NAME: Enhancements to field 007 (Map) for Remote-Sensing Images in the Bibliographic and Holdings Formats
SOURCE: Committee on Cataloging and Classification, Map and Geography Round Table
SUMMARY: This proposal suggests defining six new character positions for information related to the physical description of remote-sensing images in field 007 (Physical Description Fixed Field) for maps.
KEYWORDS: Field 007 (Bibliographic/Holdings); Remote-sensing images; Physical Description Fixed Field
5/24/1996 - Forwarded to USMARC Advisory Group for discussion at the July 1996 MARBI meetings.
7/7/96 - There was a distinct preference to make the data elements a new 007 rather than including them as an extension of the Map 007. Since they are essential to the Can/MARC alignment proposal, they will be a proposal at the next meeting. The map community said they wanted to refine the values for the recording technique.
DISCUSSION PAPER NO. 95: Enhancements to field 007 (Map) for Remote-Sensing Images 1. INTRODUCTION For many years it has been possible to encode certain physical characteristics of maps in the eight character positions defined in the maps field 007. When the cartographic item is a remote-sensing image (i.e., when field 007 character position 00 contains code a and 01 contains code r), the currently-defined positions are not adequate to encode all the physical characteristics that might be desired in coded form. The Committee on Cataloging and Classification, Map and Geography Round Table has identified several data elements that are important for the retrieval of remote-sensing images. The cartographic cataloging community would like to include these new data elements in machine-readable records and has determined that the data would be most useful if represented in coded form. They have asked MARBI to consider defining new character positions for them. This Discussion Paper describes seven (7) new bytes for the field 007 (Physical Description Fixed Field) for maps in the USMARC Bibliographic and Holdings formats to accommodate additional information related to remote-sensing images. The changes proposed will permit the encoding of information relating to altitude of sensor, attitude of sensor, cloud cover, platform construction type, platform use category, and recording technique. That information is currently coded by the National Archives of Canada in a 009 field and, as part of format harmonization, Canada would like to bring the coding into non-local fields in the format. Six of the elements in the CAN/MARC field 009 are accommodated below. 2. DISCUSSION The physical characteristics related to remote-sensing images that are not yet accommodated by the maps 007 are collectively referred to as "coverage" information. Representing this information in coded form is needed to allow systems to limit searching to known items that represent images with coverage meeting the desired characteristics. Most of these categories of information are fairly straightforward. The specific categories of information with proposed values and character positions are given below. 1) Position of the remote sensing devise. The position of the remote sensing devise involves two distinct aspects, altitude and attitude, thus, two new field 007 positions would be needed. 08 Altitude of sensor a Terrestrial (on Earth) b Aerial (from aircraft, balloon, etc.) c Space (from spacecraft) n Not applicable u Unknown z Other 09 Attitude of sensor a Low oblique (without horizon) b High oblique (shows horizon) c Vertical n Not applicable u Unknown z Other 2) Presence of clouds when the image was taken. Cloud cover can be handled by a single position with numeric codes representing percentage of cloud cover in increments of 10%. The division of cloud cover requested in this proposal differs somewhat from similar data elements in other formats where, for example, only 8 increments may be defined. The Map and Geography Round Table is asking for 10 increments for two reasons. First of all, they want to align the data element for remote-sensing images to geospatial metadata, which uses increments of 10%. They indicated that despite suggestions that land images with more than 10% cloud cover are unusable, images cover the full range of views of the Earth from a distance taken from various platforms. 10 Cloud cover 0 0-9% 1 10-19% 2 20-29% 3 30-39% 4 40-49% 5 50-59% 6 60-69% 7 70-79% 8 80-89% 9 90-100% n Not applicable u Unknown 3) Characteristics of the platform from which the image was taken. Physical description of the platform from which an image is taken involves two aspects, the platform construction type (i.e., whether the platform is a balloon, a spacecraft, etc.) and the platform use category (i.e., whether the platform is used for meteorological images, images of space, etc.) 11 Platform construction type a Balloon b Aircraft--low altitude (<29,500 ft.) c Aircraft--medium altitude (29,500-49,000 ft.) d Aircraft--high altitude (>49,000 ft.) e Manned spacecraft f Unmanned spacecraft n Not applicable u Unknown z Other 12 Platform use category a Meteorological b Earth resources c Space observing m Multi-tasking n Not applicable u Unknown z Other 4) The actual sensing technique used to make the image. Recording technique is more complex and needs two positions to allow for future expansion of values. The set of values given below are a preliminary set and analysis is underway in Canada for completion of the set. 13-14 Recording technique nn Not applicable uu Unknown vv Combination of various recording technique methods zz Other Light emission aa Video tape ab False color ac Multispectral photography ad Multispectral scanning au Light emission, unknown method av Combination of various light emission techniques az Other light emission technique Thermal infrared scanning da Infrared line scanning du Thermal infrared scanning, unknown method dv Combination of various thermal infrared techniques dz Other thermal infrared scanning technique Microwave emission ga Sidelooking airborne radar (SLAR) gb Synthetic apeture radar (SAR) gc Passive microwave mapping gu Microwave emission, unknown method gv Combination of various microwave emission techniques gz Other microwave emission technique For occurrences of map field 007 when 007/01 contains a code other than r, the newly-defined character positions 007/08-14 will contain code n (Not applicable). As remote-sensing images become more widely available and as the platforms from which the images are taken become more diverse, the need for providing an area to describe the physical aspects of the images grows. 3. QUESTIONS Since these newly-defined character positions will only apply to remote-sensing images, should the names of the new positions include "for remote-sensing images"? The addition to the names would make them a bit long, for example, position 13-14 would be called: Recording technique for remote-sensing image. Should all occurrences of 007 be required to be 15 characters long or should the approach used for motion pictures be used (that 007 is either 8 or 23 bytes long). If the former is selected should existing occurrences of the maps 007 be converted to add the missing bytes?