DATE: January 11, 1996
REVISED: February 9, 1996

NAME: CAN/MARC Changes for MARC Format Alignment

SOURCE: National Library of Canada, Library of Congress, British Library

SUMMARY: This paper presents the changes that the CAN/MARC users have suggested that be made to USMARC to facilitate the alignment of the Bibliographic and Authority format and indicates the status of the UKMARC alignment discussions.

RELATED: DP90 (June 1995)



1/16/96 - Forwarded to USMARC Advisory Group for introduction at the January 1996 MARBI meeting.

1/22/96 - Introduced at the USMARC Advisory Group meeting. Based on brief discussion and investigation the paper will be revised to divide the changes into two parts, those stimilated by the introduction of the Rules for Archival Description in Canada and "other". Participants are asked to respond with general impact statements on each of the four parts to the new version of the DP by April 15.

2/9/96 - Reissued based on information from Canada and to divide the Archival from the other changes.


  1. Introduction
  2. Suggested Changes to USMARC to Align with CAN/MARC
  3. Bibliographic Format
  4. Authority Format
  5. Bibliographic Format, Archival material
  6. Authority Format, Archival material
  7. Next Steps
  Appendix A:  Prime Meridians
  Appendix B:  New Bibliographic Format Fields
  Appendix C:  Examples for CAN/MARC Field 378
  Appendix D:  CAN/MARC's Local Fields in Bibliographic and
               Authority Formats
  Appendix E:  New Authority Format Character Positions and Fields


In November of 1994 a process to align the USMARC, CAN/MARC, and
UKMARC formats was initiated by representatives from the British
Library (BL), the Library of Congress (LC), and the National
Library of Canada (NLC).  Discussion Paper No.90, presented in June
1995, described that initiative, the motivations for seeking
alignment, and a listing of differences between CAN/MARC and USMARC
and description of differences between UKMARC and USMARC.

There were two major areas to be treated in the alignment process: 
the arrangements for control and maintenance of the joint format
and the actual changes to content designation that might be
proposed to effect alignment.  Since May 1995 consultations have
been held with constituencies in the US, Canada, and the UK.  The
USMARC Advisory Group had a discussion in June 1995 (DP90), the
Canadian Committee on MARC held discussions in June and October
1995, and the British Library held a consultation meeting in July
1995.  All three forums supported the alignment.  The Canadian
committee made a detailed analysis of the differences between
CAN/MARC and USMARC and recommended how differences could be dealt
with.  The British meeting supported the process and the BL is
preparing documentation on differences and critical elements of
UKMARC.  The US meeting supported the process and looked forward to
more detail to enable the USMARC users to analyze costs, as a first

At a meeting of LC, NLC and the BL in December 1995, the Canadian
suggestions became available and a slightly later time line
(approximately 1 year) for the UKMARC alignment, which is more
complex, was discussed.

In looking at alignment, account has been taken of the fact that
the USMARC constituency (and also the CAN/MARC users) went through
an in-depth review of the format in the format integration process. 
At that time a number of simplification proposals were considered,
along with changes required for integration.


The US has had a long history of cooperation with Canada on format
development.  In the last 5-10 years, format changes have been
virtually simultanious and almost identical.  CAN/MARC and USMARC
are already very close as the list of differences in DP 90
indicated.  The Canadian Committee on MARC has analyzed those
differences and recommended which changes their community could
make (a considerable number) and for which they suggested a change
to USMARC.  They have treated both the Bibliographic and the
Authority formats.  This detail allows the USMARC community to
analyze cost and impact of the proposed changes to USMARC.

One major event for CAN/MARC has come up recently.  The archival
community in Canada has been developing a standard set of
cataloging rules for archival material, called the Rules for
Archival Description.  In the summer and fall of 1995, the Canadian
Committee on MARC (CCM) considered enhancements to the CAN/MARC
format to better accommodate the descriptions formulated under
those rules.  A number of the following changes result from these
archival enhancements to CAN/MARC, although they are far fewer than
the possible changes the CCM originally discussed.  Several
changes, and particularly the new fields, duplicate data already in
USMARC and CAN/MARC.  This has been noted in the field
descriptions.  All of the possible additions stimulated by these
archival rules need to be carefully reviewed by the US communities
that deal with archival materials.  Canada would like to have
comments on those changes especially.  The Society for American
Archivists has been tracking the progress of the RAD rules and can
perhaps indicate the possibilities for their use in the US.

The following recommendations from Canada are divided into four
parts, the Bibliographic and Authority formats, general changes,
and the same formats, archival material changes.  Additions to
USMARC are enclosed in angle brackets <>.  In a few cases square
brackets [ ] indicate words or values to be deleted from USMARC.


LDR/17 - Encoding Level
     <3   Abbreviated record
          Code 3 indicates a record in which the content is
          reduced.  It would be used for pamphlets or ephemeral
          material and could include only a title and fields needed
          for record management, such as 001.>
     <6   CAN/MARC minimal level>
          Code 6 indicates a Canadian minimal level record which
          allows reduced content designation in the record, even in
          the tags.  For example, a tag may be "7xx". 
     Note: USMARC value 7 also means Minimal level.  CAN/MARC value
     6 is only used in Canada for communication of some records
     from Canadian libaraies to the National Library of Canada for
     their union list function.  The National Library of Canada
     does not distribute records with this value and nor is the
     originating institution expected to exchange them with other

007 - All / 02 - Original vs. Reproduction Aspect
     <#   No information given>
     Note:  USMARC advises not using this postion but supplying a
     fill character.  Canada does not have the position defined, so
     it contains a blank (#), therefore blank needs to be defined. 
     Reconsider making the definition obsolete? 

007 - Globe / 01 - Specific Material Designation
     <e   Lunar globe (earth moon)>
     Note:  In USMARC, globes of earth moons are NOT distinguished
     from other non-earth moon globes.  Both are currently coded
     b=Planetary or lunar globe.  
     <u   Unknown>
008 - All / 39 - Cataloging Source
     c    [Library of Congress] Cooperative cataloging {Redefine}
     <f   National Library of Canada>
     <r   Library reporting to Canadian National Union Catalogue>

008 - Books / 24-27 - Nature of Contents
     <m   Thesis>
     <z   Treaties>
     Note:  Neither are currently coded in USMARC.

008 - Books /  33 - Fiction 
     <#   Non-fiction>
     <c   Comic strip>
     <d   Drama>
     <e   Essays>
     <f   Fiction>
     <h   Humor, satire, etc.>
     <i   Letter>
     <j   Short stories>
     <m   Miscellaneous info.>
     <p   Poetry>
     <s   Speeches>
     [0   Not fiction] <OBSOLETE>  
     [1   Fiction] <OBSOLETE>

008 - Maps / 18-21 - Relief 
     <u   Unknown>

008 - Maps / 22-23 - Projection
     <az  Azimuthal, other type>
     <bz  Cylindrical, other type>
     <cz  Conic, other type>
     Note:  USMARC at preseat includes the following codes which
     appear to be similar to the ones from CAN/MARC:  au=Azimuthal,
     specific type unknown, bu=Cylindrical, specific type unknown,
     cu=Conic, specific type unknown, and zz=Other.  If the general
     and/or the specific types are known but there is not a code
     for the specific, the positions are probably being coded zz. 
     Statistics for the LC maps file:
     144,851   ## = Projection not specified
     1,356     zz = Other
     289       aa-af = specific type of azimuthal
     28        au = specific azimuthal unknown
     4,990     ba-bi = specific type of cylindrical
     39        bu = specific cylindrical unknown
     4,525     ca-cp = specific type of conic
     352       cu = specific conic unknown
     178       da-dh = other specific types       
008 - Maps / 24-25 - Prime Meridian
     CANMARC has 39 prime meridian values, using 2 character
     positions for them.  USMARC has only 7 values, in cp 24.  Six
     of the 7 USMARC merdians are also in the CAN/MARC list, with
     different codes.  USMARC uses cp 25 for Type of cartographic
     material (Single map, Map series, Map serial, Globe, Atlas). 
     Canada suggests that the USMARC values for positions 24 and 25
     be abandoned and the 39 prime meridian 2-character values in
     CAN/MARC be adopted.  See Appendix A for the current CAN/MARC
     and current USMARC values. 

008 - Music / 18-19 - Form of Composition
     <bd  Ballads>
     <rp  Rhapsodies>
     <sd  Square dance music>
     Note:  ballads and square dance music are currently coded
     fm=Folk music; rhapsodies are coded zz=Other.

008 - Serials / 24 - Nature of Entire Work
     <u   University calendars>
     Note:  University calendars are listings of courses offered
     and are simetimes called catalogs or bulletins in the US. 
     USMARC includes university catalogs under c=Catalogs.

008 - Visual Material / 24-27 - Accompanying Material
     <a   Language material, printed>
     <c   Music, printed>
     <d   Diorama>
     <e   Map, printed>
     <f   Filmstrip>
     <g   Game>
     <h   Microform>
     <i   Sound recording, non-musical>
     <j   Sound recording, musical>
     <k   Picture>
     l    <MRDF>  [Stills]  {Redefine}
     m    <Motion picture  [Script material]  {Redefine}
     <n   Chart>
     o    <Flash card>  [Posters]  {Redefine}
     p    <Microscope slide>  [Pressbooks]  {Redefine}
     q    <Model>  [Lobby cards]  {Rededine}
     r    <Realia> [Instructional materials]  {Redefine}
     s    <Slide> [Music]  {Redefine}
     <t   Transparency>
     <v   Videorecording>

     Note:  Accompanying material occupies character postions 23-27
     in USMARC, allowing specification of 5 types.  Canada suggests
     that postion 23 be abandoned, since it was defined for
     something different in CAN/MARC, and only 4 postions, 24-27,
     be used.  The old definition of CAN/MARC/008/VM/23 and of
     USMARC/008/VM/23 would become obsolete; and, with the mixing
     of records, it could no longer be interpreted.  Any values in
     USMARC position 23 that need to be preserved would need to be
     moved to positions 24-27. 
     The proposed values for positions 24-27 would change the
     orientation of this position.  In USMARC the position is
     specifically for material that might accompany motion
     pictures, especially archival, whereas the CAN/MARC values
     would eliminate designation of these materials and substitute
     designation of all types of accompanying material at
     approximately the SMD level.  The codes appear to be a mixture
     of parts of the values found in Leader/06 (Type of Record),
     007/00 (Category of material), and 007/01 (Specific material

<009 - Cartographic Material>
     Add an appendix to the format with this local Canadian field. 
     Most of the positions are covered in a combination of the
     USMARC 008 and 007, especially with the expansion of 007 that
     is currently being proposed for the maps field 007.  See
     Appendix D for outline of CAN/MARC 009.

<016 - National Library of Canada Record Control Number>
     New field.  See Appendix B for description.

028 Publisher Number for Music / Ind 2
     Ind 2 - Note[/added entry] controller  {Redefine}
     0    <Printed or displayed>  [No note, no added entry]
     1    <Not printed or displayed>  [Note, added entry]
     [2   Note, no added entry]
     [3   No note, added entry]
     Note:  Canada had no need for the added entry designation
     (which means indexed or not indexed) as they always index the

048 - Number of Musical Instruments or Vioces
     <pf  Celeste>
     [kl  Celeste]
     Note:  CAN/MARC changed the code from kl when they decided
     that the celeste was a percussive instrument (p_), not a
     keyboard instrument (k_).

082 - Dewey Decimal Call Number / Ind 2 
     Ind 2 - Source of call number
     <1   Assigned by NLC>

<087 - Document Shelving Number (CODOC)>
     New field.  See Appendix B for description.

<9XX - Equivalence, Cross-References and History Notes>
     Add appendix for local Canadian fields.  See Appendix D for
     list of CAN/MARC 9XX fields.


<008/08 - Bilingual Usage Code>
     Newly defined character position.  This information is very
     important for Canada.  The values are narrowly defined to
     accommodate only the English and French.  See Appendix E for

008/11 - Subject Heading System/Thesaurus
     <s   Sears List of Subject Headings>
     <t   Canadian Supplement to Sears List of Subject Headings>

008/17 - Type of Subject Subdivision
     <#   No information given>

008 - All / 39 - Cataloging Source
     c    [Library of Congress] Cooperative cataloging {Redefine}
     <f   National Library of Canada>
     Note: Corresponds to code #=Library of Congress.
     <v   Universite Laval>
     Note:  Center for French records.

<016 - National Library of Canada Record Control Number>
     New field.  See Appendix E for description.

<055 - Call Number  Assigned in Canada (Series)>
     New field.  See Appendix E for description.

$w / 0 - Special Relationship
     <o   Variant name>
          Used especially for corporate bodies for variant names
          that commonly appear on an organization's publications
          but do not represent a change of name for the

4XX - See From Tracings  (where applicable)
     <$2  Source
          Subfield $2 contains a code indicating the subject
          heading system of the heading in the field.>
     Note:  In USMARC, the 7XX were established to carry the valid
     forms of headings as found in other subject heading systems or
     thesauri.  They may be treated as 4XX by a processing
     insitution, or in some special manner.  
     Canada uses LCSH for the most part, but have developed
     alternative and expanded headings in some areas.  They code as
     LCSH for all 1XX headings from LCSH that they use and they
     code all headings that are different or that are an expansion
     of LCSH as Canadian Subject Headings (CSH).  For headings that
     are different they include the LCSH form of heading as a 4XX
     and want to be able to identify that it is the corresponding
     LCSH form.  An alternative would be to use the 7XX fields.

5XX - See Also From Tracings  (where applicable)
     <$3  Authority record control number>

7XX - Heading Linking Entries (where applicable)
     [$u  Record control number]
     <$3  Authority record control number>

<9XX - Equivalent Headings>
     Add appendix for local Canadian fields.  See Appendix D for
     list of CAN/MARC 9XX fields.
     Note:  USMARC defined the 7XX fields for valid forms of a
     heading in other thesauri.  Canada plans to continue to use
     the 9XX fields for the other heading in the special
     french/english cases and to use the 7XX for other appropriate

5.   BIBLIOGRAPHIC FORMAT, Archival Material

LDR/7 - Bibliographic Level
     In the definition of d=Subunit indicate that it includes a
     level of archival description below fonds.
     <f   Archival fonds>
     Note:  According to the RAD a fonds is the whole of the
     documents, regardless of form or meduim, automatically and
     organically created and/or accumulated and used by a
     particular individual, family of corporate body in the course
     of the creator's activities or functions.  A fonds is not
     equivalent to an accession.  A fonds may contain two or more
     accession units; similarly, an accession may contain more than
     one fonds.
     An archival fonds is essentially equivalent to a collection in
     USMARC and CAN/MARC, for which code c has already been

LDR/8 - Type of Control
     In the definition of a=Archival control add that it means <for
     example, fonds, series, files, item, etc.>
     <b   Archival accession>
     Note:  An archival record required by law in Canada.  The
     record describes a group of archival materials as they were
     received from a source.  The materials described in an
     archival accession record could be part of an archival fonds
     or dispersed into more than one archival fonds.  It is not
     clear that this is the appropriate place to indicate what
     appears to be a record status or an encoding level.
     There may be a more appropriate place in the record for this
     type of information.  

LDR/18 - Descriptive Cataloging Form
     <m   International Standard Archival Description (ISAD) form
          Code m indicates the records are formulated according to
          the General International Standard Archival description
     Note:  ISAD(G) was adopted by the Ad-hoc Commission on
     Descriptive Standards, Stockholm, 21-23 January 1993 (Final
     ICA approved version).  It was published in 1994 by the
     International Council of Archives, Ottawa; ISBN 0-9696035-1-7;
     $10.00 USD Prepaid.

260 - Publication, Distribution, <Creation,> etc. (Imprint)
     $a   Place of publication, distribution, <creation,> etc.
     $c   Date of publication, distribution, <creation,> etc.
     Note:  In USMARC and CAN/MARC place and date of creation are
     currently placed in field 245, subfields $c, $f, and $g.

<376 - Archival Description - Custodial History>
     New field.  See Appendix B for description.

<377 - Archival Description - Scope and Content>
     New field.  See Appendix B for description.

<378 - Archival Description - Archival History>
     New field.  See Appendix B for description.

<542 - Location of Related Archival Materials Note>
     New field.  See Appendix B for description.

583 - Action Note
     <$8  Link and sequence number>
     Note:  Field 583 in the Holdings format has $8 defined.

584 - Accumulation, <Accrual,> and Frequency of Use  {Redefine}

6.   AUTHORITY FORMAT, Archival Material

008/10 - Descriptive Cataloging Rules
     <t   Rules for Archival Description (RAD)>

$w / 0 - Special Relationship
     <t   Immediate parent>
          Used for archival material according to the RAD rules,
          for corporations and persons(?).


MARC implementations assess impact and cost of the above changes if
they were made to USMARC.  Consider software and retrospective
conversion or non-conversion.   Also consider the advantages of
having the CAN/MARC format aligned with USMARC so that the North
American libraries can have improved interchange of records.
Forward comments for the four areas specified in items 3. through
6. above to the Network Development and MARC Standards Office by
April 15, 1996  (Sally McCallum, Network Development and MARC
Standards Office, Library of Congress, Washington, DC, 20540)
(smcc@loc.gov).  If all or part of comments can be shared on the
USMARC Forum, then also post to the list.

Based on impact statements and further discussion with Canada, a
proposal will be prepared for the July 1996 meeting. 

It should be noted that Australia is becoming a USMARC user in 1996
and New Zealand has been using USMARC for a number of years.  They
have not been a formal part of the alignment initiative, as they
were considered to be "not different".  The National Library of
Australia is a member of the USMARC Advisory Group.  There is close
collaboration between the National libraries in Australia and New
Zealand as they are jointly developing a new system for their
respective institutions.  They will continue to be informed and
participate in this discussion through the USMARC Advisory Group.



Current CAN/MARC Codes             Current USMARC Codes
ab  Ferro, Canary Islands          f  Ferro 
ac  Paris, France                  g  Paris 
ad  Amsterdam, Neththerlands       ----
ae  Athens, Greece                 ----
af  Batavia, (Djakarta) Indonesia  ----
ag  Berne, Switzerland             ----
ah  Bogota, Columbia               ----
ai  Brussels, Belgium              ----
ak  Cadiz, Spain                   ----
al  Capetown, South Africa         ----
am  Caracas, Venezuela             ----
an  Copenhagen, Denmark            ----
ao  Cordoba, Argentina             ----
ap  Helsinki, Finland              ----
aq  Julianehaab, Greenland         ----
ar  Lisbon, Portugal               ----
as  Madras, India                  ----
at  Madrid, Spain                  ----
ba  Mexico City, Mexico            ----
bb  Munich, Germany                ----
bc  Naples, Italy                  ----
bd  Oslo (Christiana), Norway      ----
be  Philadelphia, Pa. U.S.A.       p  Philadelphia 
bf  Pulkovo (St. Petersberg), Russia                    ----
bg  Rio de Janeiro, Brazil         ----
bh  Rome, Italy                    ----
bi  Santiago, Chile                ----
bj  Stockholm, Sweden              ----
bk  Sydney, Australia              ----
bl  Tirana, Albania                ----
bm  Tokyo, Japan                   ----
bn  Washington, D.C., U.S.A.       w  Washington, D.C.  
bo  London, England                ----
bp  Moscow, Russia                 ----
bq  Istanbul, Turkey               ----
br  Peking, China                  ----
uu  Unknown                        ----
zz  Other                          z  Other 
----                          #  Prime meridian not specified
----                          e  Grenwich

Statistics for the LC maps file:
     155,764   # = Prime meridian not specified
     449       e,f,g,p,w = specific prime meridians indicated in
     396       z = prime meridian other than the ones with
               specific values 


The Canadian MARC Office (CMO) states that these fields would only
be used by Canadians, therefore would be only document changes to
USMARC.  This is not clear since the concept is a common format
that all can use and Canadians using US utilities would require
these fields.  The fields would need to be implemented in any
USMARC system, regardless of origin. 

Add the following new fields:

016  NLC Control Number
     This field contains record control numbers assigned by the
     National Library of Canada.

     Indicators are undefined; contain blanks
     Subfield codes
          $a   NLC record control number (NR)
          $z   Cancelled NLC record control number (R)

     016  ##$a#730032015##rev

     Note:  This field is comparable to field 010 (LC control

087  CODOC Number
     This field is provided for the document shelving number for
     Canadian federal and provincial government documents that was
     recommended by the Canadian Task Group on Cataloging
     Standards.  The CODOC system originated at the University of
     Guelph and was developed by the Ontario Universities Library
     Cooperative (OULCS) Cooperative Government Publications
     Project.  The CODOC number is a variable length alphanumeric

     Indicators are undefined; contain blanks
     Subfield codes
          $a   Document shelving number (CODOC)
          $6   Linkage
     087  ##$aCA2 PQ CO7 81P52
          Number for Programme de depot des publications
          gouvernementales du Quebec dans les bibliotheques (1981)
          by C. Beaudet.  CA2 means the document is a provincial
          one; PQ means province Quebec.

     087  ##$aCA2 PQ Z3 73M103
          Number for Analyse des mecanismes existant dans la
          solution des problems de relations de travail by P.

     Note:  In USMARC, if a government document number has some
     topical intelligence built into the number, field 086
     (Government Document Call Number) is used, and if it is a
     number used for distribution of the government document it
     appears in field 074 (GPO Item Number).  Field 086 has an
     indicator value for the Canadian printing office number, which
     is applied by the Canadian federal government.  The CODOC
     number is like the 086 but it is a "local" schema.  The USMARC
     086 has $2 defined to indicate the schema for those that were
     not developed by the federal governments, so it appears that
     086 could be used with Indicator 1 = # (Source specified in
     subfield $2) and in subfield $2 a code such as "cacodoc"
     (since the code "codocs" has already been used for Colorado
     state documents).  CAN/MARC currently uses the tag 088 for the
     CODOC number and is willing to change.

376  Archival Description - Custodial History
     <No description available from Canadian proposal.  Following
     information in <> derived fron the RAD specification.>  
     <History of the custody of the unit being described such as
     successive transfers of ownership and custody of control of
     material, along with dates.  At first level, custodial history
     of fonds as a whole; at subsequent levels, custodial history
     that pertains to part being described.>

     Indicators are undefined, contain blanks
          $a   Custodial History
     376  ##$aEastern Kings Unitarian Universalist Fellowship
          records were sent to the Universalist Unitarian Church in
          Halifax for safekeeping in 1980 and transferred to the
          Public Archives of Nova Scotia with the Universalist
          Unitarian Church of Halifax records.

     Note:  The content of this field is described in the new
     Canadian Rules for Archival Description (RAD).  The field
     content overlaps with fields already existing in CAN/MARC and
     USMARC, but since this and the following two data elements are
     part of an archival area in the RAD and belonged just before
     the notes in a display, new 3XX fields were created for the
     data.  Field 376 field ia a new form of USMARC and CAN/MARC
     field 561 (Provenance Note).

377  Archival Description - Scope and Content
     <No description available from Canadian proposal.  Following
     information in <> derived from the RAD specification.  The RAD
     rules also have clauses on the scope and content statements
     for fonds, series, files, and items.>  
     <Contains information about the scope, contents, and internal
     structure or arrangement of the records that is important to
     the understanding of the records and of their creation.>

     Indicators not defined, contain blanks.
     Subfield codes
          $a   Level of description
          $b   Scope and content
     377  ##$aSeries$bconsists of minutes of meetings of the Board
          together with correspondence and other documents referred
          to in the minutes.  The records reflect ...

     377  ##$aFonds$bconsists of minutes of meetings, research
          files relating to the delivery of health care services in
          Nova Scotia, recorded ...

     Note:  The content of this field is described in the new
     Canadian Rules for Archival Description (RAD).  The field
     content overlaps with fields already existing in CAN/MARC and
     USMARC.  The 377 field is a new form of USMARC and CAN/MARC
     field 351 (Organization and Arrangement of Materials),
     although that field has more structure than the above, and
     field 520 (Summary, Etc. Note).

378  Archival Description - Archival History
     <No description available from Canadian proposal.  Following
     information in <> derived fron the RAD specification.>  
     <For fonds and series, contains the history of the corporate
     body (administrative history) or the history of the person(s)
     or family(ies) (biographical sketch) responsible for the
     creation and/or accumulation and use of the fonds as a whole
     or the series.>

     Indicator 1 - Type of History
          0    Administrative history
          1    Biographical history
     Indicator 2 - Structure of Information
          The information is given either structured or
          unstructured.  If unstructured, place all the information
          under $a.  Paragraphs may be set off with repeating $a as
          required.  If the information is structured, use
          appropriate subfields as required.
          0    Unstructured narrative
          1    Structured narrative
     Subfield codes
          $a   Narrative text and other information (R)
          $b   Dates of founding and dissolution (NR)
               <Date of founding of the corporate body and, as
               applicable the date of dissolution.>
          $c   Mandate and sphere of functional responsibility (R)
               <Authority of the corporate body in terms of
               powers, functional sphere of responsibilities, or
               sphere of activities; cite of enabling legislation;
               summary of significant changes of authority.>
          $d   Predecessors and successors (R)
          $e   Administrative relationship and structure (NR)
               <Relationship of the body with predecessor or
               successor bodies to its mandate, functions, or
          $f   Names of corporate bodies (R)
               <Any changes of the official name of the body not
               recorded in one of the other elements, any popular
               or common names, names in other languages.>
          $h   Names of chief officers, families, and other
               persons (R)
               <Names of persons holding position of chief officer
               of the organization or corporate body.>
          $j   Place of residence (R)
               <Residence(s) of the person or family, and length
               of residence.>
          $k   Education (NR)
               <Formal education of persons, including members of
          $m   Occupation, life, and activities (R)
               <Principal occupation(s) and career or life work of
               persons, or activities of families; relationships;
               offices held; honors; etc.>
     Very long, see Appendix C.

     Note:  The content of this field is described in the new
     Canadian Rules for Archival Description (RAD).  The field
     content overlaps with fields already existing in CAN/MARC and
     USMARC.  The 378 field ia a new form of USMARC and CAN/MARC
     field 545 (Biographical or Historical Note).

542  Location of Related Archival Materials Note
     <No description available.>
     Indicators not defined; contain blanks
     Subfield codes
          $a   Unstructured narrative (NR)
          $d   Title of related materials (R)
          $e   Provenance of related materials (R)
          $3   Materials specified (NR)
          $6   Linkage (NR)
     542  ##$aOther records relating to the delivery of health care
          services can be found in the Health Care Services
          Division files of the Dept. of Health fonds.

     Note:  This field is a new form of the USMARC and CAN/MARC
     field 544 (Location of Associated Archival Materials Note). 
     The CAN/MARC field 542 substitutes a new subfield $a for the
     three USMARC subfields $a, $b, $c giving Custodian, Address,
     and Country.



Administrative sketch associated with the Canadian Department of
External Affairs

Unstructured version:

378  00$aThe Department of External Affairs was founded in l9O9,
     8-9 Edward VII, c-13: An Act to create a Department of
     External Affairs".  Assented to 19 May 1909.$aThe Department
     of External Affairs was formed in 1909 to be responsible for
     the conduct of Canadian relations with other countries,
     within the context of the British Empire.  In 1931 the scope
     of this responsibility was broadened by the Statute of
     Westminster to include all aspects of Canadian international
     relations.  The main function of the department is the
     protection and advancement of Canadian interests abroad.  To
     achieve this objective the department supervises relations
     between Canada and other countries and Canadian
     participation in international organizations.  It provides
     for Canada in representation in foreign countries negotiates
     treaties and agreements and collect's information regarding
     developments likely to affect Canada's international
     relations.$aPrevious to the establishment of the Department
     of External Affairs, the Office of the Governor General was
     the official body through which Canada's foreign affairs
     were handled.  Correspondence between the Dominions and
     Colonial Offices in Great Britain was routed through the
     Governor General and then to the specific department
     involved.  No one body was responsible for the conduct of
     Canada's foreign policy.  At the time of Confederation
     Parliament became responsible for the regulation of trade
     and commerce and defence, but there was no suggestion that
     Canada should act as an independent entity in external
     relations.  The conduct of Canada's foreign affairs was in
     the hands of the British Foreign Office.  Because there was
     no department specifically charged with handling external
     affairs matters, responsibility for handling correspondence
     regarding the appointment of foreign consuls, extradition
     and passports was in the office of the Secretary of State. 
     His office also handled foreign visits and ceremonies. 
     Before the establishment of an independent foreign affairs
     ministry, trade matters were dealt with by the Department of
     Trade and Commerce, founded in 1892, and the Departments of
     Agriculture and Interior were responsible for Immigration
     matters.$aThe conduct of immigration, trade and
     international aid policy has throughout Canada's history
     been conducted primarily by those departments' whose main
     mandate has been these tasks.  However, it must be noted
     that the overall conduct of Canada's foreign policy is in
     the hands of the Department of External Affairs and it has
     always played a leading and coordinating role in Canada's
     international relations.$aThe Department of External Affairs
     is headed by a Secretary of State for External Affairs who
     is a member of the Canadian Cabinet.  The Under-Secretary of
     State is the chief administrative officer of the department
     and is assisted by a number of Assistant and Associate
     Under- Secretaries of State.  The department is divided into
     headquarters'operations along with all of its posts abroad. 
     Posts abroad are divided into High Commissions, Embassies,
     Legations and Consuls to either individual countdes or
     international organizations.$aThe Prime Minister of Canada,
     except for the department's first three years of existence,
     was the Secretary of State for External Affairs until 28 May
     1946 with the passage of the Department of External Affairs
     Act which allowed the department a separate Secretary of
     State.  Secretaries of State of the Department of External
     Affairs.  Charles Murphy (1 June 1909 - 6 October 191 1);
     Robert Laird Borden 1 April 1912 - 10 July 1920); Arthur
     Meighen (10 July 1920 - 29 December 1921); William Lyon
     Mackenzie King (29 December 1921 - 28 June 1926), Arthur
     Meighen (29 June 1926 - 25 September 1926); William Lyon
     Mackenzie King (25 September 1926 - 7 August 1930); Richard
     Bedford Bennett (7 August 1930 - 23 October 1935); William
     Lyon Mackenzie King (23 October 1935 - 3 September 1946;
     Louis St. Laurent (4 September 1946 - 9 September 1948),
     Lester Bowles Pearson (1 0 September 1948 - 15 November
     1948); Lester Bowles Pearson (15 November 1948 - 21 June
     1957); John George Diefenbaker (21 June 1957 - 12 September
     1957), Sidney Earle Smith (13 September 1957 - 17 March
     1959); Howard Charles Green (4 June 1959 - 22 April 1963);
     Paul Joseph James Martin (22 April 1963 - 20 April 1968).

Structured version of the same text.  The text would be exactly the
same as the above only the subfielding would be different.  To save
space the text has not been repeated below except after subfield

378  01$bThe Department of External Affairs was founded in 1909,
     8-9 Edward VII, c-13: An Act to create a Department of
     External Affairs".  Assented to 19 May 1909.$cThe Department
     of External Affairs was formed in 1909 to be responsible for
     the conduct of Canadian relations with other countries,
     within the context of the British Empire.  In 1931
     ...$dPrevious to the establishment of the Department of
     External Affairs, the Office ...$eThe conduct of
     immigration, trade and international aid policy ...$fThe
     Department of External Affairs is headed by a Secretary of
     State for ...$hThe Prime Minister of Canada, except for the
     department's first three years ...

Biographical sketch associated with Marshall McLuhan

Unstructured version

378  10$aHerbert Marshall McLuhan was a Canadian theorist of the
     media.  Herbert Marshall McLuhan was known as Marshall
     McLuhan throughout his life.  Marshall McLuhan was born in
     Edmonton, Alberta on 21 July 1911 to Herbert Ernest McLuhan,
     a salesman, and Elsie Naomi (Hall) McLuhan, an actress and
     monologist.$aThe family moved to Winnipeg, where McLuhan
     attended the University of Manitoba from 1929 to 1934,
     receiving a Bachelor of Arts and a Master of Arts in English
     literature.  He received his doctorate in English literature
     from Cambridge University in 1942, the topic of his
     dissertation being "The Place of Thomas Nashe in the
     Learning of His Time".$a After teaching English at various
     American universities, McLuhan returned to Canada in 1944 to
     teach at Assumption College in Windsor.  From 1946 until
     shortly before his death, he taught English at St. Michael's
     College, University of Toronto.  From 1953 to 1956 he
     directed a seminar on culture and communication that was
     sponsored by the Ford Foundation.  In addftion to his
     teaching work, he co-edited with anthropologist Edmund
     Carpenter a periodical called "Explorations" from 1953 to
     1959.  He later directed a media project for the United
     States Office of Education and the Nabonal Association of
     Educational Broadcasters (1 959-1960) titled "Understanding
     New Media".  In 1963, McLuhan became the director of the
     University of Toronto's newly-established Centre for Culture
     and Technology.  The Centre conducted research on questions
     of sensory perception and other communications-related
     issues and offered academic courses.  In December 1966,
     McLuhan was appointed to the Albert Schweitzer Chair in
     Humanities at Fordham University in New York City, a post he
     held for the 1967-1968 academic year.  In 1970, McLuhan
     became a Companion of the Order of Canada.$aMcLuhan's books
     include the following: The Mechanical Bride: The Folklore of
     Industrial Man (1 951); The Gutenberg Galaxy: The Making of
     Typographic Man (1 962), for which he was awarded the
     Governor General's prize for critical prose; Understanding
     Media: The Extensions of Man (1964); The Medium is the
     Massage (1967), written with Quentin Fiore; War and Peace in
     the Global Village (1 968), also written with Quentin Fiore;
     Through the Vanishing Point: Space in Poetry and Painting
     (1968), co-authored with Harley Parker; Counterblast (1969),
     also written with Harley Parker; Culture is Our Business
     (1970); From Clich(J to Archetype (1970), written with
     Wilfred Watson; Take Today: The Executive as Dropout (1972),
     written with Barrington Nevitt; and The City as Classroom,
     co-authored by McLuhan, his son Eric McLuhan, and Kathryn
     Hutchon in 1977.  In addition to these works, McLuhan had a
     volume of his literary criticism published in 1969, entitled
     The Interior Landscape: Selected Literary Criticism, and
     edited by Eugene McNamara.  He also co- edited with Edmund
     Carpenter, a volume of essays compiled from the Explorations
     periodical, entitled Explorations in Communications (1960). 
     McLuhan's only book-length work of literary criticism is his
     1956 edition of the poetry of Alfred Lord Tennyson entitled
     Selected Poetry of Tennyson.  With Richard J. Schoek, he
     edited Voices ofLfterature(1964-1970). In addition to these
     works, McLuhan wrote hundreds of articles, was interviewed
     for numerous journals and popular magazines, and delivered
     many lectures and informal talks on a variety of topics.  He
     also edited an information letter, The Dew Line.$aAs a
     theorist of the media, McLuhan believed that the printing
     press radically transformed Western thought and society. 
     Moreover, the invention and wide diffusion of the telegraph,
     telephone, cinema, radio, television and other electronic
     media recreated an environment for communication not unlike
     that of primitive societies.  Critics of his writings and
     ideas noted that McLuhan presented his ideas in a mosaic
     rather than a linear pattern.

Structured version of the same text.  The text would be exactly the
same as the above only the subfielding would be different.  To save
space the text has not been repeated below except after subfield

378  11$bHerbert Marshall McLuhan was known ...$eHe was a
     Canadian theorist ....$dThe family moved to Winnipeg, where
     ...$eAfter teaching English at various American
     ...$fMcLuhan's books include the following: The Mechanical
     ...$eAs a theorist of the media, McLuhan ...



Bibliographic Format:

009  Cartographic Material - Physical Description Fixed Field
     This field provides physical description information about a
     cartographic item at a greater level of detail than is
     provided for field 007 (Physical Description Fixed Field).  If
     necessary, the field can be repeated to specify a multiplicity
     of characteristics pertaining to a single item or to specify
     individually the characteristics of each component in a multi-
     part item.

     Outline of 009:
     Char.Pos. Name of Data Element

                    Physical Attributes
     0         Physical dimension
     1-2       Primary cartographic image
     3-4       Physical medium
     5         Creation technique
     6         Form of reproduction
     7         Geodetic adjustment
     8         Physical form of publication
                    Photographic and Remote Sensing Images
     9         Altitude of sensor
     10        Attitude of sensor
     11-12     Spectral bands
     13        Quality of image
     14        Cloud cover
     15-16     Mean value of ground resolution
                    Specific Material Designation
     17        Character of image
     18-19     Form of cartographic item
     20-21     Presentation technique
     22        Position of platform
     23        Category of satellite
     24-25     Name of satellites
     26-27     Recording technique

9XX  Equivalences, Cross-references and History Notes

The following fields are presently defined for the French or
English equivalents or cross-references of names.
900  Equivalence or Cross-reference - Personal Name
910  Equivalence, Cross-reference or History Note - Corporate Name
911  Equivalence, Cross-reference or History Note - Conference or
     Meeting Name
930  Equivalence or Cross-reference - Uniform Title Heading
940  Equivalence or Cross-reference - Uniform Title
941  Equivalence or Cross-reference - Romanized Title [OBSOLETE]
943  Equivalence or Cross-reference - Collective Title
945  Equivalence or Cross-reference - Title
951  Equivalence or Cross-reference - Geographic Name/Area Name
952  Equivalence or Cross-reference - Hierarchical Place Name

Authority Format:

The following fields are presently defined for the French or
English equivalents of names in the 1XX fields.  The 7XX fields in
USMARC are also defined for this information.

900  Equivalent Heading - Personal Name
910  Equivalent Heading - Corporate Name
911  Equivalent Heading - Conference or Meeting
930  Equivalent Heading - Uniform Title
950  Equivalent Heading - Topical Subject
951  Equivalent Heading - Geographic Name
952  Equivalent Heading - Reversed Geographic Name



008/8   Bilingual Usage
     The codes in this character position indicate wherther the
     heading in the 1XX field and its associated reference
     structure (that is, the headings in the 1XX, 260, 360, 4XX,
     5XX, 663 and 664 fields) are valid according to the rules used
     in establishing headings for English-language catalogs (ALA,
     AACR), French-language catalogs (RCAA, etc.) or both.  If any
     heading in the fields mentioned above is valid only in a
     single language, then the bilingual usage code must be set to
     "e" or "f" as appropriate.

     #    No information given
     b    Headings valid in both French-language and English-
          language catalogs
     e    Headings valid in English-language catalogs only; not
          valid in French-language catalogs
     f    Headings valid in French-language catalogs only; not
          valid in English-language catalogs
     g    Headings valid in English-language catalogs; validity in
          French-language catalogs undetermined
     h    Headings valid in French-language catalogs; validity in
          English-language catalogs undetermined

016  NLC Control Number
     This field contains authority record control numbers assigned
     by the National Library of Canada.

     Indicators are undefined; contain blanks
     Subfield codes
          $a   NLC authority record control number (NR)
          $z   Cancelled NLC authority record control number (R)

     016  ##$a0010C0008##
     016  ##$a0115E5000F#

     Note:  This field is comparable to field 010 (LC control

055  National Library of Canada Call Number
     This field contains the call number for a series assigned in
     Canada if the institution has classified all of part of the
     series as a collected set.

     Indicator 1
          0    Current call number
          1    Earlier call number
     Indicator 2 - Source of call number
          0    Assigned by NLC
          1    Assigned by agency other than NLC

     Subfield codes
          $a   Classification number  (NR)
          $b   Item number  (NR)
          $d   Volumes/dates to which call number applies  (NR)
          $5   Institution to which field applies  (R)

     055  10$aK347.9944$bC516$d1970-1979

     Note:  This field is comparable to USMARC Authority format
     field 050 (Library of Congress Call Number).

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