program
must be supported by access aids, usually through catalog records,
finding aids, or the provision of searchable reproductions of
textual materials.  One type of access aid is a bibliographic
record in MARC format.  Participants can choose to create less than
full-level records in MARC format with fields as specified in the
Ameritech guidelines.  Alternatively, bibliographic records
following the Dublin Core approach may be used.  These would use
SGML tagging if a Document Type Definition emerges from the
Dublin/Warwick metadata participants by the time the awards for the
Ameritech competition are made.  In addition, institutions may
choose to incorporate bibliographic information in the headers
either using the Text Encoding Initiative guidelines (in SGML) or
using Dublin Core descriptive elements embedded in the document
header using HTML as agreed upon at the W3C Workshop on Distributed
Indexing and Searching (mentioned above).  The Library of Congress
will work out details with awardees choosing to take the Dublin
Core approach.

Z39.50 and Dublin Core.  The Z39.50 Profile for Simple Distributed
Search and Ranked Retrieval (ZDSR) will employ the Dublin Core
elements.  ZDSR originally was based on the Stanford Protocol for
Internet Search and Retrieval (STARTS), an initiative of the
Stanford Digital Library Project, which developed requirements for
distributed searching and ranked retrieval during the Spring and
Summer of 1996.

The profile assumes that queries pertain to text documents and that
retrieval records consist of document metadata.  Thus, a client
searches for documents, and retrieves document descriptors.  Those
descriptors are compatible with those in the Dublin Core element


        A mapping between the elements in the Dublin Core and USMARC
fields is necessary so that conversions between various syntaxes
can occur accurately.  Once Dublin Core style metadata is widely
provided, it might interact with MARC records in various ways such
as the following:  

Enhancement of simple resource description record.  A cataloging
agency may wish to extract the metadata provided in Dublin Core
style (presumably in HTML or SGML) and convert the data elements to
MARC fields, resulting in a skeletal record.  That record might
then be enhanced as needed to add additional information generally
provided in the particular catalog.  

Searching across syntaxes and databases.  Libraries have large
systems with valuable information in MARC bibliographic records
(which may also be called metadata).  Over the past few years with
the expansion of electronic resource over the Internet, other
syntaxes have also been considered for providing metadata.  The
Library of Congress has worked with a group of SGML experts to
create a Document-Type Definition (DTD) for MARC, so that
conversions can be made between SGML and MARC in a standardized
way.  It will be important for systems to be able to search
metadata in different syntaxes and databases and have commonality
in the definition and use of elements.

        A mapping between the Dublin Core elements and MARC was
initially provided in Discussion Paper No. 86.  As a result, a
proposal was presented and approved to define a generic author
field (Proposal No. 96-2 (Define a Generic Author Field in the
Bibliographic, Classification, and Community Information Formats))
which allowed for more consistency between the Dublin Core Author
element, which did not distinguish type of name and a MARC field. 

        A revised mapping (also called crosswalk) between Dublin Core
elements and MARC fields is given below.  This should replace the
previous mapping in Discussion Paper No. 86.  The list of Dublin
Core elements is current as of December 1996.  There seems to be
broad consensus on this list, and it is expected that the elements
and their names are not expected to change substantively.  

        In some cases, there are two mappings provided. The first is
a simple mapping and is used if the Dublin Core elements are used
without qualifiers.  The second is for a more complex description
for which the elements have qualifiers.  There could be a mixture,
but if the particular element is unqualified, then the simple
mapping for that element should be used.  Certain defaults have
been assumed as to definitions and qualifiers; if this changes the
list will need to be adjusted.  This list has been made consistent
with the GILS/MARC mapping where possible. Where applicable,
subfields are given.

        Earlier metadata workshops supported the notion of defining
qualifiers for elements when more complex descriptions are needed,
but the list of qualifiers is not entirely agreed upon.  When the
list of qualifiers becomes standardized it will be necessary to
modify this document and add to it as appropriate.  Only the most
obvious qualifiers have been included now.

        USMARC fields are listed with field number, then in
parentheses field name/subfield name (if both are the same, no
subfield name is included).  If the value of the indicator is not
provided, use a blank (H'20').  The label is a shortened form of
the element name.

1 Title                                         Label: TITLE

The name given to the resource by the CREATOR or PUBLISHER.

         245$a (Title Statement/Title proper) (1st indicator=0)

2 Author or Creator                             Label: CREATOR          

The person(s) or organization(s) primarily responsible for the
intellectual content of the resource.  For example, authors in the
case of written documents, artists, photographers, or illustrators
in the case of visual resources.  Qualifier possible: type.

         100$a (Main Entry--Personal Name) (1st indicator=1)
         If type=corporate: 110$a (Main entry--Corporate Name)

3 Subject and Keywords                          Label: SUBJECT

The topic of the resource, or keywords or phrases that describe the
subject or content of the resource.  The intent of the
specification of this element is to promote the use of controlled
vocabularies and
keywords.  This element might well include scheme-qualified
classification data (for example, Library of Congress
Classification Numbers or Dewey Decimal numbers) or
scheme-qualified controlled vocabularies (such as MEdical Subject
Headings or Art and Architecture Thesaurus descriptors) as
well.  Qualifier possible: scheme.

         653$a (Index Term--Uncontrolled)
         If scheme=LCSH: 650$a (Subject added entry--topical term)
         If scheme=LCC: 050$a (Library of Congress Call
        Number/Classification number)
         If scheme=DDC: 082$a (Dewey Decimal Call
        Number/Classification number)

4 Description                                   Label: DESCRIPTION

A textual description of the content of the resource, including
abstracts in the case of document-like objects or content
descriptions in the case of visual resources.  Future metadata
collections might well include computational content description
(spectral analysis of a visual resource, for example) that may not
be embeddable in current network systems.  In such a case this
field might contain a link to such a description rather than the
description itself.

         520$a (Summary, etc. note)
5 Publisher                                     Label: PUBLISHER

     The entity responsible for making the resource available in
its present form, such as a publisher, a university department, or
a corporate entity.   The intent of specifying this field is to
identify the entity that provides access to the resource.

         260$b (Publication, Distribution, etc. (Imprint)/Name of
        publisher, distributor, etc.)
6 Other Contributors                                    Label: CONTRIBUTORS

     Person(s) or organization(s) in addition to those specified in
the CREATOR element who have made significant intellectual    
contributions to the resource but whose contribution is secondary
to the individuals or entities specifed in the CREATOR element (for
example, editors, transcribers, illustrators, and convenors). 
Qualifiers possible: role, type.
         720$a (Added Entry--Uncontrolled Name/Name) $e [content of
        role qualifier]
         If type=personal: 700$a (Added Entry--Personal Name) $e
        [content of role qualifier]
         If type=corporate: 710$a (Added Entry--Corporate Name) $e
        [content of role qualifier]

7 Date                                          Label: DATE

     The date the resource was made available in its present form. 
The recommended best practice is an 8 digit number in the form
YYYYMMDD as defined by ANSI X3.30-1985. In this scheme, the date
element for the day this is written would be 19961203, or December
3, 1996.  Many other schema are possible, but if used, they should
be identified in an unambiguous manner.  Qualifier possible:

         260$c (Date of publication, distribution, etc.)
         If type=modified: 005 (Date and time of latest transaction)

8 Resource Type                                 Label: TYPE

     The category of the resource, such as home page, novel, poem,
working paper, technical report, essay, dictionary.  It is expected
that RESOURCE TYPE will be chosen from an enumerated list of types.
A preliminary set of such types can be found at the following URL:

         516$a (Type of Computer File or Data Note)

9 Format                                Label: FORMAT
     The data representation of the resource, such as text/html,
ASCII, Postscript file,  executable application, or JPEG image. 
The intent of specifying this element is to provide information
necessary to allow people or machines to make decisions about the
usability of the encoded data (what hardware and software might be
required to display or execute it, for example).  As with RESOURCE
TYPE, FORMAT will be assigned from enumerated lists such as
registered Internet Media Types (MIME types).  In principal,
formats can include physical media such as books, serials, or other
non-electronic media. 

         538$a (System Details Note)

10 Resource Identifier                          Label: IDENTIFIER

     String or number used to uniquely identify the resource. 
Examples for networked resources include URLs and URNs (when
implemented). Other globally-unique identifiers,such as
International Standard Book Numbers (ISBN) or other formal names
would also be candidates for this element.  Qualifier possible:

         024$a (with 1st indicator=8) (Other Standard
        Identifier/Standard number or code)
         If scheme=URL: 856$u (Uniform Resource Locator) (1st
         If scheme=ISBN: 020$a (International Standard Book Number)
         If scheme=ISSN: 022$a (International Standard Serial Number)
         If scheme=URN: 856$u with initial "urn:" (1st indicator=7)

11 Source                               Label: SOURCE

     The work, either print or electronic, from which this resource
is derived, if applicable. For example, an html encoding of a
Shakespearean sonnet might identify the paper version of the
sonnet from which the electronic version was transcribed.

         786$t (Data Source Entry/Title) (1st indicator=0)

12 Language                                     Label: LANGUAGE

     Language of the intellectual content of the resource.  Where
practical, the content of this field should coincide with the
Z39.53 three character codes for written languages. Qualifier
possible: scheme.

         546$a (Language note)
         If scheme=Z39.53: 041$a (Language code)
         If scheme=USMARC: 041$a (Language code)     

A three-character language code standard is currently being
ballotted as: ISO 639-2 (not yet available electronically)

13 Relation                                     Label: RELATION 

     Relationship to other resources.  The intent of specifying
this element is to provide a means to express relationships among
resources that have formal relationships to others, but exist as
discrete resources themselves.  For example, images in a document, 
chapters in a book, or items in a collection.  A formal
specification of RELATION is currently under development.  Users
and developers should understand that use of this element should be
currently considered experimental.

         787$n (Nonspecific Relationship Entry/Note) (with 1st indicator=0)

14 Coverage                                     Label: COVERAGE

     The spatial locations and temporal durations characteristic of
the resource.    Formal specification of COVERAGE is currently
under development. Users and developers should understand that use
of this element should be currently considered experimental.
Possible qualifier: type.

         500$a (General note)
         If type=spatial: 255$c (Cartographic Mathematical
        Data/Statement of coordinates)
         If type=temporal: 513$b (Type of Report and Period Covered
        Note/Period covered)

15 Rights Management                    Label: RIGHTS
     The content of this element is intended to be a link (a URL or
other suitable URI as appropriate) to a copyright notice, a
rights-management statement, or perhaps a server that would provide
such information in a dynamic way.  The intent of specifying this
field is to allow providers a means to associate terms and
conditions or copyright statements with a resource or collection of
resources.   No assumptions should be made by users if such a field
is empty or not present.

USMARC: 506$a (Restrictions on Access Note/Terms governing access)


        A fourth metadata workshop to be held in Canberra, Australia
in March 1997 was recently announced.  This workshop will address
major open issues concerning deployment of the Dublin Core and
afford developers and planners an opportunity to share experiences
with others.  Agenda items will include: extensibility issues (how
to extend the core elements to accommodate a variety of users),
element structure (identification of default schemes and subelement
conventions), and element refinement (semantics and clearer

        It is hoped that Internet search engines will begin to
incorporate Dublin Core style metadata for resource search and
discovery.  Currently AltaVista and InfoSeek, two well know search
engines on the World Wide Web, are using the description and
keyword META tags, which may be embedded in the headers of HTML
documents.  However, the syntax is not entirely consistent with
those elements in the Dublin Core.   The meta tag, used to indicate
a data element name, in AltaVista is "keywords", while in Dublin
Core it is "subject" and the agreed upon HTML coding for Dublin
Core indicates the scheme used (DC means Dublin Core; e.g., META
NAME="DC.Subject").  It is likely that future development of Dublin
Core style metadata and implementation into existing search
software would greatly enhance search and retrieval of documents on
the Internet.  The challenge is to build strong consensus on this
potential new standard, to work out further details about
implementation, to convince implementors that it is solid and has
strong support, and to get information managers and providers to
supply metadata for their resources.


Workshop Reports.

OCLC/NCSA Metadata Workshop I.
_OCLC/NCSA Metadata Workshop Report_. Stuart Weibel, Jean Godby,
Eric Miller, and Ron Daniel (June, 1995). 

OCLC/UKOLN Metadata Workshop II.
_The Warwick Metadata Workshop: a framework for the deployment of
resource description_.  Lorcan Dempsey and Stuart Weibel, DLib
Magazine (July/August,1996)

_The Warwick Framework: a container Architecture for aggregating
sets of metadata_.  Carl Lagoze, Clifford Lynch, Ron Daniel (June
28, 1996).  

CNI/OCLC Workshop on Metadata for Networked Images.
Workshop Home Page and Workshop's Executive Summary.

Other Sources (This list is by no means exhaustive.)

_Australian Digital Library Initiatives_.  Renato Ianella (editor)
(December 1996).

_Review of Metadata Formats_.  Rachel Heery (October 1996). 

_The State of the Dublin Core_.  Stuart Weibel (January 1997). To
be issued in: _International Journal of Digital Libraries, Special
Issue on Metadata and Digital Libraries_.

Dublin Core Home Page. (http://purl.oclc.org/metadata/dublin_core)

Metadata Resources (Home Page).  (http://www.nlc-

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